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0001 @article {4473,
0002         title = {"I need a Wii{\textquotedblright}: Motivations and experiences of playing videogames},
0003         journal = {Leisure Studies},
0004         year = {Submitted},
0005         abstract = {Research on videogames has largely focused on their negative effects on aggressive attitudes and behaviours (e.g., Anderson \& Bushman, 2001; Anderson et al., 2004). However, the motivations and experiences associated with this activity have received little theoretical and empirical attention. These aspects of gaming were examined in a sample of regular gamers using a mixed-methods approach. An online questionnaire was completed by a sample of gamers (N=310). This included an open-response section which asked participants to provide an account of their intrinsic and extrinsic gaming motivations, and associated experiences. Analyses of the qualitative data revealed that the main motivations for gaming were the need for socialisation, challenge, accomplishment, fantasy, stress-relief, alleviation of boredom, escapism and exploration. Enjoyment and flow were also important experiential factors, consistent with previous research findings. The analysis of the quantitative data suggested the influence of achievement and immersion-orientated motivations on flow experiences. The qualitative aspect of the study also provided a more detailed exploration of the motivations for videogame use, and offers some indication of the relationship between gaming motivations and enjoyment. Future research should further utilise qualitative methodologies to provide a more detailed examination of gaming experiences and associated outcomes. },
0006         keywords = {flow, Leisure, mixed-methods, motivations, videogames},
0007         author = {Linda K Kaye and Bryce, Jo and Paul Pollard}
0008 }
0009 @inbook {4626,
0010         title = {Minecraft as Web 2.0: Amateur Creativity \& Digital Games (draft)},
0011         booktitle = {Amateur Media: Social, Cultural, and Legal Perspectives},
0012         year = {Submitted},
0013         abstract = {This chapter considers how the digital game Minecraft has both enabled and benefited from various Web 2.0 practices. I begin with an explanation of the concept of Web 2.0 and then consider how that concept applies to the space of digital games. I then look at Minecraft specifically. As I explain, Minecraft{\textquoteright}s surprise success as an {\textquotedblleft}indie{\textquotedblright} game is largely attributable to the ways in which it draws upon amateur creativity. I conclude the chapter by suggesting that more games like Minecraft may be socially desirable, but noting that current intellectual property laws discourage the creation of these sorts of games. },
0014         url = {http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1939241},
0015         author = {Lastowka,Greg}
0016 }
0017 @article {4471,
0018         title = {Putting the {\textquotedblleft}fun factor{\textquotedblright} into gaming: The influence of social contexts on experiences of playing videogames},
0019         journal = {International Journal of Internet Science},
0020         year = {Submitted},
0021         abstract = {The increasingly social nature of gaming suggests the importance of understanding its affective and psychological outcomes. The current research examined the influence of social motivations and gaming contexts on dimensions of psychological well-being. It also aimed to examine the influence of social factors on gaming experiences. The programme of research consisted of two separate studies using different methodologies in which a total of 327 videogamers participated.  The results revealed that social motivations predicted flow in gaming, and that some social motivations and social contexts were predictive of dimensions of psychological well-being. Qualitative analysis revealed the importance of social connectedness and belonging for game enjoyment, and suggested these are key factors which keep gamers playing. Social interactions and networking during gameplay also had an important influence on game enjoyment. Social experiences could also facilitate feelings of frustration in gameplay due to poor social dynamics and competitiveness with other players. These findings demonstrate the importance of social experiences and their influences on the outcomes of gaming. Future research is needed to examine the role of competitiveness in the dynamics of online and offline social gaming contexts, as well as gaming experiences and outcomes. Research examining the differences between gaming experiences for both solo and multiplayer gaming is also warranted. },
0022         keywords = {Enjoyment, flow, frustration, motivations, socialisation, videogames},
0023         author = {Linda K Kaye and Bryce, Jo}
0024 }
0025 @article {4501,
0026         title = {Using videogames in psychological gaming research},
0027         journal = {Entertainment Computing},
0028         year = {Submitted},
0029         type = {Technical Note},
0030         abstract = {Videogames are extremely complex forms of media which consist of numerous constituent
0031 parts, including a wide range of different game aspects (e.g., storyline, multi-player options), and
0032 player experiences (e.g., immersion, flow). Previous experimental studies in psychology, examining the
0033 differential effects of violent versus non-violent videogames have been methodologically limited when
0034 choosing suitable videogames between experimental conditions. This paper outlines a methodological
0035 approach for identifying potential differences between videogames. This can be obtained by using
0036 regular gamers to rate videogames on numerous game aspects and player experiences. This method
0037 can effectively initialise the research process when selecting games, to ensure control of games
0038 between experimental conditions. This paper acknowledges the complexity of games, and aims to
0039 inform future research of the effectiveness of this method within the pilot testing stage of the research
0040 process.},
0041         keywords = {Game aspects; player experiences; psychological experiments; pilot testing; Video Game Rating Scale},
0042         author = {Linda K Kaye}
0043 }
0044 @inbook {4520,
0045         title = {Computer and videogames},
0046         booktitle = {Media Psychology},
0047         year = {In Press},
0048         publisher = {Palgrave MacMillan},
0049         organization = {Palgrave MacMillan},
0050         address = {London},
0051         author = {Bryce, Jo and Kaye, Linda}
0052 }
0053 @article {4415,
0054         title = {Behind the Avatar: The Patterns, Practices, and Functions of Role Playing in MMOs},
0055         journal = {Games and Culture},
0056         volume = {6},
0057         year = {2011},
0058         month = {May 7, 2010},
0059         pages = {171-200 },
0060         abstract = {A two-part quantitative and qualitative study of role players within a virtual game world examined their prevalence, practices, and identity formation. Drawing on unobtrusive behavioral data captured by the game, combined with a large survey and traditional ethnographic methods, the study found that role players both negotiate identity and use their time online as a moratorium for their offline lives.Descriptive results showed that role players are a relatively small, but psychologically burdened subgroup. When examined from the theoretical perspectives of Goffman{\textquoteright}s Self-Presentation theory, Huizenga{\textquoteright}s Magic Circle, and Turkle{\textquoteright}s early work on online identity formation, these players were seen as largely using virtual spaces as creative outlets and for socialization. The worlds also functioned as coping mechanisms for players frequently unable to gain acceptance, social connectivity or social support offline due to their personal situation, psychological profile, or their minority status.},
0061         keywords = {identity, MMO, role playing, Video Games, Virtual world},
0062         doi = {10.1177/1555412010364983 },
0063         url = {http://gac.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/1555412010364983v1},
0064         author = {Williams, Dmitri and Kennedy, Tracy L.M. and Moore,Robert J}
0065 }
0066 @article {4408,
0067         title = {Cash Trade in Free-to-Play Online Games},
0068         journal = {Games and Culture},
0069         volume = {6},
0070         year = {2011},
0071         month = {May 7, 2010},
0072         pages = {270-287},
0073         abstract = {The rapidly expanding "free-to-play" online game payment model represents a huge shift in digital game commercialization, with cash payments for virtual items increasingly recognized as central to "free game" participation. In this article, the authors look at implications of this trend for gameplay experiences (especially in terms of immersion, fairness, and fun) and describe a fundamental shift in player self-perceptions as consumers rather than members of a gaming community. This change is occurring at a time when the line separating game and physical worlds is becoming less distinct. The new business model entails a subtle but significant reduction in consumer rights awareness, which explains why some members of the greater gaming community are negotiating a new sense of fairness and arriving at a new consensus regarding legitimate gameplay.},
0074         keywords = {cash trade for virtual goods, commercialization of digital media, fairness, free-to-play, magic circle},
0075         doi = {10.1177/1555412010364981 },
0076         author = {Lin,Holin and Sun,Chuen-Tsai}
0077 }
0078 @article {4410,
0079         title = {Embodied Metaphors: Exposing Informatic Control Through First-Person Shooters},
0080         journal = {Games and Culture},
0081         volume = {6},
0082         year = {2011},
0083         month = {May 7, 2010},
0084         pages = {245-258},
0085         abstract = {This article argues that the game player{\textquoteright}s epiphany when regaining control after an aporia is similar to the metaphorical awareness of the connection between representation and meaning in other art forms. The player may experience what the article calls an embodied metaphor, a heightened sense of the linkage between two different orders of reality, real physical gesture and its on-screen representation. Beyond the aesthetic, this metaphor may also increase the player{\textquoteright}s sensitivity to broader informatic or protocological control outside of the game world, a concept Alexander Galloway develops from Gilles Deleuze{\textquoteright}s Societies of Control. The embodied metaphor attaches a kinetic materiality to the abstractions of contemporary informatic organization, making them, at least momentarily, concrete and tangible.},
0086         keywords = {Aarseth, aporia, Computer games, Deleuze, epiphany, first-person shooters, Galloway, Interactivity, Metaphor, Riceour, Societies of Control, Video Games},
0087         doi = {10.1177/1555412010364977},
0088         author = {Rush, Jeff}
0089 }
0090 @article {4406,
0091         title = {The Game Body: Toward a Phenomenology of Contemporary Video Gaming},
0092         journal = {Games and Culture},
0093         volume = {6},
0094         year = {2011},
0095         month = {May 7, 2010},
0096         pages = {259-269},
0097         abstract = {Synthesizing research in philosophy and phenomenology, this article offers a sympathetic critique of Vivian Sobchack{\textquoteright}s view of digital moving images. Focusing on contemporary first- and third-player video games, it examines how digital imagery inscribes bodily dimensions onto a nonindexical world and the different ways in which we inhabit cinematic and electronic space. More specifically, it draws upon the writings of Maurice Merleau-Ponty to build a phenomenological model of bodies in digital imagery and argues that video gaming is a fully embodied, sensuous, carnal activity.},
0098         keywords = {avatar, digital imagery, embodiment, intersubjectivity, phenomenology},
0099         doi = {10.1177/1555412010364980 },
0100         author = {Crick, Timothy Paul}
0101 }
0102 @article {4400,
0103         title = {Game Scenes: Theorizing Digital Game Audiences},
0104         journal = {Games and Culture},
0105         volume = {6},
0106         year = {2011},
0107         month = {May 7, 2010},
0108         pages = {135-154 },
0109         abstract = {This article develops and expands on earlier work of the authors, which posits the idea of considering gamers as a (media) audience--enabling parallels to be drawn with wider literatures and debates on audience research and media fan cultures. In particular, drawing on some illustrative examples from qualitative research (funded by the British Academy) into the everyday lives of gamers, this article suggests that the concept of "scene" (borrowed most notably from music fan studies) allows us to understand how gaming and game-related narratives are located within the ordinary and everyday lives of gamers but take on greater significance within certain physical locations.},
0110         keywords = {audience, Digital Gaming, everyday life, gamers, narrative, scene, sociology, space, subculture},
0111         doi = {10.1177/1555412010364979 },
0112         author = {Gosling, Victoria K. and Crawford, Garry}
0113 }
0114 @article {4407,
0115         title = {Narrative Structures in Computer and Video Games: Part 1: Context, Definitions, and Initial Findings},
0116         journal = {Games and Culture},
0117         volume = {13},
0118         year = {2011},
0119         month = {May 7, 2010},
0120         pages = {279-296},
0121         abstract = {This essay is the first of a two-part article examining the use of narrative in computer and video games, which provides an overview and discussion of the definitions and representation of stories, plots, and narratives. A range of traditional and emerging narrative techniques are considered, including The Hero{\textquoteright}s Journey, three-act structure, the portrayal of human emotions, and character archetypes, from where an in-depth examination of interactive narrative is performed on a range of old and modern games. Initial results pertaining to the time allocated to narrative, the use of back stories, cut scenes, on-screen text, prompts, and game structure are also presented, which reveal a distinct level of uniformity of how interactive narrative is depicted in games spanning over two decades of industry development. The analysis is concluded in the second article, where further results are revealed to help uncover the precise nature of game narratives.},
0122         keywords = {Computer games, narrative, plot, Storytelling, Video Games},
0123         url = {http://gac.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/1555412010364982v1},
0124         author = {Ip, Barry}
0125 }
0126 @article {4399,
0127         title = {Never Too Old to Play: The Appeal of Digital Games to an Older Audience},
0128         journal = {Games and Culture},
0129         volume = {6},
0130         year = {2011},
0131         month = {May 7, 2010},
0132         pages = {155-170 },
0133         abstract = {This study aimed to explore the use of digital games among older adults and provide a set of "benchmark data" with respect to the uses and gratifications of these players. To find out who these older players of digital games are, what games they prefer, and what playing motives they have, an exploratory survey was administered among 124 individuals aged between 45 and 85 years old. The results of this survey confirm that the majority of the older digital game audience exists of solitary players with a particular fondness for casual PC games. The most popular playing motive among the respondents was challenge, while social interaction proved to be the most important predictor for the time that respondents invested in playing digital games.},
0134         keywords = {casual games, game studies, older gamers, users and gratifications},
0135         doi = {10.1177/1555412010364978 },
0136         author = {De Schutter, Bob}
0137 }
0138 @article {4593,
0139         title = {Mapping the road to fun: Natural video game controllers, presence, and game enjoyment},
0140         journal = {New Media \& Society},
0141         volume = {13},
0142         year = {2011},
0143         month = {March 2011},
0144         pages = {224-242},
0145         abstract = {This investigation examines how video game interactivity can affect presence and game enjoyment. Interactivity in the form of natural mapping has been advocated as a possible contributor to presence experiences, yet few studies to date have investigated this potential. The present work formulates a preliminary typology of natural mapping and addresses how several types of mapping impact the experience of a video game, with the expectation that more natural mapping leads to increased spatial presence affecting enjoyment. Two studies were conducted. In the first study, 48 participants played a golfing video game using one of two controller types (Nintendo Wiimote or gamepad). In the second, 78 participants played a driving video game using an even more natural controller (steering wheel) or one of three other controller types. Participants then completed measures of perceived naturalness, presence, and enjoyment. Results of both studies were generally consistent with expectations. },
0146         doi = {10.1177/1461444810370949 },
0147         author = {Paul Skalski and Ron Tamborini and Ashleigh Shelton and Michael Buncher and Pete Lindmark}
0148 }
0149 @article {4594,
0150         title = {Using computer games for instruction: The student experience},
0151         journal = {Active Learning in Higher Education},
0152         volume = {12},
0153         number = {1},
0154         year = {2011},
0155         month = {March 1, 2011},
0156         pages = {45-56},
0157         abstract = {Computer games are fun, exciting and motivational when used as leisure pursuits. But do they have similar attributes when utilized for educational purposes? This article investigates whether learning by computer game can improve student experiences compared with a more formal lecture approach and whether computer games have potential for improving performance. Instruction was split between lectures and computer games, and student experiences were recorded using an Experience Sampling Method to capture real-time experience and feelings of flow. Results indicated that student experiences in the game mode showed increased alertness, increased feelings of being active, increased feelings of involvement and an increased perception of challenge. Flow characteristics revealed boredom during standard lectures but anxiety and flow during game modes. Finally, some evidence of improved attainment was evident. By using contemporary interactive approaches such as computer games, student learning experiences and attainment may be improved. Some practical issues of implementing games are also discussed.},
0158         author = {Grimley, Michael and Green, Richard and Nilsen,Trond and Thompson, David and Tomes, Russell}
0159 }
0160 @article {4590,
0161         title = {Youth, Technology, and DIY},
0162         journal = {Review of Research in Education},
0163         volume = {35},
0164         number = {1},
0165         year = {2011},
0166         month = {March 1, 2011},
0167         pages = {89-119},
0168         abstract = { Traditionally, educational researchers and practitioners have focused on the development of youths{\textquoteright} critical understanding of new media as one key aspect of digital literacy  (  Buckingham, 2003;  Gilster, 1997).   Today, youth not only consume media when browsing the Internet and sharing information on social networking sites, but they also produce content when contributing to blogs, designing animations, graphics, and video productions  (  Ito et al., 2009).   This new media landscape suggests an extension of what critical participation means in new media literacy, extending the metaphor of {\textquotedblleft}reading the world to read the word{\textquotedblright}  (  Freire \& Macedo, 1987)   to include writing new media texts in a digital era. In an effort to map out the participatory competencies needed in this new media landscape,  Jenkins, Clinton, Purushotma, Robinson, and Weigel (2006)  included creative designs, ethical considerations, and technical skills to capture youths{\textquoteright} expressive and intellectual engagement with new media. More recently, these efforts to produce your own media have also been associated with the growing do-it-yourself, or DIY, movement  (  Guzzetti, Elliott, \& Welsch, 2010;  Lankshear \& Knobel, 2010),   involving arts, crafts, and new technologies  (  Eisenberg \& Buechley, 2008;  Spencer, 2005).   Educators should be especially interested in DIY communities given the amount of time youth voluntarily spend in intense learning as they tackle highly technical practices, including film editing, robotics, and writing novels among a host of other activities across various DIY networks.  },
0169         author = {Kafai, Yasmin B. and Peppler, Kylie A.}
0170 }
0171 @article {4579,
0172         title = {Effects of Game-Like Interactive Graphics on Risk Perceptions and Decisions},
0173         journal = {Medical Decision Making},
0174         volume = {31},
0175         number = {1},
0176         year = {2011},
0177         month = {January/February},
0178         pages = {130-142},
0179         abstract = {Background. Many patients have difficulty interpreting risks described in statistical terms as percentages. Computer game technology offers the opportunity to experience how often an event occurs, rather than simply read about its frequency. Objective. To assess effects of interactive graphics on risk perceptions and decisions. Design. Electronic questionnaire. Participants and setting. Respondents (n = 165) recruited online or at an urban hospital. Intervention. Health risks were illustrated by either static graphics or interactive game-like graphics. The interactive search graphic was a grid of squares, which, when clicked, revealed stick figures underneath. Respondents had to click until they found a figure affected by the disease. Measurements. Risk feelings, risk estimates, intention to take preventive action. Results. Different graphics did not affect mean risk estimates, risk feelings, or intention. Low-numeracy participants reported significantly higher risk feelings than high-numeracy ones except with the interactive search graphic. Unexpectedly, respondents reported stronger intentions to take preventive action when the intention question followed questions about efficacy and disease severity than when it followed perceived risk questions (65\% v. 34\%; P < 0.001). When respondents reported risk feelings immediately after using the search graphic, the interaction affected perceived risk (the longer the search to find affected stick figures, the higher the risk feeling: {\oe}{\r A} = 0.57; P = 0.009). Limitations. The authors used hypothetical decisions. Conclusions. A game-like graphic that allowed consumers to search for stick figures affected by disease had no main effect on risk perception but reduced differences based on numeracy. In one condition, the game-like graphic increased concern about rare risks. Intentions for preventive action were stronger with a question order that focused first on efficacy and disease severity than with one that focused first on perceived risk.},
0180         keywords = {cost utility analysis, population-based studies, randomized trial methodology, risk stratification, scale development/validation},
0181         author = {Ancker, Jessica S. and Weber, Elke U. and Kukafka, Rita}
0182 }
0183 @article {4573,
0184         title = {Imagined Commodities: Video Game Localization and Mythologies of Cultural Difference},
0185         journal = {Games and Culture},
0186         volume = {6},
0187         number = {1},
0188         year = {2011},
0189         month = {January 1, 2011},
0190         pages = {61-82},
0191         abstract = {Broadly interested in the agents and institutions that structure social imaginations and subjectivities by mediating which images are available to what audiences to imagine through, this paper specifically considers the power at play when intermediaries{\textemdash}in this case, video game localizers{\textemdash}filter the images and narratives that are sold and marketed to global consumers, and the way these mediating processes in turn are both produced by, and productive of, (cultural) imaginings. This paper also discusses the way that localization practices{\textemdash}while often framed by a discourse that positions cultural differences as both incommensurable and easily and discretely bounded by the borders of nation-states{\textemdash}typically involve a nuanced negotiation of contradictions, dilemmas and interests.},
0192         url = {http://gac.sagepub.com/content/6/1/61.abstract},
0193         author = {Rebecca Carlson and Jonathan Corliss}
0194 }
0195 @article {4574,
0196         title = {Introduction: The Social Science Study of Video Games},
0197         journal = {Games and Culture},
0198         volume = {6},
0199         number = {1},
0200         year = {2011},
0201         month = {January 1, 2011},
0202         pages = {3-16},
0203         abstract = {This introduction is a short survey of social science literature on video games. It is not meant as a comprehensive review. Instead its goal is to present some of the themes and questions that prompted us to bring the articles in this issue together. The essay begins by outlining some of the recent contributions from the social sciences to video game studies{\textemdash}with a particular emphasis on distinct forms of video game interactivity{\textemdash}and concludes with suggestions for possible future directions for this research.},
0204         url = {http://gac.sagepub.com/content/6/1/3.abstract},
0205         author = {Jonathan Corliss}
0206 }
0207 @article {4572,
0208         title = {Learning Real-Life Lessons From Online Games},
0209         journal = {Games and Culture},
0210         volume = {6},
0211         number = {1},
0212         year = {2011},
0213         month = {January 1, 2011},
0214         pages = {17-37},
0215         abstract = {Games have received increased scholarly attention due to the economic value they generate. Yet, some studies still conceptualize games as {\textquoteleft}{\textquoteleft}virtual{\textquoteright}{\textquoteright} realms that are theoretically distinct from {\textquoteleft}{\textquoteleft}real world{\textquoteright}{\textquoteright} experiences. Based on an ethnographic investigation of two online, text-based gaming environments, this study analyzes dynamics such as technical acculturation, access to technical knowledge, and opportunities for self-expression by studying social interaction that occurred in non-revenue-generating games. Frameworks that focus on dynamics such as in-game conversation in broader game-centric domains or ecologies should be considered to accommodate a wider variety of gaming forms and related interdisciplinary research questions. Different games have different consequences, and it is important to understand the varying consequential contexts that games afford. Whether or not the consequences may be measured economically, it is nevertheless important to consider how social interactions may complicate forms of self-expression in ways that impact the human spirit.},
0216         url = {http://gac.sagepub.com/content/6/1/17.abstract},
0217         author = {Lange, Patricia G.}
0218 }
0219 @article {4575,
0220         title = {The Nintendo Entertainment System and the 10NES Chip: Carving the Video Game Industry in Silicon},
0221         journal = {Games and Culture},
0222         volume = {6},
0223         number = {1},
0224         year = {2011},
0225         month = {January 1, 2011},
0226         pages = {83-100},
0227         abstract = {This essay makes the argument that the numerous {\textquoteleft}{\textquoteleft}networks{\textquoteright}{\textquoteright} or {\textquoteleft}{\textquoteleft}inter/intranetworks{\textquoteright}{\textquoteright} that structure the video game industry have lived local effects for those involved in the production of video games. In particular, this is most visible in the realm of console video game development but is visible in many other contexts as well. It uses the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) as an index into this complex and highly structured world that frequently disappears from developers perception. The essay uses largely historical data drawn from patent filings, Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) filings, and court cases to analyze these networks. The essay argues that these inter/intranetworks, as constructed, have been instrumental in the way that the game industry now finds itself structured and that as the industry has {\textquoteleft}{\textquoteleft}matured,{\textquoteright}{\textquoteright} the networks have become less accessible and less interoperable.},
0228         url = {http://gac.sagepub.com/content/6/1/83.abstract},
0229         author = {O{\textquoteright}Donnell, Casey}
0230 }
0231 @article {4576,
0232         title = {The Unreal Enemy of America{\textquoteright}s Army},
0233         journal = {Games and Culture},
0234         volume = {6},
0235         number = {1},
0236         year = {2011},
0237         month = {January 1, 2011},
0238         pages = {38-60},
0239         abstract = {This paper explores the characterizations of enemies in military-themed video games, with special attention given to the games Conflict: Desert Storm and America{\textquoteright}s Army. I demonstrate how the public enemy of America{\textquoteright}s Army is one not confined to any nationality, ethnicity, or political agenda. This marks a significant departure from games such as Conflict: Desert Storm. I argue that the production of this abstract enemy{\textemdash}what I call the {\textquoteleft}{\textquoteleft}unreal enemy{\textquoteright}{\textquoteright}{\textemdash}is significantly shaped by a biopolitical system that intertwines the military and electronic entertainment industries. This arrangement delocalizes power, distributing it through a network of institutions and subjects. Throughout, I use ethnographic examples that explore how this abstract enemy has been constructed and juxtaposed against more concrete and personal figures, such as the America{\textquoteright}s Army Real Heroes, individuals upheld as the embodiment of personal achievement in the U.S. Army. I conclude by asserting that the unreal enemy of America{\textquoteright}s Army is, ultimately, an enemy that is not exclusive to a video game, but one that exists as an anonymous specter, ever present in the militarized American cultural imaginary.},
0240         url = {http://gac.sagepub.com/content/6/1/38.abstract},
0241         author = {Allen, Robertson}
0242 }
0243 @article {Thin:2011uq,
0244         title = {Flow Experience and Mood States While Playing Body Movement-Controlled Video Games},
0245         journal = {Games and Culture},
0246         volume = {6},
0247         number = {5},
0248         year = {2011},
0249         note = {10.1177/1555412011402677},
0250         month = {jan},
0251         pages = {414{\textendash}428},
0252         abstract = {Body movement-controlled video games (BMCVGs) are a genre of video gaming utilizing body movement to control game play that is becoming increasingly popular. Despite the popularity and widespread interest in BMCVGs, there is limited information available about the nature of the players{\textquoteright} experiences when they engage in BMCVG play. A total of 14 young adults played 6 different BMCVGs for 6 min each and performed traditional cycling exercise in a randomized order. After two familiarization sessions, on a third occasion, subjects rated their enjoyment and completed the Flow State Scale-2 questionnaire. The BMCVGs were rated more enjoyable than traditional cycling exercise and the Flow dimensions Challenge-Skill Balance and Merging of Action and Awareness scored significantly higher than the norms for exercise activity and instead corresponded more closely to the norms for sporting activity. These findings suggest that BMCVGs could therefore act as a gateway for sedentary individuals to become involved in sporting activities.},
0253         keywords = {Exercise, Exergaming, Experience, flow, mood, physical activity, Sport, Video Games},
0254         url = {http://gac.sagepub.com/content/6/5/414.abstract},
0255         author = {Thin, Alasdair G. and Hansen, Lisa and McEachen, Danny}
0256 }
0257 @article {Lindtner:2011wt,
0258         title = {The Promise of Play: A New Approach to Productive Play},
0259         journal = {Games and Culture},
0260         volume = {6},
0261         number = {5},
0262         year = {2011},
0263         note = {10.1177/1555412011402678},
0264         month = {jan},
0265         pages = {453{\textendash}478},
0266         abstract = {Games are woven into webs of cultural meaning, social connection, politics, and economic change. This article builds on previous work in cultural, new media, and game studies to introduce a new approach to productive play, the promise of play. This approach analyzes games as sites of cultural production in times of increased transnational mediation and speaks to the formation of identity across places. The authors ground their explorations in findings from ethnographic research on gaming in urban China. The spread of Internet access and increasing popularity of digital entertainment in China has been used as an indicator of social change and economic progress shaped by global flows. It has also been described as being limited by local forces such as tight information control. As such, gaming technologies in China are ideal to ask broader questions about digital media as sites of production at the intersection of local contingencies and transnational developments.},
0267         keywords = {China, contingency, discourse, imagination cultural identity, Internet legislation, mixed-reality gaming, Online gaming, policy, productive play},
0268         url = {http://gac.sagepub.com/content/6/5/453.abstract},
0269         author = {Lindtner, Silvia and Dourish, Paul}
0270 }
0271 @article {Harper:2011vl,
0272         title = {Rules, Rhetoric, and Genre: Procedural Rhetoric in Persona 3},
0273         journal = {Games and Culture},
0274         volume = {6},
0275         number = {5},
0276         year = {2011},
0277         note = {10.1177/1555412011402675},
0278         month = {jan},
0279         pages = {395{\textendash}413},
0280         abstract = {Released in 2008 for the Playstation 2, Shin Megami Tensei: Persona 3 is a roleplaying game with a diverse genre pedigree. It is a combination of dungeon-crawling RPG and social interaction {\textquoteleft}{\textquoteleft}datesim,{\textquoteright}{\textquoteright} all wrapped up in the thematic trappings of occult mystery and Japanese popular culture. Using Ian Bogost{\textquoteright}s (2007) concept of procedural rhetoric, this article examines how Persona 3{\textquoteright}s use of genre conventions and gameplay-based rhetorical frames construct the game{\textquoteright}s message, as well as how those structures can inform our understanding of genre for the digital game form.},
0281         keywords = {Games, Genre, persona, persuasive games, procedural rhetoric, role-playing},
0282         doi = {10.1177/1555412011402675},
0283         url = {http://gac.sagepub.com/content/6/5/395.abstract},
0284         author = {Todd Harper}
0285 }
0286 @article {Brock:2011wd,
0287         title = {"When Keeping it Real Goes Wrong": Resident Evil 5, Racial Representation, and Gamers},
0288         journal = {Games and Culture},
0289         volume = {6},
0290         number = {5},
0291         year = {2011},
0292         note = {10.1177/1555412011402676},
0293         month = {jan},
0294         pages = {429{\textendash}452},
0295         abstract = {Videogames{\textquoteright} ability to depict cultural iconographies and characters have occasionally led to accusations of insensitivity. This article examines gamers{\textquoteright} reactions to a developer{\textquoteright}s use of Africans as enemies in a survival horror videogame, Resident Evil 5. Their reactions offer insight into how videogames represent Whiteness and White privilege within the social structure of {\textquoteleft}{\textquoteleft}play.{\textquoteright}{\textquoteright} Omi and Winant{\textquoteright}s (1994) racial formation theory notes that race is formed through cultural representations of human bodies organized in social structures. Accordingly, depictions of race in electronic spaces rely upon media imagery and social interactions. Videogames construct exotic fantasy worlds and peoples as places for White male protagonists to conquer, explore, exploit, and solve. Like their precursors in science fiction, fantasy, and horror, videogame narratives, activities, and players often draw from Western values of White masculinity, White privilege as bounded by conceptions of {\textquoteleft}{\textquoteleft}other,{\textquoteright}{\textquoteright} and relationships organized by coercion and domination.},
0296         keywords = {Black, gender and videogames, online racial identity, race and ethnicity, race and videogames, Resident evil 5, Sheva Alomar, Whiteness online},
0297         url = {http://gac.sagepub.com/content/6/5/429.abstract},
0298         author = {Brock, Andr{\'e}}
0299 }
0300 @article {4578,
0301         title = {Developing High-Fidelity Health Care Simulation Scenarios: A Guide for Educators and Professionals},
0302         journal = {Simulation \& Gaming},
0303         volume = {42},
0304         number = {1},
0305         year = {2011},
0306         month = {February 1, 2011},
0307         pages = {9-26},
0308         abstract = {The development of appropriate scenarios is critical in high-fidelity simulation training. They need to be developed to address specific learning objectives, while not preventing other learning points from emerging. Buying a patient simulator, finding a volunteer to act as the patient, or even obtaining ready-made scenarios from another simulation center are rarely insurmountable challenges. The issue often lies in how to use or adapt these for your own purpose: with your team, facilities, and resources but primarily for your learners. Published information is limited in the area of scenario preparation for health care education and continuing medical education or continuing professional development. This article is a guide for clinical tutors, standardized patient trainers, and patient simulator operators on how to script scenarios and proposes a new detailed and reusable template for writing scenarios. It contains practical sections such as how to decide on the learning objectives to be addressed, how to script and organize your scenarios, and how to pitch the suitable level of details to make the scenarios appropriately realistic.},
0309         keywords = {high-fidelity simulation, patient cases, scenario preparation, scenario-based simulation, script development, simulation-based training, storyboarding},
0310         author = {Alinier, Guillaume}
0311 }
0312 @article {4591,
0313         title = {Dynamics of Student Cognitive-Affective Transitions During a Mathematics Game},
0314         journal = {Simulation \& Gaming},
0315         volume = {42},
0316         number = {1},
0317         year = {2011},
0318         month = {February 1, 2011},
0319         pages = {85-99},
0320         abstract = {Researchers of interactive learning environments have grown increasingly interested in designing these systems to become more responsive to differences in students{\quotesinglbase}{\"A}{\^o} cognitive-affective states. They believe that the detection of and adaptation to student cognition and affect may boost student learning gains and enhance the quality of students{\quotesinglbase}{\"A}{\^o} overall learning experience. A growing body of research focuses specifically on the study of cognitive-affective dynamics, defined as the natural ways in which a student{\quotesinglbase}{\"A}{\^o}s cognitive-affective states change over time. These types of studies help designers identify desirable (virtuous) cycles that they want to foster and undesirable (vicious) cycles that they want to dissuade. In this study, the author examined the dynamics of the cognitive-affective states exhibited by Filipino students as they used the pre-algebra game MATH BLASTER 9-12. The author focused on the cognitive-affective states of boredom, confusion, delight, engagement, frustration, neutrality, and surprise. Using quantitative field observations, the author determined which of these states tended to persist or transition into other states over time. It was found that boredom was the only state that tended to persist. Boredom tended not to lead to engagement. Students who were confused were not likely to stay confused but were likely to transition into engagement. Students who were delighted were not likely to become confused. From these findings and based on comparisons with related work, it is concluded that boredom is a persistent and undesirable state. Confusion is not persistent and is desirable because it leads to further engagement with the content.},
0321         keywords = {Affect, boredom, Cognition, cognitive-affective dynamics, confusion, delight, engagement, frustration, Games, math, MATH BLASTER 9-12, mathematics, pre-algebra, surprise},
0322         author = {Rodrigo, Ma. Mercedes T.}
0323 }
0324 @article {4581,
0325         title = {An Experimental Study of the Reputation Mechanism in a Business Game},
0326         journal = {Simulation \& Gaming},
0327         volume = {42},
0328         number = {1},
0329         year = {2011},
0330         month = {February 1, 2011},
0331         pages = {27-42},
0332         abstract = {Reputation enables different parties to establish a trusting and cooperative relationship, a key factor in integrative negotiations referred to as {\quotesinglbase}{\"A}{\'u}win-win{\quotesinglbase}{\"A}{\`u} negotiations. Thus, a good reputation mechanism can bring simulations closer to reality. In this study, the authors review the reputation mechanisms applied to the online business game WIN WIN MANAGER, where the players{\quotesinglbase}{\"A}{\^o} reputations are decided by their counterparts at the end of each negotiation. Then, the authors compare two reputation mechanisms and hypothesize that the best mechanism will be more positively correlated with the negotiation outcome, which is measured by a scoring algorithm. Using nonparametric statistics, it is highlighted that the reputation mechanism in earlier versions of the game seems to produce values unrelated to the score, whereas the new mechanism produces values significantly positively correlated with the score. Such results can be useful to scholars who conduct experiments on negotiation, as well as online markets in which users are allowed to negotiate with one another.},
0333         keywords = {business game, game-based learning, negotiation outcome, online negotiation, reputation mechanism, serious game, WIN WIN MANAGER},
0334         author = {Greco, Marco and Branca, Antonio Maurizio and Morena, Gianfranco}
0335 }
0336 @article {4580,
0337         title = {A {\textquoteright}Gamer{\textquoteright} in Many Areas},
0338         journal = {Simulation \& Gaming},
0339         volume = {42},
0340         number = {1},
0341         year = {2011},
0342         month = {February 1, 2011},
0343         pages = {118-122},
0344         abstract = {I am Professor and Chair of the Management Department at the University of St. Thomas, my professional home for the past 30 years. My primary teaching interest has always been strategic planning. I discovered business simulations over 30 years ago, and have been a user and advocate of them throughout my professional life. In 1992, I was awarded a Fulbright Scholars Fellowship to teach at the National University of Ireland in Cork, Ireland, and I ended up spending 4 years there over a 6-year period. I have led a study abroad program to England and Ireland, teaching an undergraduate strategy course there annually since 1997.},
0345         keywords = {business simulation developer, simulations \& learning, study abroad, teaching ethics},
0346         author = {Anderson, Philip H.}
0347 }
0348 @article {4585,
0349         title = {Improving Transfer of Learning: Relationship to Methods of Using Business Simulation},
0350         journal = {Simulation \& Gaming},
0351         volume = {42},
0352         number = {1},
0353         year = {2011},
0354         month = {February 1, 2011},
0355         pages = {64-84},
0356         abstract = {This study investigates whether the processes associated with the use of business simulations can be structured to improve transfer of learning from the classroom environment to the workplace.The answer to this question is explored by investigating teaching methods used to introduce the simulation, the amount of time students spend on decisions, team decision-making characteristics, and student performance levels in the course. The results indicate that students have higher perceived transfer of learning when they learn the simulation by reading the student manual and from peers rather than from the instructor or from hands-on experience. Also, the results indicate that perceptions of time spent on strategic decisions, financial decisions, and student expectations of their final grade were related to perceived transfer of learning.},
0357         keywords = {business simulation, learning, transfer of learning},
0358         author = {Mayer, Brad W. and Dale, Kathleen M. and Fraccastoro, Katherine A. and Moss, Gisele}
0359 }
0360 @article {4582,
0361         title = {Learning in Single-Versus Multiplayer Games: The More the Merrier?},
0362         journal = {Simulation \& Gaming},
0363         volume = {42},
0364         number = {1},
0365         year = {2011},
0366         month = {February 1, 2011},
0367         pages = {43-63},
0368         abstract = {From the observations of successful entertainment games, it is hypothesized that implementing a single-player option may require a different approach from that in a multiplayer option, in terms of game design. To find out whether this could be true and to understand what the specific approaches could entail for educational games, three separate yet related investigations were conducted to examine single- versus multiplayer games: an investigation of two educational games designed and evaluated by the authors, a theoretical investigation from a game and learning perspective, and an empirical investigation of 23 case studies. From these three investigations, it turned out that a {\quotesinglbase}{\"A}{\'u}single-player approach{\quotesinglbase}{\"A}{\`u} is data intensive, has formal rules, and uses direct transfer and individual learning. On the other hand, a {\quotesinglbase}{\"A}{\'u}multiplayer approach{\quotesinglbase}{\"A}{\`u} is less straightforward. From a game perspective, it can be characterized as process intensive and having social rules. When related to learning, however, it could be positioned on any dimension. This exploration shows that the approaches differ to a large extent and that designers have to find a fit between what option they choose and approach they take.},
0369         keywords = {educational games, evaluation, game attribute, game design, hypothesis building, learning, learning effectiveness, multiplayer, single-player},
0370         author = {Harteveld, Casper and Bekebrede,Geertje}
0371 }
0372 @article {4592,
0373         title = {Researching Travel Behavior and Adaptability: Using a Virtual Reality Role-Playing Game},
0374         journal = {Simulation \& Gaming},
0375         volume = {42},
0376         number = {1},
0377         year = {2011},
0378         month = {February 1, 2011},
0379         pages = {100-117},
0380         abstract = {This article describes a virtual reality role-playing game that was developed as a survey tool to collect travel behavior data and explore and monitor travel behavior adaptation. The Advanced Energy and Material Systems Laboratory has designed, developed a prototype, and tested such a game platform survey tool, called Travel Activity Constraint Adaptation Simulation (TACA SIM). A main objective is investigating adaptability under the simulated situation of rapid fuel price. The computer game survey approach has the potential to capture real behavior data through a well-controlled experiment, because the participant experiences the survey as a role-play exploration. Feedback from participants confirms that TACA SIM collects data efficiently in an acceptable time while the participants enjoyed the experience. The authors propose that this gamed-based survey approach provides the basis for collecting and evaluating travel behavior data and adaptation behavior.},
0381         keywords = {Experience, gamed-based survey, high fuel price, role-playing game, Survey, travel adaptability, travel behavior, travel behavior adaptation, virtual reality},
0382         author = {Watcharasukarn, Montira and Krumdieck, Susan and Green, Richard and Dantas, Andr{\'e}}
0383 }
0384 @article {4589,
0385         title = {Managing Employees{\textquoteright} Motivation, Cognition, and Performance in Virtual Workplaces: The Blueprint of a Game-based Adaptive Performance Platform (GAPP)},
0386         journal = {Advances in Developing Human Resources},
0387         volume = {12},
0388         number = {6},
0389         year = {2011},
0390         month = {December 1, 2010},
0391         pages = {700-714},
0392         abstract = {Organizations have embraced various technologies to facilitate communications, interactions, and collaborations to embody VHRD in recent years. While such integration affords opportunities for relevant HRD practices and research, it neglects crucial considerations on technologies{\quotesinglbase}{\"A}{\^o} potential effects in overloading employees{\quotesinglbase}{\"A}{\^o} affective and cognitive processing capacities. As a result, it could impede employees{\quotesinglbase}{\"A}{\^o} motivation to perform on the job. Furthermore, to validate VHRD as technology-mediated processes that support organizational performance, it is imperative to align technologies with performance measurements. To address these issues, this article proposes an original design for a Game-based Adaptive Performance Platform (GAPP) system based on research on work motivation, digital game-based learning environments, electronic performance support, and cognitive processing. The GAPP system intends to (a) sustain employee performance via game features, (b) prevent processing overload in stimuli-rich virtual environments, (c) monitor and align employee performance with desired organizational outcomes, and (d) foster experience sharing among employees in virtual workplaces.},
0393         keywords = {Game, motivation, Performance, VHRD, virtual HRD, workplaces},
0394         author = {Huang, Wen-Hao David and Han, Seung-Hyun and Park, Un-Yeong and Seo, Jungmin Jamie}
0395 }
0396 @article {4595,
0397         title = {Cybersexuality in MMORPGs: Virtual Sexual Revolution Untapped},
0398         journal = {Men and Masculinities},
0399         volume = {14},
0400         number = {1},
0401         year = {2011},
0402         month = {April 1, 2011},
0403         pages = {76-96},
0404         abstract = {This study explores the mechanics and perceptions of cybersex interactions in massively multiplayer online role playing games (MMORPGs) and examines the potential for cybersex in gaming to revolutionize sexuality politics. Drawing on ethnographic and in-depth interview data with fifty MMORPG players, the author examines how cybersex interactions are performed, the context in which they are allowed, and the assessments players make about the utility of cybersex. The author suggests that cybersex has yet to embrace a broader spectrum of sexuality even in strictly virtual interactions.},
0405         author = {Valkyrie, Zek Cypress}
0406 }
0407 @article {4600,
0408         title = {Machinima in a Fanvid Ecology},
0409         journal = {Journal of Visual Culture},
0410         volume = {10},
0411         number = {1},
0412         year = {2011},
0413         month = {April 1, 2011},
0414         pages = {51-54},
0415         abstract = {The author discusses machinima in relation to a proliferating family of emerging DIY fanvids, remixes, and parodies spawning on the internet today. Like many other forms of DIY video, machinima is the byproduct of the creative energies of popular culture enthusiasts, fueled by increasingly accessible digital media production tools and online video distribution. Although machinima{\quotesinglbase}{\"A}{\^o}s roots in gaming platforms and cultures make it unique, it shares a history and future with other kinds of DIY fanvids. In this diversified ecosystem, the author concludes, the base of machinima makers will continue to expand, while expert creators will proliferate more and more esoteric niches, some of which cater to the core gaming crowd, and others that cross over to other genres.},
0416         author = {Ito, Mizuko}
0417 }
0418 @article {4599,
0419         title = {Massively Multiplayer Machinima Mikusuto},
0420         journal = {Journal of Visual Culture},
0421         volume = {10},
0422         number = {1},
0423         year = {2011},
0424         month = {April 1, 2011},
0425         pages = {42-50},
0426         abstract = {The author presents a taxonomy of machinima produced within and around Massively Multiplayer Online Games (MMOGs), specifically World of Warcraft (WoW). The author illustrates three possible categories: in-house machinima, fan-fiction machinima, and nonfiction machinima, examining the difference in style, purpose, and artistic potential of each.},
0427         author = {Stern,Eddo}
0428 }
0429 @conference {4508,
0430         title = {Understanding the Components of Gender-Inclusivity in Games},
0431         booktitle = {7th International Conference on Technology, Knowledge and Society},
0432         year = {2011},
0433         month = {25/03/2011},
0434         publisher = {Common Ground Publishing},
0435         organization = {Common Ground Publishing},
0436         address = {Vizcaya, Spain},
0437         abstract = {Gender-inclusivity in games has been a much debated issue and despite the dramatic growth of gender and games research, many challenges remain in designing a more gender-inclusive game. Gender-inclusivity in games may support certain features and in turn may even determine the features of applications built based on it. This poses a challenge: although we have good techniques for analyzing, designing and evaluating current games, our techniques for gender-inclusive games are much less formed. This article seeks to better understand the components and sub-components of gender-inclusivity in games. It introduces the Gender-Inclusivity Framework (GIF), a conceptual framework that integrates the appropriate gender, games and design literature in order to enhance our knowledge of gender-inclusivity in games. The framework defines gender-inclusivity in three key components: (1) genre, which indicates the type of game, (2) gameplay, which describes the game behaviour and (3) content, which describes the game content. We present the definitions within the scope of gender-inclusivity in games and the detailed items related to each component.},
0438         keywords = {Design Guidelines, Game Framework, games design, Gender-Inclusive, Gender-Neutral, Video Game},
0439         url = {http://eprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk/21567/},
0440         author = {Roziana Ibrahim and Gary B Wills and Lester Gilbert}
0441 }
0442 @article {4609,
0443         title = {Online identity crisis: Real ID on the World of Warcraft forums},
0444         journal = {First Monday},
0445         volume = {16},
0446         year = {2011},
0447         month = {07/11},
0448         abstract = {In July 2010, Activision Blizzard announced that the Real ID system was going to be implemented on the official World of Warcraft forums, meaning that players would be required to identify themselves with their real names to be able to post on the forums. The plans were withdrawn only a few days later because of the overwhelming negative response from players. This article analyzes examples of players{\textquoteright} responses on the forums and, having identified central themes concerning identity and sociality in this online setting, explores possible reasons why anonymity is so important to the player community.},
0449         url = {http://www.uic.edu/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/3624/3006},
0450         author = {Anne-Mette Albrechtslund}
0451 }
0452 @article {4610,
0453         title = {Uses and gratifications of social games: Blending social networking and game play },
0454         journal = {First Monday},
0455         volume = {7},
0456         year = {2011},
0457         month = {07/11},
0458         abstract = {This study applied a uses and gratifications approach to investigate social games {\textemdash} the game applications integrated in social networking platforms. Users{\textquoteright} expected social gratifications and game gratifications from playing social games were examined. The investigation focused on three dimensions of game play: frequency, duration, and engagement of game activities. A hierarchical regression analysis found that social interaction and diversion are positive predictors of game play. Results suggest that there is a distinctly social aspect to social games that reflects their social networking characteristics. Social games should be described as social media rather than as just one category of online computer games.},
0459         url = {http://www.uic.edu/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/3517/3020},
0460         author = {Jinghui Hou}
0461 }
0462 @article {4602,
0463         title = {Discourses on Text Integrity: Information and Interpretation in the Contested Fallout Knowledge Community },
0464         journal = {Convergence},
0465         volume = {17},
0466         year = {2011},
0467         month = {05/2011},
0468         pages = {159-175},
0469         abstract = {In an effort to further understand the nature of the productive consumption of media fans in an era of digital connectivity, this article expands on L{\'e}vy{\textquoteright}s (1997) concept of the knowledge community as it applies to fans of the digital-game series Fallout. L{\'e}vy proposed that the age of digital-connectivity would usher in knowledge communities where participation was voluntary, aggregate, and democratic. I argue that Baym{\textquoteright}s (2000) interpretive and informative practices, which serve as the lynchpins of fan discourse, may be understood as the lynchpins of the knowledge community as well. Further, here interpretive and informative practices are not only used to build community and negotiate values, but also to define status and position within the contested Fallout knowledge community. By testing the knowledge community against such an environment, and integrating it into previous research on the role of fan labor in an era where producers are increasingly interested in that labor, this article proposes an understanding of the concept that may well add nuance and context beyond the theory{\textquoteright}s utopian roots. },
0470         keywords = {Fandom, fans, interpretive and informative practices, knowledge community},
0471         doi = {10.1177/1354856510397096},
0472         author = {R.M. Milner}
0473 }
0474 @article {4598,
0475         title = {The Role of Onlookers in Arcade Gaming: Frame Analysis of Public Behaviours},
0476         journal = {Convergence},
0477         volume = {17},
0478         year = {2011},
0479         month = {05/2011},
0480         pages = {125-137},
0481         abstract = {In this article we bring onlookers to front stage. Normally considered invisible participants in video game arcades, their multiple and fluid roles are key to establishing interactional frames in public gaming spaces. We identified three such frames {\textemdash} showroom, gymnasium, and clubroom {\textemdash} after analysing interactions and finding examples of self-presentation in Taipei{\textquoteright}s largest gaming arcade. According to our observations, the nature of gaming scenarios is largely determined by the relative skill levels of players and onlookers, with participants playing their roles in relation to the currently active frame. Onlookers provide cues that signal dynamic frame shifts, thereby collectively maintaining the gaming environment while distinguishing themselves from outsiders. Our study uses a social interactional approach as a complement to fun- and/or play-oriented game research. },
0482         keywords = {amusement arcade, Erving Goffman, gamers, gaming space, interactional frames, onlookers, presentation of self in public space, role-playing, Video Games},
0483         doi = {10.1177/1354856510397111},
0484         author = {Lin,Holin and Sun,Chuen-Tsai}
0485 }
0486 @article {4603,
0487         title = {Teaching and learning English through digital game projects.},
0488         journal = {Digital Culture \& Education},
0489         volume = {3},
0490         year = {2011},
0491         month = {04/2011},
0492         abstract = {Digital games are receiving increasing attention by researchers and practitioners in education; however, most of the theory and pedagogy focus on general education or language and literacy development of native speakers. There are very few investigations of game play or game culture and second language development. Language teachers and institutions must know more about games to use the media effectively. Two completed extracurricular projects, based on constructionist learning and media literacy theories and practices, are described in this paper: game design and game magazine creation. The action research projects aimed to guide students towards a better understanding of games{\textquoteright} formal features and technologies through their active creation of games and game-related media, and to improve their spoken and written English language skills. In general, students learned and practised a variety of language and technology skills with the design projects. The projects motivated the students, challenged the students, and provided many opportunities for authentic discussions in the foreign language. Various suggestions, based on the teacher and student experiences of these projects, are made for other language teachers interested in conducting creative game-based projects with their students.},
0493         keywords = {digital games, game design, game journalism, project-based learning, second language acquisition},
0494         url = {http://www.digitalcultureandeducation.com/volume-3/teaching-and-learning-english-through-digital-game-projects/},
0495         author = {deHaan, Jonathan}
0496 }
0497 @proceedings {4567,
0498         title = {The {\textquotedblleft}S{\textquotedblright} in social network games: Initiating, maintaining, and enhancing relationships},
0499         journal = {Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS)},
0500         year = {2011},
0501         month = {04/01/2011},
0502         publisher = {IEEE Computer Society},
0503         address = {Kauai, HI},
0504         abstract = {Social network games embedded within social network sites (SNSs) such as Facebook facilitate play
0505 with {\textquotedblleft}Friends{\textquotedblright} within the SNS. In this study, we look at different dimensions of how game play contributes
0506 to relationship initiation and development using qualitative data collected from adult Facebook users
0507 (N=18). Our data suggest that interpersonal motivations are a primary driver of initial game play
0508 and that while game play doesn{\textquoteright}t facilitate direct social interaction, participants perceive indirect
0509 interaction and sharing game-based content as useful in maintaining and even enhancing relationships. },
0510         keywords = {Facebook, qualitative, social game, social network game, social network site},
0511         url = {http://arcticpenguin.files.wordpress.com/2011/01/pid1058556.pdf},
0512         author = {Donghee Yvette Wohn and Cliff Lampe and Rick Wash and Jessica Vitak and Nicole Ellison}
0513 }
0514 @article {4500,
0515         title = {The methodological mayhem of experimental videogame research},
0516         journal = {PsyPAG Quarterly},
0517         year = {2011},
0518         month = {03/2011},
0519         author = {Linda K Kaye}
0520 }
0521 @conference {4509,
0522         title = {Minds the Gaps: The Challenges of Gender-Inclusivity in Games},
0523         booktitle = {5th International Conference on Design Principles and Practices},
0524         year = {2011},
0525         month = {02/02/2011},
0526         publisher = {Common Ground Publishing},
0527         organization = {Common Ground Publishing},
0528         address = {Rome, Italy},
0529         abstract = {Gender-inclusivity in games has been a much debated issue and despite the dramatic growth of gender and games research, many challenges remain in designing a more gender-inclusive game. Gender-inclusivity in games may support certain features and in turn may even determine the features of applications built based on it. This poses a challenge: although we have good techniques for analyzing, designing and evaluating current games, our techniques for gender-inclusive games are much less formed. This article discusses some unresolved issues concerning gender-inclusivity in games and the gaps in designing a more gender-inclusive game. We present the implications of each issue towards gender-inclusivity in games. In conclusion, we proposed a framework that defines gender-inclusivity in three key components: (1) genre, which indicates the type of game, (2) gameplay, which describes the game behaviour and (3) content, which describes the game content. Some applications of the framework are outlined.},
0530         keywords = {Design Guidelines, Game Framework, games design, Gender-Inclusive, Gender-Neutral, Video Game},
0531         url = {http://eprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk/21566/},
0532         author = {Roziana Ibrahim and Gary B Wills and Lester Gilbert}
0533 }
0534 @article {Kallio01072011,
0535         title = {At Least Nine Ways to Play: Approaching Gamer Mentalities},
0536         journal = {Games and Culture},
0537         volume = {6},
0538         number = {4},
0539         year = {2011},
0540         pages = {327-353},
0541         abstract = {Do digital games and play mean the same things for different people? This article presents the results of a 3-year study in which we sought for new ways to approach digital games cultures and playing practices. First, the authors present the research process in brief and emphasize the importance of merging different kinds of methods and materials in the study of games cultures. Second, the authors introduce a gaming mentality heuristics that is not dedicated to a certain domain or genre of games, addressing light casual and light social gaming motivations as well as more dedicated ones in a joint framework. The analysis reveals that, in contrast to common belief, the majority of digital gaming takes place between {\textquoteleft}{\textquoteleft}casual relaxing{\textquoteright}{\textquoteright} and {\textquoteleft}{\textquoteleft}committed entertaining,{\textquoteright}{\textquoteright} where the multiplicity of experiences, feelings, and understandings that people have about their playing and digital games is wide ranging. Digital gaming is thus found to be a multifaceted social and cultural phenomenon that can be understood, practiced, and used in various ways.},
0542         keywords = {digital games, Game research, games cultures, heuristics, methodology, playing mentalities},
0543         doi = {10.1177/1555412010391089},
0544         url = {http://gac.sagepub.com/content/6/4/327.abstract},
0545         author = {Kallio, Kirsi Pauliina and M{\"a}yr{\"a}, Frans and Kaipainen, Kirsikka}
0546 }
0547 @inbook {4577,
0548         title = {Computer and VideoGames},
0549         booktitle = {Media Psychology},
0550         year = {2011},
0551         publisher = {Palgrave: MacMillan},
0552         organization = {Palgrave: MacMillan},
0553         chapter = {6},
0554         address = {London},
0555         author = {Bryce, Jo and Linda K Kaye},
0556         editor = {Gayle Brewer}
0557 }
0558 @article {4615,
0559         title = {"Did This Game Scare You? Because it Sure as Hell Scared Me!" F.E.A.R., the Abject and the Uncanny},
0560         journal = {Games and Culture},
0561         volume = {6},
0562         year = {2011},
0563         pages = {312-326 },
0564         abstract = {First Encounter Assault Reconnaissance (F.E.A.R.), a first-person shooter video game, was released on the Xbox 360 console in 2006. What makes the game analytically interesting is the creation of a game-world designed to promote a feeling of uncertainty in the player. This article explores the ways in which the ambience of uncertainty is developed within the game. Freud{\textquoteright}s writing on the uncanny and Kristeva{\textquoteright}s closely related work on abjection is drawn upon to explore how the game works rhetorically to place the player in an unsettled psychological state. The article argues that the use of the heavily gendered symbolism of the uncanny and the abject is value laden and that consequently we must pay attention to that which we cast out, reject, repress, and destroy in the fictive universe of video game play. The article concludes by suggesting that texts such as F.E.A.R. may resonate with wider uncertainties around the self in late-modern life. },
0565         keywords = {abject, identity, psychoanalysis, representation, uncanny, Video Games},
0566         doi = {10.1177/1555412010391091 },
0567         author = {Steve Spittle}
0568 }
0569 @article {Dutton01082011,
0570         title = {Digital pitchforks and virtual torches: Fan responses to the Mass Effect news debacle},
0571         journal = {Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies},
0572         volume = {17},
0573         number = {3},
0574         year = {2011},
0575         pages = {287-305},
0576         abstract = {In early 2008, what started as a small report in an online conservative outlet on the Xbox 360 videogame Mass Effect was picked up by a number of news outlets and blogs. In particular, Fox News{\textquoteright}s {\textquoteleft}Live Desk with Martha MacCallum{\textquoteright} produced a segment on the game, claiming it was fully interactive digital pornography. One of the show{\textquoteright}s guests, pop psychologist Cooper Lawrence, argued that the game{\textquoteright}s sexual content was harmful, but did so with no firsthand knowledge of the game, incensing fans of the game. Those fans proceeded to respond in various ways, particularly on the internet. The present research examines three distinct areas of these fan responses {\textemdash} forum discussions, YouTube videos, and the {\textquoteleft}review bombing{\textquoteright} of Cooper Lawrence{\textquoteright}s books on Amazon.com. The various ways in which fans expressed their anger at, displeasure with, and opinions on the story and how the game was treated in the media present a chance not only to look into the mindset of these fans toward the various institutions involved in but also paint a picture of fan and gamer cultures in general.},
0577         keywords = {Fandom, fans, Fox News, Internet, mass effect, online, videogames},
0578         doi = {10.1177/1354856511407802},
0579         url = {http://con.sagepub.com/content/17/3/287.abstract},
0580         author = {Nathan Dutton and Consalvo,Mia and Todd Harper}
0581 }
0582 @conference {4547,
0583         title = {Disambiguating Age, Gender and Skill: An Exploration of Online Chat Among MMOG Players.},
0584         booktitle = {International Sunbelt Social Network Conference},
0585         year = {2011},
0586         address = {St. Pete Beach, FL, USA},
0587         url = {http://www.vwobservatory.com/wp/?p=207},
0588         author = {Foucault Welles, B. and Shim, K.J. and Ratan, R.A. and Kennedy, T. L. M. and Rousse, T.H. and Contractor, N. and Srivastava, J. and Williams, Dmitri}
0589 }
0590 @article {Eklund01082011,
0591         title = {Doing gender in cyberspace: The performance of gender by female World of Warcraft players},
0592         journal = {Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies},
0593         volume = {17},
0594         number = {3},
0595         year = {2011},
0596         pages = {323-342},
0597         abstract = {This explorative study focuses on the performance of gender and sexuality in World of Warcraft (WoW), an online game, following Butler{\textquoteright}s performance theory. Through interviews with female WoW players, gender and sexuality is analysed. The article argues that we cannot study gender online without also looking at sexuality. Gender performances are discussed within the framework of four themes: the avatar; strategies; sexuality, and the contextual importance of WoW. Results show that gender identity construction in WoW is an ongoing process highly dependent on the social context of play. The women interviewed created gendered and sexualized identities constrained and empowered by the rules of the game and the opportunities it offers as well as of their social relations. Although a heterosexual norm rules, there are possibilities hitherto unrecognized for queer performance within the gendered role play in WoW and the game offers the possibility of multiple and alternative performances of the self.},
0598         keywords = {gender identity, MMORPG, performative sexuality, social context, World of Warcraft},
0599         doi = {10.1177/1354856511406472},
0600         url = {http://con.sagepub.com/content/17/3/323.abstract},
0601         author = {Eklund, Lina}
0602 }
0603 @conference {4625,
0604         title = {The edge of virtual communities? An explorative analysis of clans and computer games},
0605         booktitle = {Exploring the Edges of Gaming. Proceedings of the Vienna Games Conference 2008-2009},
0606         year = {2011},
0607         pages = {77-90},
0608         publisher = {Braum{\"u}ller},
0609         organization = {Braum{\"u}ller},
0610         address = {Vienna},
0611         abstract = {The field of online games discloses a high number of self-organising processes of community building. Ego-Shooters are the home of so-called clans, which are one of the most popular and also most interesting types of game communities. With a qualitative approach the structural characteristics, communication processes and interpretational patterns of collective gaming from the perspective of a clan member were researched. The results clearly illustrate the interconnections between real world and virtual world processes of communication and interaction. Clans can be classified as something in-between a hobby and a semi-professionally played sport, whereas the latter better corresponds to the self-concept of most of the interviewees. It was repeatedly noticed that many clans still have a virtual pioneer status. This allows active and committed clan members the possibility for individual design not only of game play, but also of the social and communicative organisation of the clan.},
0612         keywords = {Appropriation, Clans, communities, Game Culture},
0613         isbn = {978-3-7003-1758-6},
0614         author = {Jeffrey Wimmer and Quandt, Thorsten and Kristin Vogel},
0615         editor = {Mitgutsch, Konstantin and Klimmt,Christoph and Rosenstingl, Herbert}
0616 }
0617 @article {4536,
0618         title = {Facial expression of emotion and perception of the uncanny valley in virtual characters},
0619         journal = {Computers in Human Behavior},
0620         volume = {27},
0621         year = {2011},
0622         abstract = {With technology allowing for increased realism in video games, realistic, human-like characters risk falling into the Uncanny Valley. The Uncanny Valley phenomenon implies that virtual characters approaching full human-likeness will evoke a negative reaction from the viewer, due to aspects of the character{\textquoteright}s appearance and behavior differing from the human norm. This study investigates if {\textquotedblleft}uncanniness{\textquotedblright} is increased for a character with a perceived lack of facial expression in the upper parts of the face. More important, our study also investigates if the magnitude of this increased uncanniness varies depending on which emotion is being communicated. Individual parameters for each facial muscle in a 3D model were controlled for the six emotions: anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness and surprise in addition to a neutral expression. The results indicate that even fully and expertly animated characters are rated as more uncanny than humans and that, in virtual characters, a lack of facial expression in the upper parts of the face during speech exaggerates the uncanny by inhibiting effective communication of the perceived emotion, significantly so for fear, sadness, disgust, and surprise but not for anger and happiness. Based on our results, we consider the implications for virtual character design.},
0623         keywords = {Uncanny Valley; Facial expression; Emotion; Characters; Video games; Realism},
0624         issn = {0747-5632},
0625         doi = {doi:10.1016/j.chb.2010.10.018},
0626         url = {http://digitalcommons.bolton.ac.uk/gcct_journalspr/14/},
0627         author = {Angela Tinwell and Grimshaw, Mark and Debbie Abdel Nabi and Andrew Williams}
0628 }
0629 @article {Harambam01062011,
0630         title = {Game over? Negotiating modern capitalism in virtual game worlds},
0631         journal = {European Journal of Cultural Studies},
0632         volume = {14},
0633         number = {3},
0634         year = {2011},
0635         pages = {299-319},
0636         abstract = {Johan Huizinga{\textquoteright}s claim that commercialization threatens the self-enclosed {\textquoteleft}magic circle{\textquoteright} of free play still permeates many contemporary games studies. Critiquing such generalizing and essentialistic assumptions, this article distinguishes four different {\textquoteleft}orders of commercialization{\textquoteright} that impinge on online game worlds and studies empirically how each of these is evaluated and negotiated by players themselves. Based on an analysis of World of Warcraft and Second Life, it demonstrates that some orders of commercialization {\textemdash} that is, the game itself as a commodity and the construction of its world as a virtual marketplace {\textemdash} are compatible with free play since they enhance players{\textquoteright} in-game agency. Other orders of commercialization {\textemdash} that is, {\textquoteleft}real money trading{\textquoteright} and the colonization of the game world by multinationals {\textemdash} are experienced as commodifying and undermine the spirit of play. Contextualization is called for: while some orders of commercialization threaten the {\textquoteleft}magic circle{\textquoteright} of free play, others stimulate or facilitate it.},
0637         keywords = {commercialization, magic circle, online computer games, PLAY, Second Life, World of Warcraft},
0638         doi = {10.1177/1367549410393232},
0639         url = {http://ecs.sagepub.com/content/14/3/299.abstract},
0640         author = {Harambam, Jaron and Aupers, Stef and Houtman, Dick}
0641 }
0642 @book {4526,
0643         title = {Game sound technology and player interaction: Concepts and developments},
0644         year = {2011},
0645         publisher = {IGI Global},
0646         organization = {IGI Global},
0647         keywords = {audio, sound},
0648         isbn = {161692828X},
0649         url = {http://www.amazon.co.uk/Game-Sound-Technology-Player-Interaction/dp/161692828X/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8\&qid=1294291419\&sr=8-1},
0650         author = {Mark Grimshaw (ed)}
0651 }
0652 @article {O{\textquoteright}Donnell01082011,
0653         title = {Games are not convergence: The lost promise of digital production and convergence},
0654         journal = {Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies},
0655         volume = {17},
0656         number = {3},
0657         year = {2011},
0658         pages = {271-286},
0659         abstract = {This article critically examines the notion of {\textquoteleft}convergence{\textquoteright} as it applies to videogames and videogame development. Drawing on data from more than five years of ethnographic fieldwork amongst {\textquoteleft}AAA{\textquoteright} videogame development studios, the specific case of Spider-Man 3{\textquoteright}s development is used as a lens for understanding the complexity of modern media production practice. This case sheds light on our understandings of cross-media development practice and the labor involved in the effect of media {\textquoteleft}flow{\textquoteright} from platform to platform. Actor-Network Theory serves as a guiding analytic framework for understanding how videogame production in this context, given the sheer number of actors, has significant implications for the kinds of cross-media products created and the labor involved in bringing these projects to fruition.},
0660         keywords = {Actor-Network Theory, convergence, cross-media, videogame developers, videogame development, videogames},
0661         doi = {10.1177/1354856511405766},
0662         url = {http://con.sagepub.com/content/17/3/271.abstract},
0663         author = {O{\textquoteright}Donnell, Casey}
0664 }
0665 @book {4606,
0666         title = {Gaming Matters: Art, Science, Magic, and the Computer Game Medium},
0667         year = {2011},
0668         publisher = {University of Alabama Press},
0669         organization = {University of Alabama Press},
0670         abstract = {In Gaming Matters, Judd Ethan Ruggill (Arizona State University) and Ken S. McAllister (University of Arizona) offer a playful and provocative look at the computer game medium, arguing that games are:
0671 {\textbullet} Idiosyncratic, and thus difficult to apprehend using the traditional tools of media study;
0672 {\textbullet} Irreconcilable, or complex to such a degree that developers, players, and scholars have contradictory ways of describing them;
0673 {\textbullet} Boring, and therefore obligated to constantly make demands on players{\textquoteright} attention;
0674 {\textbullet} Anachronistic, or built on age-old tropes and forms of play while ironically bound to the most advanced technologies;
0675 {\textbullet} Duplicitous, or dependent on truth-telling rhetoric even when they are about fictions, fantasies, or lies;
0676 {\textbullet} Work, or are often better understood as labor rather than play;
0677 {\textbullet} Alchemical, despite seeming all-too mechanical or predictable
0678 In its assessments, Gaming Matters neither flatters game enthusiasts nor emboldens the medium{\textquoteright}s detractors. Instead, it provides a new set of lenses through which games can be examined, and in the process makes a significant contribution to the foundation of both computer game and new media studies.
0679 Judd Ethan Ruggill (Arizona State University) and Ken S. McAllister (University of Arizona) co-direct the Learning Games Initiative (LGI), a transdisciplinary, inter-institutional research group that studies, teaches with, and builds computer games. They also curate one of the world{\textquoteright}s largest research-oriented computer game archives, and have written and lectured extensively on the necessity of interdisciplinary collaboration, the politics of digital media, and the importance of play in scholarship.},
0680         isbn = {ISBN-10: 0817317376 },
0681         issn = {ISBN-10: 0817317376},
0682         url = {http://www.uapress.ua.edu/product/Gaming-Matters,5078.aspx},
0683         author = {Judd Ethan Ruggill and Ken S. McAllister}
0684 }
0685 @article {4545,
0686         title = {How Games Support Associational Life: Using Tocqueville to Understand the Connection},
0687         journal = {Games and Culture},
0688         volume = {6},
0689         year = {2011},
0690         pages = {354-372},
0691         abstract = {One of the greatest problems in contemporary social science is the decline of participation in political and civil spheres. Video games and digital worlds are promising new modes of association capable of connecting people in a way that passive forms of mass communication are unable to. This essay shows the strength of video games as a medium for associational life by turning to the thought of one of the preeminent philosophers of collective action: Alexis de Tocqueville. Although Tocqueville lived long before the advent of video games, his theory of democracy provides an excellent account of the benefits of civic associations. Among these are teaching enlightened self-interest, creating feelings of efficacy, protecting individuality, and establishing meritocratic norms. Video games are capable of providing each of these goods, making them an effective supplement, though not a replacement, to traditional associational life in an age of increasing fragmentation.},
0692         keywords = {Associations, civic culture, public sphere, Tocqueville, Video Games, virtual worlds},
0693         doi = {10.1177/1555412010391090},
0694         author = {Schulzke, Marcus}
0695 }
0696 @article {Aldred:2011wy,
0697         title = {A Man Chooses, A Slave Obeys: BioShock and the Dystopian Logic of Convergence},
0698         journal = {Games and Culture},
0699         volume = {6},
0700         number = {5},
0701         year = {2011},
0702         note = {10.1177/1555412011402674},
0703         pages = {479{\textendash}496},
0704         abstract = {For all the critical attention paid to dystopian landscapes in recent literature and film, a similar dystopian turn within gamespace has been largely overlooked. The authors contend that post-apocalyptic digital games merit the same critical examination as their literary and cinematic counterparts, arguing that such games can provide a meaningful site in which questions about the future of technology play out against the dialectic of utopian and dystopian alternatives. Specifically, this article argues that the popular console game BioShock simultaneously celebrates and interrogates utopian notions of technological progress and free will embedded within prevailing industrial and academic conceptions of convergence. The authors explore the differing, yet complementary, conceptions of utopia put forth by critical theorists and the games industry in order to examine how BioShock{\textquoteright}s ambivalence toward technology{\textendash}-and technologies and practices of media consumption in particular{\textendash}-complicates more idealistic and totalizing forecasts for the future of media convergence. Building upon Alexander Galloway{\textquoteright}s treatment of gamic action as an {\textquoteleft}{\textquoteleft}allegorithm{\textquoteright}{\textquoteright} that permits procedural exploration and mastery of dominant control protocols in the information age, the authors analyze the way in which BioShock operationalizes the {\textquoteleft}{\textquoteleft}control{\textquoteright}{\textquoteright} logic of convergence. By performing a close reading of the game{\textquoteright}s ideological content as well as its procedural strategies of transmediation, they link BioShock{\textquoteright}s ambivalence to the multifaceted, often conflicting nature of convergence discourse and practice within the digital games industry.},
0705         keywords = {BioShock FPS, convergence, dystopia, games industry, utopia},
0706         url = {http://gac.sagepub.com/content/6/5/479.abstract},
0707         author = {Aldred, Jessica and Greenspan, Brian}
0708 }
0709 @article {Lankoski01072011,
0710         title = {Player Character Engagement in Computer Games},
0711         journal = {Games and Culture},
0712         volume = {6},
0713         number = {4},
0714         year = {2011},
0715         pages = {291-311},
0716         abstract = {This article argues how players can control a player character influence interpretation and facilitate engagement within a game. Engagement with player characters can be goal-related or empathic, where goal-related engagement depends on affects elicited by goal-status evaluations whereas characters facilitate empathic engagement. The concepts of recognition, alignment, and allegiance are used to describe how engagement is structured in games. Recognition describes aspects of character interpretation. Alignment describes what kind of access players have to a character{\quotesinglbase}{\"A}{\^o}s actions, knowledge, and affects. Allegiance describes how characters elicit sympathy or antipathy through positive or negative evaluation of the character.},
0717         doi = {10.1177/1555412010391088},
0718         url = {http://gac.sagepub.com/content/6/4/291.abstract},
0719         author = {Lankoski, Petri}
0720 }
0721 @article {Barwick01072011,
0722         title = {Playing Games With Cultural Heritage: A Comparative Case Study Analysis of the Current Status of Digital Game Preservation},
0723         journal = {Games and Culture},
0724         volume = {6},
0725         number = {4},
0726         year = {2011},
0727         pages = {373-390},
0728         abstract = {Digital games are major part of popular culture. They are also an important part of the history of play and as such they deserve to take their rightful place in our cultural legacy. However, they have received little attention in the academic literature on preservation. Despite this lack of interest, some institutions have recognized the significance of preventing the loss of these valuable materials but to what extent is their longevity ensured? What is the current status of game preservation? What are the challenges facing institutions as they {\textquoteleft}{\textquoteleft}play games with cultural heritage?{\textquoteright}{\textquoteright} This article provides an overview of the current state of play and, using a comparative case study analysis, provides an insight into the issues, which lie ahead.},
0729         keywords = {case study, culture, Games, heritage, preservation},
0730         doi = {10.1177/1555412010391092},
0731         url = {http://gac.sagepub.com/content/6/4/373.abstract},
0732         author = {Barwick, Joanna and Dearnley, James and Muir, Adrienne}
0733 }
0734 @book {4627,
0735         title = {Triadic Game Design: Balancing Reality, Meaning and Play},
0736         year = {2011},
0737         publisher = {Springer},
0738         organization = {Springer},
0739         address = {London},
0740         abstract = {Many designers, policy makers, teachers, and other practitioners are beginning to understand the usefulness of using digital games beyond entertainment. This has led to an increasing number of attempts to apply games meaningfully. Games have been developed from teaching students about history, making patients adhere in taking their medicine, to recruiting personnel for the military and collecting data to improve search engines. Yet, little is known on how to design such games. This book is one of the first to look into the fundamentals of designing any game with a serious purpose and provides a way of thinking on how to design one successfully.
0742 Drawing on the personal design experience of the author as well as dozens of examples, the reader will be introduced to a design philosophy called {\textquotedblleft}Triadic Game Design.{\textquotedblright} This argues that all games involve three worlds: the worlds of Reality, Meaning, and Play. Each world is affiliated with different people, disciplines, aspects, and criteria. The philosophy also posits that a balance needs to be found within and between the three worlds. Such a balance is difficult to achieve, during the design many tensions will arise, forcing designers to make trade-offs. To deal with these tensions and to ensure that the right decisions are made to create a harmonic game, a frame of reference is needed. This is what Triadic Game Design offers. And this is what makes it an invaluable tool for practitioners and researchers who are interested in using and designing games that have a real world impact.},
0743         keywords = {educational games, game design, pedagogy, serious games, simulation and modeling},
0744         isbn = {978-1849961561},
0745         issn = {1849961565},
0746         url = {http://triadicgamedesign.com},
0747         author = {Harteveld, Casper}
0748 }
0749 @article {4548,
0750         title = {Unpacking Time Online: Connecting Internet and Massively Multiplayer Online Game Use With Psychosocial Well-Being},
0751         journal = {Communication Research},
0752         year = {2011},
0753         abstract = {By unpacking different forms of Internet and MMO use, the present study adopts a nuanced approach to examine the connections between online activities and psychosocial well-being. It combined self-reported survey data with unobtrusive behavioral data from server logs of a large virtual world, EverQuest II. Over 5,000 players were surveyed about how they use the Internet, their specific activities in the virtual world, and their psychosocial well-being. In-game communication networks were also constructed and analyzed. The results showed support for both time displacement and social augmentation effects for various activities. Whether Internet and MMO use were associated with negative or positive outcomes was largely dependent on the purposes, contexts and individual characteristics of users. The results suggest that Internet use and game play have significant nuances and should not be considered as monolithic sources of effects.},
0754         url = {http://www.vwobservatory.com/wp/?p=62},
0755         author = {Shen, C. and Williams, Dmitri}
0756 }
0757 @article {Ashton01082011,
0758         title = {Upgrading the self: Technology and the self in the digital games perpetual innovation economy},
0759         journal = {Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies},
0760         volume = {17},
0761         number = {3},
0762         year = {2011},
0763         pages = {307-321},
0764         abstract = {This article explores the upgrade and perpetual innovation economy of digital gaming as it informs understandings and practices of the {\textquoteleft}self{\textquoteright}. Upgrade is situated in terms of digital gaming as a globalized techno-cultural industry. Drawing on accounts of governmentality and cultural work, research with digital games design students is drawn on to explore the overlapping twin logics of technological upgrade and work-on-the-self. The games industry-focused higher education context is examined as an environment for becoming a games designer and involving processes of upgrading the self. Having examined processes and practices of upgrading the self in terms of technological skills and personal development/enterprise, the article turns to some of the critical issues around anxiety, industry conventions and working practices.},
0765         keywords = {Digital Gaming, governmentality, perpetual innovation, the self, upgrade culture},
0766         doi = {10.1177/1354856511405758},
0767         url = {http://con.sagepub.com/content/17/3/307.abstract},
0768         author = {Ashton, Daniel}
0769 }
0770 @article {Rosenthal01062011,
0771         title = {Video Gaming in Children Improves Performance on a Virtual Reality Trainer but Does Not yet Make a Laparoscopic Surgeon},
0772         journal = {Surgical Innovation},
0773         volume = {18},
0774         number = {2},
0775         year = {2011},
0776         pages = {160-170},
0777         abstract = {Background: In children, video game experience improves spatial performance, a predictor of surgical performance. This study aims at comparing laparoscopic virtual reality (VR) task performance of children with different levels of experience in video games and residents. Participants and methods: A total of 32 children (8.4 to 12.1 years), 20 residents, and 14 board-certified surgeons (total n = 66) performed several VR and 2 conventional tasks (cube/spatial and pegboard/fine motor). Performance between the groups was compared (primary outcome). VR performance was correlated with conventional task performance (secondary outcome). Results: Lowest VR performance was found in children with low video game experience, followed by those with high video game experience, residents, and board-certified surgeons. VR performance correlated well with the spatial test and moderately with the fine motor test. Conclusions: The use of computer games can be considered not only as pure entertainment but may also contribute to the development of skills relevant for adequate performance in VR laparoscopic tasks. Spatial skills are relevant for VR laparoscopic task performance.},
0778         keywords = {business of surgery, simulation, surgical education},
0779         doi = {10.1177/1553350610392064},
0780         url = {http://sri.sagepub.com/content/18/2/160.abstract},
0781         author = {Rosenthal, Rachel and Geuss, Steffen and Dell-Kuster, Salome and Sch{\"a}fer, Juliane and Hahnloser, Dieter and Demartines, Nicolas}
0782 }
0783 @proceedings {4527,
0784         title = {A preliminary experiment to assess the fear value of preselected sound parameters in a survival horror game},
0785         journal = {Audio Mostly},
0786         year = {2010},
0787         month = {September 14},
0788         publisher = {ACM},
0789         address = {Pite{\r a}, Sweden},
0790         abstract = {This paper presents an experiment testing which sound parameters, in a survival horror game context, most warrant further investigation as a means to control the level of fear in such games. The experiment is part of a long-term study ultimately designed to support the development of a biofeedback procedural audio engine for computer games. By this means, it is hoped to provide an enhanced gaming experience whereby sound synthesis and audio processing is conducted in real-time according to the player{\textquoteright}s affect responses and emotional state. Results indicate that coarse manipulation of audio parameters has the potential to influence the intensity of the player{\textquoteright}s fear response whilst playing a survival horror game. Evidence is also presented that supports the integration of event logging and realtime participant vocal response into an experimental design to gather unbiased, quantitative data that can be associated with qualitative emotional response.},
0791         keywords = {audio, fear, sound},
0792         isbn = {978-1-4503-0046-9},
0793         doi = {10.1145/1859799.1859809},
0794         url = {http://digitalcommons.bolton.ac.uk/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1013\&context=gcct_conferencepr},
0795         author = {Tom Garner and Grimshaw, Mark and Debbie Abdel Nabi}
0796 }
0797 @article {4518,
0798         title = {{\textquoteright}Click on the Big Red Car{\textquoteright}},
0799         journal = {Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies},
0800         volume = {16},
0801         number = {4},
0802         year = {2010},
0803         month = {November 1, 2010},
0804         pages = {375-394},
0805         abstract = {The playing of computer games in the home is ubiquitous in contemporary life. Research that examines young children{\textquoteright}s computer use confirms that playing computer games is a dominant form of activity. While computer game playing has important social effects for children, how children accomplish their social activity during computer use is very much taken for granted in the game-playing literature. This article addresses young children{\textquoteright}s computer game playing through a detailed analysis of two children{\textquoteright}s interaction while playing a Wiggles game in their home. Conversation analysis is employed to describe and explicate the social accomplishment of playing the game through a sequential analysis of data. Discussion considers the local organization of the game, its occasioned complexity, and the management of identity-related activities during game playing. The study provides a description of the ways that social interaction accomplishes the children{\textquoteright}s game playing.},
0806         keywords = {computer use, Game playing, young children},
0807         author = {Davidson, Christina}
0808 }
0809 @article {4519,
0810         title = {De-inter-facement: 0100101110101101.org{\textquoteright}s Portraits of {\textquoteleft}Second Life{\textquoteright} Avatars},
0811         journal = {Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies},
0812         volume = {16},
0813         number = {4},
0814         year = {2010},
0815         month = {November 1, 2010},
0816         pages = {395-410},
0817         abstract = {Since 2006, the art duo 0100101110101101.org, aka Eva and Franco Mattes, have produced a number of {\textquoteleft}portraits{\textquoteright} of Second Life avatars. Collectively referred to as Portraits on the Mattes{\textquoteright}s website, they are grouped into a series of exhibitions which have been shown in New York, Italy and Switzerland, as well as within Second Life itself. Critical reception has been mixed, with some critics appreciating the images as critiques of real-world conventions of beauty, while others have found them bland and banal. The artists, however, have stated that the Portraits series is their most radical work to date. With such wide variance in critical reception and artistic {\textquoteleft}intention{\textquoteright}, it is worth asking a few questions: What is the significance of exhibiting portraits of Second Life avatars? What does it mean to re-present what is already a representation {\textemdash} and what is in fact being represented? And, given that the Portraits are predominantly close-ups of faces, and also that they are brought to us via a whole series of digital interfaces, what role do the face and the interface play in the production and understanding of these images?},
0818         keywords = {0100101110101101.org, faces, faciality, portraiture, Second Life, Taussig},
0819         url = {http://con.sagepub.com/content/16/4/395.abstract},
0820         author = {Cooke, Grayson}
0821 }
0822 @article {4402,
0823         title = {Computer Games and Sociocultural Play: An Activity Theoretical Perspective},
0824         journal = {Games and Culture},
0825         volume = {5},
0826         year = {2010},
0827         month = {May 7, 2010},
0828         pages = {335-353},
0829         abstract = {Various forms of play emerge around computer games. These types of play, known as out-of-game play or extrinsic play, take place beyond the original game context. Despite their significant contribution to the overall play experience, they are often neglected by the game research community. Conventional game theories such as ludology and narratology do not provide an insightful account of the sociocultural aspects of game play. Therefore, in this article, we report our observations and investigations into different forms of extrinsic play activities in an online virtual setting. Founded on activity theory, we articulate theoretical models that explicate game play in a sociocultural context. Our findings reveal that extrinsic play constitutes reflective play and expansive play, which transform the play activity and transport the players beyond the original boundary of play.},
0830         author = {Ang, Chee Siang and Zaphiris, Panayiotis and Wilson, Stephanie}
0831 }
0832 @article {4401,
0833         title = {Cybersexuality in MMORPGs: Virtual Sexual Revolution Untapped},
0834         journal = {Men and Masculinities},
0835         year = {2010},
0836         month = {May 7, 2010},
0837         pages = {1097184X10363256},
0838         abstract = {This study explores the mechanics and perceptions of cybersex interactions in massively multiplayer online role playing games (MMORPGs) and examines the potential for cybersex in gaming to revolutionize sexuality politics. Drawing on ethnographic and in-depth interview data with fifty MMORPG players, the author examines how cybersex interactions are performed, the context in which they are allowed, and the assessments players make about the utility of cybersex. The author suggests that cybersex has yet to embrace a broader spectrum of sexuality even in strictly virtual interactions.},
0839         author = {Valkyrie, Zek Cypress}
0840 }
0841 @article {4404,
0842         title = {Digital Games and Escapism},
0843         journal = {Games and Culture},
0844         volume = {5},
0845         year = {2010},
0846         month = {May 7, 2010},
0847         pages = {354-380},
0848         abstract = {Digital games are often viewed as being inherently escapist on two counts. First, they are the shining proponents of cutting edge virtuality, embodying the alluring unreality of something erroneously conceived of existing on the other side of a screen. A second reason for associating games with escapism relates to a common perception of play and games as opposite of seriousness and work and somehow set apart from the ordinary, everyday life. The paper discusses the nature of escapism and relates it to the above theoretical issues which contribute to a view of digital games as inherently escapist. The paper proposes a renewed view on digital games and escapism that takes into account their distinctive qualities and their role in everyday life.},
0849         author = {Calleja, Gordon}
0850 }
0851 @article {4409,
0852         title = {Lost on a Desert Island: The Sims 2 Castaway as Convergence Text},
0853         journal = {Games and Culture},
0854         year = {2010},
0855         month = {May 7, 2010},
0856         abstract = {This article looks at a genre of games that most frequently appears on the Nintendo DS and discusses how they use multiple techniques drawn from several different sources to gain popularity. The desert island simulation blends a series of familiar game genres with those of popular television, specifically serial television, to produce a genre that deliberately appeals to non-traditional users{\textquoteright}{\textquoteright} (although this definition relies more on preconceptions than actuality, as games continue to develop in scope). This article examines the techniques that these games use, including the shrewd marketing tools of the DS, the ways in which the games borrow from existing games genres, how they draw the player into a narrative web through a reconstruction of player agency, and the linkage with serial television. By specifically examining The Sims 2 Castaway (S2C, 2007), this article discusses how the changing of ludic objectives during these games influences player expectation and how this is increasingly reflected in other texts such as long-haul television series. These developments indicate not only an evolving canon within games but argue for their growing influence elsewhere in cultural production.},
0857         url = {http://gac.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/1555412010361953v1},
0858         author = {MacCallum-Stewart, Esther}
0859 }
0860 @article {4403,
0861         title = {Player, Student, Designer: Games Design Students and Changing Relationships With Games},
0862         journal = {Games and Culture},
0863         year = {2010},
0864         month = {May 7, 2010},
0865         abstract = {Drawing on empirical research conducted with U.K. games design students, games design course tutors, and professional designers alongside broader careers advice and guidance from industry representatives, this article will explore the changing relationships games design students describe with digital games and games technologies. Opening with accounts of their childhood pastimes and passions, the discussion will move to consider closely students{\textquoteright} development within a higher education context and the associated, emerging shifts in their engagements with games technologies. Through exploring the transition from hobby to career and the overlapping player/student/designer positions, questions concerning human and technological interactions, identity, and wider career and skills contexts are highlighted. In drawing out such questions and issues, this article will seek to outline how exploring the practices and understandings of students prompts reflection on both located and specific and more broadly applicable engagements between digital games technologies, industry, and individuals.},
0866         author = {Ashton, Daniel}
0867 }
0868 @article {4413,
0869         title = {Trusting the Avatar},
0870         journal = {Games and Culture},
0871         year = {2010},
0872         month = {May 7, 2010},
0873         abstract = {Playing online entails far more than dragon-slaying, identity experimentation, communication, and elaborate synchronized aggression. Letting other players affect your experience means placing yourself--if ever so slightly--at their mercy. In other words, you need to trust them, evoking a concept that has divided philosophers for millennia. This article describes how trust is an important factor in multiplayer gaming, how it can be approached theoretically, and how it may be favorably affected by game design.},
0874         url = {http://gac.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/1555412009359764v1},
0875         author = {Smith, Jonas Heide}
0876 }
0877 @article {4412,
0878         title = {What Is Video Game Culture? Cultural Studies and Game Studies},
0879         journal = {Games and Culture},
0880         volume = {5},
0881         year = {2010},
0882         month = {May 7, 2010},
0883         pages = {403-424},
0884         abstract = {What is video game culture, however? What does it mean to have a culture defined by the consumption of a particular medium? Moreover, what are the implications of defining this culture in a particular way? While there has been a great deal of ink split on video game culture, the actual definition of the term is often treated as common sense. Unpacking the discourses surrounding "video game culture"" allows us to see the power dynamics involved in attributing certain characteristics to it, as well as naming it "video game culture"" as such. This has implications for how video games are studied and is connected with how culture is studied more broadly. By critically examining how video game culture has been defined in both press and academic articles, this paper illuminates how this definition has limited the study of video games and where it can move.},
0885         url = {http://gac.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/1555412009360414v1},
0886         author = {Shaw, Adrienne}
0887 }
0888 @article {4414,
0889         title = {When the Game Is Not Enough: Motivations and Practices Among Computer Game Modding Culture},
0890         journal = {Games and Culture},
0891         year = {2010},
0892         month = {May 7, 2010},
0893         abstract = {The actual meanings computer game modders attach to their actions and practices remain heavily underresearched. This article takes a look at the attitudes and everyday practices of the people who make game modifications, with special focus on the forms and consequences of collaboration between hobbyists. The case discussed in the article is the shooter-game Operation Flashpoint (OFP) and the modding scene around it. The article proposes that there is no such thing as an average computer game modder. It is suggested that the distinctions can be drawn based on the objective of projects (missions, add-ons, mods), modder motivations (playing, hacking, researching, self-expression, cooperation), and notions on the ownership and potential commercialization of their work. Given the forecasts concerning the growing significance of player-made content, this study can offer some down-to-earth findings from the long established tradition of game modding.},
0894         url = {http://gac.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/1555412009359765v1},
0895         author = {Sotamaa,Olli}
0896 }
0897 @article {4405,
0898         title = {Where Is My Montage? The Performance of Hard Work and Its Reward in Film, Television, and MMOGs},
0899         journal = {Games and Culture},
0900         volume = {5},
0901         year = {2010},
0902         month = {May 7, 2010},
0903         pages = {381-402},
0904         abstract = {Every massively multiplayer online game (MMOG) begins new players at Level 1. The player must grind his or her way through many early levels to reach any kind of decent reward for the hours invested. Compared to films going back to Rocky and television shows such as Crime Scene Investigation (CSI), there is no montage to fast-forward through the work involved in reaching the game{\textquoteright}s reward. What is it about online games or the player that makes such work so compelling? Why would hard work, something that is often avoided in the daily grind of an 8-5 job, be forced upon the videogame player--often to his or her delight? To address these questions, we use Ian Bogost{\textquoteright}s concept of unit operations to evaluate the concept that "hard work is rewarded" as it relates to various media, including films and videogames, and to analyze the historical and theoretical implications of the concept.},
0905         url = {http://gac.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/1555412009360413v2},
0906         author = {Consalvo,Mia and Timothy Dodd Alley and Nathan Dutton and Matthew Falk and Howard Fisher and Todd Harper and Adam Yulish}
0907 }
0908 @article {4411,
0909         title = {Discursively Constructing the Art of Silent Hill},
0910         journal = {Games and Culture},
0911         year = {2010},
0912         month = {May 18, 2010},
0913         abstract = {This article explores the construction of Silent Hill--Konami{\textquoteright}s survival horror video game series--as art. Adopting a discursive approach to the notion of "art," the extent to which traditional formations of cultural value are mobilized is explored across three aspects of the series{\textquoteright} first four installments. The Silent Hill game texts are examined as evoking formal devices of art cinema, including realism, ambiguity, psychological complexity, and self-reflexivity. Next the games{\textquoteright} advertising is considered as emphasizing these qualities, privileging narrative over ludic gaming aspects. Finally the games{\textquoteright} representation in the documentary "The Making of Silent Hill 2" is discussed as positioning the series within frameworks of artistry and authorship.},
0914         url = {http://gac.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/1555412010364976v1},
0915         author = {Kirkland, Ewan}
0916 }
0917 @article {4395,
0918         title = {Designing Wonder: Complexity Made Simple or the Wii-Mote{\textquoteright}s Galilean Edge},
0919         journal = {Television New Media},
0920         volume = {11},
0921         number = {3},
0922         year = {2010},
0923         month = {May 1, 2010},
0924         pages = {197-219},
0925         abstract = {This article considers the Nintendo Wii console{\textquoteright}s negotiation of tensions accruing in contemporary developments around "nice work,""affective labor," and "hyperindustrialism." Learning and play have long been considered to "begin in wonder." Observing that appliances made for us to "enjoy labor," as one adversary in a recent Nintendo Wii title puts it, have a history, I show that hyperindustrial recreational appliances like the Wii design wonder for learning and play by deploying gestural-technical stylistics first prototyped in human-computer interaction design research. I apply ten stylistics of gestural interaction design to the Wii in order to articulate its differences from other interactive educational, recreational, and health devices. I conclude that the Wii increases bandwidth for player action with two distinct effects. First, it orients "wonder" as gestural-technical conduct, making an ethical claim to differentiate contemporary play and work, while, second, projecting an unprogrammed "signature effect" extended in a range of modifications by researchers and amateurs alike.},
0926         keywords = {Affect, gaming, Gesture, interaction design, labor, PLAY, stylistics, wii},
0927         author = {Tobias, James}
0928 }
0929 @article {4396,
0930         title = {Wii Will Become Silhouettes},
0931         journal = {Television New Media},
0932         volume = {11},
0933         number = {3},
0934         year = {2010},
0935         month = {May 1, 2010},
0936         pages = {220-230},
0937         abstract = {The Nintendo Wii functions as an imploded identity stage, where the player interacts with the screen, the wand, and with the other players as a kind of virtual puppet for the self. This differentiates Wii games from other videogames in that the moving, acting body becomes the center of the play, where four modes of production define the parameters and norms of play: technique, discipline, improvisation, and defiance. The player acts with and through these four modes in order to view themselves as a more enhanced part of the game and the screen. Thus, the body becomes the central site of game play, instead of the avatar, the gamespace, or the gaze of the player on both.},
0938         keywords = {Performance, technique, the body, videogames, wii},
0939         author = {Burrill, Derek A.}
0940 }
0941 @article {4457,
0942         title = {Balancing Play, Meaning and Reality: The Design Philosophy of LEVEE PATROLLER},
0943         journal = {Simulation \& Gaming},
0944         volume = {41},
0945         year = {2010},
0946         month = {June 1, 2010;},
0947         pages = {316-340},
0948         abstract = {Most serious games have been developed without a proper and comprehensive design theory. To contribute to the development of such a theory, this article presents the underlying design philosophy of LEVEE PATROLLER, a game to train levee patrollers in the Netherlands. This philosophy stipulates that the design of a digital serious game is a multiobjective problem in which trade-offs need to be made. Making these trade-offs takes place in a design space defined by three equally important components: (a) Play, (b) Meaning, and (c) Reality. The various tensions between these three components result in design dilemmas and trilemmas that make it difficult to balance a serious game. Each type of tension is illustrated with one or more examples from the design of LEVEE PATROLLER. ~},
0949         url = {http://sag.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/41/3/316},
0950         author = {Harteveld, Casper and Guimar{\~a}es, Rui and Mayer, Igor S. and Bidarra, Rafael}
0951 }
0952 @article {4460,
0953         title = {Debriefing a Health-Related Educational Game: A Case Study},
0954         journal = {Simulation \& Gaming},
0955         volume = {41},
0956         year = {2010},
0957         month = {June 1, 2010;},
0958         pages = {390-399},
0959         abstract = {This study sought to evaluate the utility of a Web-based game on the topic of immunity, based upon the work of Nobel Prize winner Ileya Mechnikov. This was accomplished through postgame written debriefing with an oral debriefing follow-up. A qualitative case study was conducted in a nonformal home setting. The participant learned new information, such as the capability of cells to alert the body to foreign pathogenic attack. Game dissatisfaction was described by the participant as well as suggestions for game improvement. The written debriefing response was generally briefer than the oral debriefing responses. While the participant gleaned information about immunity from the game without facilitator assistance, postgame debriefings aided the participant in reflection about the game. This was the first study to utilize a combination of postgame written and oral debriefing in the Nobel Prize Web-based game genre. It illustrates the value of postgame debriefing as an enhancement of the learning experience related to the health-related educational game. ~},
0960         url = {http://sag.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/41/3/390},
0961         author = {Lennon, Jeffrey L.}
0962 }
0963 @article {4456,
0964         title = {Incorporating Customer Lifetime Value Into Marketing Simulation Games},
0965         journal = {Simulation \& Gaming},
0966         volume = {41},
0967         year = {2010},
0968         month = {June 1, 2010;},
0969         pages = {341-359},
0970         abstract = {Notwithstanding the emerging prominence of customer lifetime value (CLV) and customer equity (CE) in the marketing literature during the past decade, virtually nothing has been done to address these concepts in the literature on simulation and gaming. This article addresses the failing, discussing the nature of CLV and CE and demonstrating how they might be incorporated into marketing simulations. ~},
0971         url = {http://sag.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/41/3/341},
0972         author = {Cannon, Hugh M. and Cannon, James N. and Schwaiger, Manfred}
0973 }
0974 @article {4458,
0975         title = {Using Gaming Literacies to Cultivate New Literacies},
0976         journal = {Simulation \& Gaming},
0977         volume = {41},
0978         year = {2010},
0979         month = {June 1, 2010;},
0980         pages = {400-417},
0981         abstract = {The use of games in educational contexts has recently received growing attention; however, many teachers struggle with finding a right context to adopt games in the classroom. To strengthen teachers{\textquoteright} beliefs about the educational value of games, this article explains the similarities and differences between new literacies and gaming literacy and defines gaming literacy from the {\textquotedblleft}play{\textquotedblright} and {\textquotedblleft}design{\textquotedblright} perspectives. This article presents examples of game use that will help teachers cultivate learners{\textquoteright} new literacies through gaming, understand how the game debriefing process can help scaffold students{\textquoteright} learning, and identify factors affecting the adoption of games in educational contexts. The audience for this article includes teachers and teacher educators who would like greater clarification regarding gaming literacy and its positive effects on the learning and development of new literacies. ~},
0982         url = {http://sag.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/41/3/400},
0983         author = {Hsu, Hui-Yin and Wang, Shiang-Kwei}
0984 }
0985 @article {4459,
0986         title = {Video Game-Based Methodology for Business Research},
0987         journal = {Simulation \& Gaming},
0988         volume = {41},
0989         year = {2010},
0990         month = {June 1, 2010;},
0991         pages = {360-373},
0992         abstract = {Experimental research in business and economics has exploded in recent years in both laboratory and field settings. The generality of findings from field experiments is limited by the specificity of the experimental environment. Laboratory studies, on the other hand, are criticized for being devoid of the contextual cues that may indicate to decision makers the nature of the problem and, thus, the appropriate approaches to problem solving. Virtual experiments provide a hybrid of strengths from each of these two experimental protocols that may overcome some of the limitations of each. Using a modified, commercial, adventure game with an appended Sequel database, this research reprises a well-known study of risk aversion within a virtual context. The results indicate that very similar overall measures of risk aversion can be obtained within an adventure game context. Furthermore, it shows that experimentation within this virtual environment permits outcomes to be recorded and analyzed regarding decision consistency, decision revisions, and psychological/behavioral variables that have not been available using either traditional lab or field research methods. As such, this study contributes both to the literature on behavioral business research methodology in general and to the literature on risk aversion in particular. ~},
0993         url = {http://sag.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/41/3/360},
0994         author = {Lawson, Larry L. and Lawson, Catherine L.}
0995 }
0996 @article {4338,
0997         title = {Co-Creating Games: A Co-evolutionary Analysis},
0998         journal = {New Media Society},
0999         year = {2010},
1000         month = {January 28, 2010},
1001         pages = {1-18},
1002         chapter = {1},
1003         abstract = {The phenomenon of consumer co-creation is often framed in terms of whether either economic market forces or socio-cultural non-market forces ultimately dominate. We propose an alternate model of consumer co-creation in terms of co-evolution between markets and non-markets. Our model is based on a recent ethnographic study of a massively multiplayer online game through its development, release and ultimate failure, and is cast in terms of two explanatory models: multiple games and social network markets. We conclude that consumer co-creation is indeed complex, but in ways that relate to both emergent market expectations and the evolution of markets, not to the transcendence of markets.},
1004         url = {http://nms.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/1461444809343563v1},
1005         author = {Banks,John and Potts, Jason}
1006 }
1007 @article {4322,
1008         title = {{\textquoteright}{\textquoteright}Blacks Deserve Bodies Too!{\textquoteright}{\textquoteright}: Design and Discussion About Diversity and Race in a Tween Virtual World},
1009         journal = {Games and Culture},
1010         volume = {5},
1011         number = {1},
1012         year = {2010},
1013         month = {January 1, 2010},
1014         pages = {43-63},
1015         abstract = {In this paper, we investigate racial diversity in avatar design and public discussions about race within a large-scale tween virtual world called Whyville.net, with more than 1.5 million registered players of ages 8--16. One unique feature of Whyville is the player{\textquoteright}s ability to customize their avatars with various face parts and accessories, all designed and sold by other players in Whyville. Our findings report on the racial diversity of available resources for avatar construction and online postings about the role of race in avatar design and social interactions in the community. With the growing interest in player-generated content for online worlds such as Teen Second Life, our discussion addresses the role of avatars in teen/tween identity development and self-representation, and the role of virtual entrepreneurs and community activists in increasing the diversity of avatar parts available.},
1016         url = {http://gac.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/1/43},
1017         author = {Kafai, Yasmin B. and Cook, Melissa S. and Fields, Deborah A.}
1018 }
1019 @article {4324,
1020         title = {Investigating the {\textquoteright}{\textquoteright}Why{\textquoteright}{\textquoteright} in Whypox: Casual and Systematic Explorations of a Virtual Epidemic},
1021         journal = {Games and Culture},
1022         volume = {5},
1023         number = {1},
1024         year = {2010},
1025         month = {January 1, 2010},
1026         pages = {116-135},
1027         abstract = {Learning scientists have created and used virtual worlds to support players{\textquoteright} historical, scientific, and ecological inquiries. Much less explored has been the impact of community events on players{\textquoteright} investigations in virtual worlds. The authors present here the case of a community event Whypox, a virtual epidemic whose annual outbreak in Whyville affects players{\textquoteright} communication and appearance. The authors analyze the different levels of participation ranging from casual to systematic in which players searched out more information about the Whypox, participated in online discussions about its causes and investigated different scenarios with simulations. The discussion examines ethical concerns, the contributions of our findings for the design of such community events, and educational resources in virtual worlds to support informal learning.},
1028         url = {http://gac.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/1/116},
1029         author = {Kafai, Yasmin B. and Quintero, Maria and Feldon, David}
1030 }
1031 @article {4320,
1032         title = {Knowing and Throwing Mudballs, Hearts, Pies, and Flowers: A Connective Ethnography of Gaming Practices},
1033         journal = {Games and Culture},
1034         volume = {5},
1035         number = {1},
1036         year = {2010},
1037         month = {January 1, 2010},
1038         pages = {88-115},
1039         abstract = {Little is known concerning how young players learn to participate in various activities in virtual worlds. We use a new integrative approach called connective ethnography that focuses on how a gaming practice spread across a network of youth at an after school club that simultaneously participated in a virtual world, Whyville.net. To trace youth participation in online and offline social contexts, we draw on multiple sources of information: observations, interviews, videos, online tracking and chat data, and hundreds of hours of play in Whyville ourselves. One gaming practice -- the throwing of projectiles and its social uses and nuances -- became the focal point of our analyses. The discussions address the methodological challenges underlying the synthesis of diverse types of data that allowed us to follow youth across multiple spaces as well as initial insights into how this practice was used to negotiate relationships in multiple spaces through play.},
1040         url = {http://gac.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/1/88},
1041         author = {Fields, Deborah A. and Kafai, Yasmin B.}
1042 }
1043 @article {4319,
1044         title = {{\textquoteright}{\textquoteright}Stealing From Grandma{\textquoteright}{\textquoteright} or Generating Cultural Knowledge?: Contestations and Effects of Cheating in a Tween Virtual World},
1045         journal = {Games and Culture},
1046         volume = {5},
1047         number = {1},
1048         year = {2010},
1049         month = {January 1, 2010},
1050         pages = {64-87},
1051         abstract = {Much research has described the various practices needed of gaining access and participation in multi-user game communities. Cheat sites are a continuation of game communities where players engage in knowledge building about game related challenges. In this paper we analyze the cheat sites created by players for a tween virtual world called Whyville.net, which encourages youth to participate in a range of social activities and play casual science games. Through analysis we created typologies for both the cheats and sites related to science content. Further, a case study of an exemplary cheat site elaborates on how some player-generated sites work to build knowledge of Whyville. Finally, investigation of over a hundred player-written articles illuminates how Whyvillians contest different practices of cheating and how cheating affects the virtual world. Implications of these findings as cultural artifacts of the game community and as guides for designing informal online learning activities are discussed.},
1052         url = {http://gac.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/1/64},
1053         author = {Fields, Deborah A. and Kafai, Yasmin B.}
1054 }
1055 @article {4321,
1056         title = {World of Whyville: An Introduction to Tween Virtual Life},
1057         journal = {Games and Culture},
1058         volume = {5},
1059         number = {1},
1060         year = {2010},
1061         month = {January 1, 2010},
1062         pages = {3-22},
1063         abstract = {Virtual worlds have become the new playground for millions of tweens but we know little what it takes to become a player in a virtual community. This paper focuses on one virtual world, called Whyville.net, which at the time of our study hosted over 1.2 million players ages 8 to16 years, with the average player 12.3 years old. Girls represent over 68\% of all players. A guided tour to the various places in Whyville, the different types of science games, and the range of players{\textquoteright} activities provides insights into what players talk about, with whom they socialize, what they like to play, and how they engage in investigations. In 2005, a group of researchers set out to study Whyville by recruiting hundreds of participants online and offline in classrooms and after school clubs and by conducting observations, surveys, and interviews about their online activities. In addition, we collected log files that captured their online movements and chat interaction during a six month period. We discuss ethical issues of conducting research as adults in tween virtual communities and limitations of capturing the complexities of interactions simultaneously in online and offline spaces. The paper concludes with an overview of following papers in the special issue that cover players{\textquoteright} avatar designs, representation of race, cheating practices, learning how to throw virtual mudballs, and participation in virtual epidemic.},
1064         url = {http://gac.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/1/3},
1065         author = {Kafai, Yasmin B.}
1066 }
1067 @article {4323,
1068         title = {Your Second Selves: Player-Designed Avatars},
1069         journal = {Games and Culture},
1070         volume = {5},
1071         number = {1},
1072         year = {2010},
1073         month = {January 1, 2010},
1074         pages = {23-42},
1075         abstract = {Avatars in online games and worlds are seen as players{\textquoteright} key representations in interactions with each other. In this article, we investigate the avatar design and identity play within a large-scale tween virtual world called Whyville.net, with more than 1.5 million registered players of ages 8--16. One unique feature of Whyville is the players{\textquoteright} ability to customize their avatars with various face parts and accessories, all designed and sold by other players in Whyville. Our findings report on the expressive resources available for avatar construction, individual tween players{\textquoteright} choices and rationales in creating their avatars, and online postings about avatar design in the community at large. With the growing interest in player-generated content for online worlds such as Second Life, our discussion will address the role of avatars in identity play and self-representation as well as the social issues that arise within the game world.},
1076         url = {http://gac.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/1/23},
1077         author = {Kafai, Yasmin B. and Fields, Deborah A. and Cook, Melissa S.}
1078 }
1079 @article {4166,
1080         title = {The Influence of Violent and Nonviolent Computer Games on Implicit Measures of Aggressiveness},
1081         journal = {Aggressive Behavior},
1082         volume = {36},
1083         number = {1},
1084         year = {2010},
1085         note = {532EOTimes Cited:0Cited References Count:75},
1086         month = {Jan-Feb},
1087         pages = {1-13},
1088         abstract = {We examined the causal relationship between playing violent video games and increases in aggressiveness by using implicit measures of aggressiveness, which have become important for accurately predicting impulsive behavioral tendencies. Ninety-six adults were randomly assigned to play one of three versions of a computer game that differed only with regard to game content (violent, peaceful, or abstract game), or to work on a reading task. In the games the environmental context, mouse gestures, and physiological arousal-as indicated by heart rate and skin conductance-were kept constant. In the violent game soldiers had to be shot, in the peaceful game sunflowers had to be watered, and the abstract game simply required clicking colored triangles. Five minutes of play did not alter trait aggressiveness, yet an Implicit Association Test detected a change in implicit aggressive self-concept. Playing a violent game produced a significant increase in implicit aggressive self-concept relative to playing a peaceful game. The well-controlled study closes a gap in the research on the causality of the link between violence exposure in computer games and aggressiveness with specific regard to implicit measures. We discuss the significance of importing recent social-cognitive theory into aggression research and stress the need for further development of aggression-related implicit measures.},
1089         keywords = {Aggression, aggressiveness, Association Test, attitude measures, dysfunctional impulsivity, eating behavior, Heart-Rate, implicit association test, implicit self-concept, Individual-Differences, Media Violence, Self-regulation, single-target implicit association test, social cognition research, Video Games},
1090         isbn = {0096-140X},
1091         url = {<Go to ISI>://000272728400001},
1092         author = {Bluemke, M. and Friedrich, M. and Zumbach, J.}
1093 }
1094 @article {4327,
1095         title = {Computerized Games and Simulations in Computer-Assisted Language Learning: A Meta-Analysis of Research},
1096         journal = {Simulation Gaming},
1097         volume = {41},
1098         number = {1},
1099         year = {2010},
1100         month = {February 1, 2010},
1101         pages = {72-93},
1102         abstract = {This article explores research on the use of computerized games and simulations in language education. The author examined the psycholinguistic and sociocultural constructs proposed as a basis for the use of games and simulations in computer-assisted language learning. Research in this area is expanding rapidly. However, to date, few studies have critically investigated this body of work. The author reviewed key findings from influential studies. The author{\textquoteright}s analysis reveals that, although these studies are subject to limitations, simulations and games present valuable opportunities for effective language learning. The contemporary literature on theories of language acquisition hypothesizes that simulations and games are beneficial methods for helping learners acquire another language. This article concludes by identifying potential areas for future research.},
1103         url = {http://sag.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/41/1/72},
1104         author = {Peterson, Mark}
1105 }
1106 @article {4334,
1107         title = {Gender, Simulation, and Gaming: Research Review and Redirections},
1108         journal = {Simulation Gaming},
1109         volume = {41},
1110         number = {1},
1111         year = {2010},
1112         month = {February 1, 2010},
1113         pages = {51-71},
1114         abstract = {This review of gender and gameplay research over the past three decades documents a set of persistent methodological repetitions that have systematically impeded its progress since the inception of this trajectory of research. The first is, in fact, a refusal to consider gender at all: Conflating gender with sex impedes possibilities to identify nonstereotypical engagements by girls and women. Second is the persistent attempt to identify sex-specific "patterns" of play and play preferences "characteristic" of girls and women mainly to support and promote these in the name of "gender equity," whether in women{\textquoteright}s involvement in the game industry as designers, in the development and marketing of "games for girls," or the access and uses of digital games for education, training, and entertainment. Third, it is found that "gender" is an issue in research studies only long enough to dismiss it as a significant variable, which in turn makes any deeper critical interrogation unproductive.},
1115         url = {http://sag.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/41/1/51},
1116         author = {Jenson,Jennifer and de Castell,Suzanne}
1117 }
1118 @article {4326,
1119         title = {Gender, Simulation, and Gaming: Research Review and Redirections},
1120         journal = {Simulation Gaming},
1121         volume = {41},
1122         number = {1},
1123         year = {2010},
1124         month = {February 1, 2010},
1125         pages = {51-71},
1126         abstract = {This review of gender and gameplay research over the past three decades documents a set of persistent methodological repetitions that have systematically impeded its progress since the inception of this trajectory of research. The first is, in fact, a refusal to consider gender at all: Conflating gender with sex impedes possibilities to identify nonstereotypical engagements by girls and women. Second is the persistent attempt to identify sex-specific "patterns" of play and play preferences "characteristic" of girls and women mainly to support and promote these in the name of "gender equity," whether in women{\textquoteright}s involvement in the game industry as designers, in the development and marketing of "games for girls," or the access and uses of digital games for education, training, and entertainment. Third, it is found that "gender" is an issue in research studies only long enough to dismiss it as a significant variable, which in turn makes any deeper critical interrogation unproductive.},
1127         url = {http://sag.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/41/1/51},
1128         author = {Jenson,Jennifer and de Castell,Suzanne}
1129 }
1130 @article {4332,
1131         title = {Intercultural Simulation Games: A Review (of the United States and Beyond)},
1132         journal = {Simulation Gaming},
1133         volume = {41},
1134         number = {1},
1135         year = {2010},
1136         month = {February 1, 2010},
1137         pages = {94-115},
1138         abstract = {Intercultural simulations are instructional activities that engage and challenge participants with experiences integral to encounters between people of more than one cultural group. Simulations designed specifically to support intercultural encounters have been in use since the 1970s. This article examines the conceptual bases for intercultural simulation games, their history, contexts in which they are being or have been used, their efficacy, and the current situation for intercultural simulation games. The article concludes with a look at future directions, which will rely on technological advances and the creative work of promising young interculturalists.},
1139         url = {http://sag.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/41/1/94},
1140         author = {Fowler, Sandra M. and Pusch, Margaret D.}
1141 }
1142 @article {4328,
1143         title = {The Long History of Gaming in Military Training},
1144         journal = {Simulation Gaming},
1145         volume = {41},
1146         number = {1},
1147         year = {2010},
1148         month = {February 1, 2010},
1149         pages = {6-19},
1150         abstract = {The dual-use of games in both military and entertainment applications has a long history. This has taken the form of sand tables, miniatures, board games, and computer games. The current tension between entertainment and military applications over games is just the return of similar concerns that have surrounded gaming tools and technologies in previous generations. Dynamic representations of the physical world are interesting and useful tools in a number of fields, to include the military, city planning, architecture, education, and entertainment. Modern computer games contain technologies and tools that allow many different communities to accomplish similar goals.},
1151         url = {http://sag.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/41/1/6},
1152         author = {Smith, Roger}
1153 }
1154 @article {4333,
1155         title = {The Philosophy and Epistemology of Simulation: A Review},
1156         journal = {Simulation Gaming},
1157         volume = {41},
1158         number = {1},
1159         year = {2010},
1160         month = {February 1, 2010},
1161         pages = {20-50},
1162         abstract = {The philosophical literature on simulations has increased dramatically during the past 40 years. Many of its main topics are epistemological. For example, philosophers consider how the results of simulations help explain natural phenomena. This essay{\textquoteright}s review treats mainly simulations in the social sciences. It considers the nature of simulations, the varieties of simulation, and uses of simulations for representation, prediction, explanation, and policy decisions. Being oriented toward philosophy of science, it compares simulations to models and experiments and considers whether simulations raise new methodological issues.The essay concludes that several features of simulations set them apart from models and experiments and make them novel scientific tools, whose powers and limits are not yet well understood.},
1163         url = {http://sag.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/41/1/20},
1164         author = {Grune-Yanoff, Till and Weirich, Paul}
1165 }
1166 @article {4335,
1167         title = {Toward Endemic Deployment of Educational Simulation Games: A Review of Progress and Future Recommendations},
1168         journal = {Simulation Gaming},
1169         volume = {41},
1170         number = {1},
1171         year = {2010},
1172         month = {February 1, 2010},
1173         pages = {116-131},
1174         abstract = {This article presents a conceptual analysis of simulation game adoption and use across university faculty. The metaphor of epidemiology is used to characterize the diffusion of simulation games for teaching and learning. A simple stock-flow diagram is presented to illustrate this dynamic. Future scenarios for simulation game adoption are presented, based on alternative diffusion behaviors. University strategies for increasing simulation game use are explored. It is concluded that while creating endemic use of simulation games by faculty is unlikely, we can employ measures that will significantly expand the stock of faculty acting as simulation game instructors.},
1175         url = {http://sag.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/41/1/116},
1176         author = {Moizer, Jonathan and Lean, Jonathan}
1177 }
1178 @article {gunkel_real_2010,
1179         title = {The real problem: avatars, metaphysics and online social interaction},
1180         journal = {New Media Society},
1181         volume = {12},
1182         number = {1},
1183         year = {2010},
1184         month = {feb},
1185         pages = {127{\textendash}141},
1186         abstract = {It is often assumed that the problem with virtual reality{\textquoteright} {\textendash} the concept, its various technological deployments and the apparently oxymoronic phrase itself {\textendash} has been our understanding, or perhaps misunderstanding, of the virtual. The real problem, however, is not with the virtual; it is with the real itself. This article investigates the undeniably useful but ultimately mistaken and somewhat misguided concept of the real that has been routinely operationalized in investigations of new media technology. The specific point of contact for the examination is the avatar. What is at issue here is not the complicated structures and articulations of avatar identity but the assumed real thing{\textquoteright} that is said to be its ultimate cause and referent. In addressing this subject, the article considers three theories of the real, extending from Platonism to the recent innovations of Slavoj {\v Z}i{\v z}ek and investigates their effect on our understanding of computer-generated experience and social interaction.},
1187         keywords = {avatar, Computer games, computer-mediated communication, Computers, MMORPG, philosophy of technology, Slavoj Zizek, social aspects, virtual reality},
1188         author = {David J. Gunkel}
1189 }
1190 @article {4542,
1191         title = {Applying Cellular Automata and DEVS Methodologies to Digital Games: A Survey},
1192         journal = {Simulation \& Gaming},
1193         volume = {41},
1194         number = {6},
1195         year = {2010},
1196         month = {December 1, 2010},
1197         pages = {796-823},
1198         abstract = {Cellular automata were designed by John von Neumann in the 1940s, as a mathematical abstraction for modeling self-replicating algorithms. Since then, cellular automata have been widely studied theoretically and evolved into multiple variants. In the 1970s, Bernard P. Zeigler proposed a formalism rooted on systems theory principles, named DEVS (discrete-event systems specifications), which paved the way for component-based modeling and simulation and related methodologies. The purpose of this article is to survey how cellular automata and its variant, called cell-DEVS, may be used to implement computer simulations that can be used as digital serious games. The authors illustrate that implementation through some of the practical applications of such cellular automata. They show various serious game applications using real case studies: first, a simple bouncing ball and pinball game, a particle collision model, another on gossip propagation, and an application on human behavior at a metro station.Then, they show an application to social simulation using a voters game, a theoretical application (a model called Daisy World, which is derived from Gaia theory), and applications to physical phenomena such as a sandpile formation model or, finally, a three-dimensional model of a {\textquotedblleft}virtual clay{\textquotedblright} that changes its shape when it is subject to pressure effects. },
1199         author = {Wainer, Gabriel and Qi Liu, and Dalle, Olivier and Zeigler, Bernard P.}
1200 }
1201 @article {4539,
1202         title = {Profiling 40 Years of Research in Simulation \& Gaming},
1203         journal = {Simulation \& Gaming},
1204         volume = {41},
1205         number = {6},
1206         year = {2010},
1207         month = {December 1, 2010},
1208         pages = {869-897},
1209         abstract = {The authors apply the research profiling method to review all the research that has been published in  Simulation \& Gaming  since the journal{\textquoteright}s inauguration in 1970. The data include 2,096 articles, of which 1,046 are research articles. The authors identify the prolific authors and their institutional affiliations. They tally referenced articles, title phrases, and descriptors. They find that the most prolific authors neither engage in more work division nor author more conventional thinking articles than less prolific authors and that the 51 prolific authors fall into 7 to 11 clusters. },
1210         author = {Johanna Bragge and Thavikulwat, Precha and T{\"o}yli, Juuso}
1211 }
1212 @article {4540,
1213         title = {Serious Games, Debriefing, and Simulation/Gaming as a Discipline},
1214         journal = {Simulation \& Gaming},
1215         volume = {41},
1216         number = {6},
1217         year = {2010},
1218         month = {December 1, 2010},
1219         pages = {898-920},
1220         abstract = {At the close of the 40th Anniversary Symposium of S\&G, this editorial offers some thoughts on a few important themes related to simulation/gaming. These are development of the field, the notion of serious games, the importance of debriefing, the need for research, and the emergence of a discipline. I suggest that the serious gaming community has much to offer the discipline of simulation/gaming and that debriefing is vital both for learning and for establishing simulation/gaming as a discipline.},
1221         author = {Crookall, David}
1222 }
1223 @article {4543,
1224         title = {Time in Video Games: A Survey and Analysis},
1225         journal = {Simulation \& Gaming},
1226         volume = {41},
1227         number = {6},
1228         year = {2010},
1229         month = {December 1, 2010},
1230         pages = {844-868},
1231         abstract = {This article introduces a conceptual tool for analyzing video game temporality, the temporal frame, and a methodology by which new temporal frames can be constructed as needed during analysis. A temporal frame is a set of events, along with the temporality induced by the relationships between those events. The authors discuss four common temporal frames: real-world time (events taking place in the physical world), gameworld time (events within the represented gameworld, including events associated with gameplay actions), coordination time (events that coordinate the actions of players and agents), and fictive time (applying sociocultural labels to events, as well as narrated event sequences). They use frames to analyze the real-time/turn-based distinction, various temporal anomalies, and temporal manipulations as a form of gameplay. These discussions illustrate how temporal frames are useful for gaining a more nuanced understanding of temporal phenomena in games. Additionally, their relationist characterization of temporal frames supports analysis and design.},
1232         author = {Zagal, Jos{\'e} P. and Mateas,Michael}
1233 }
1234 @article {4541,
1235         title = {Why Simulation Games Work-In Search of the Active Substance: A Synthesis},
1236         journal = {Simulation \& Gaming},
1237         volume = {41},
1238         number = {6},
1239         year = {2010},
1240         month = {December 1, 2010},
1241         pages = {824-843},
1242         abstract = {In this article, the authors reflect on the question why simulation games are such an effective tool for learning. The article is based on the authors{\textquoteright} experience and that of many other practitioners in the field. The article posits that it is the confluence of systemic knowledge, practice, emotional involvement, and social embeddedness that creates the potential to achieve results that no other methods can match. A simulation game run constitutes a bout of individual and collective purposeful action by an individual or a group formed specifically for that purpose. People have evolved to be supremely good at just that. Simulation games can teach systemic knowledge, and they can enable participants to try out organizational changes. This potential is not always realized, however. Game runs are {\textquotedblleft}alive{\textquotedblright} and variable, and this is a risky strength. They activate not only the explicit rules but also the hidden cultural rules of the participants. This can lead to memorable learning as well as to frustration, particularly when games are used across cultures. The article specifies reasons why games could fail and offers ways to avoid these pitfalls. It shows that experience and craftsmanship are needed in game design, facilitation, and debriefing. },
1243         author = {Hofstede, Gert Jan and Caluw{\'e}, L{\'e}on and Peters, Vincent}
1244 }
1245 @article {4482,
1246         title = {Enhancing Lean Manufacturing Learning Experience Through Hands-On Simulation},
1247         journal = {Simulation \& Gaming},
1248         volume = {41},
1249         number = {4},
1250         year = {2010},
1251         note = {10.1177/1046878109334333},
1252         month = {Aug 1},
1253         pages = {537-552},
1254         abstract = {Finding appropriate interactive exercises to increase students{\textquoteright} learning in technical topic courses is always challenging to educators. In this study, several paper plane hands-on simulation exercises were developed, used, and tested in a lean manufacturing course for beginning college students. A pretest and posttest was used to assess the effectiveness of students learning of lean manufacturing concepts by means of participating in the hands-on simulation exercises. Furthermore, the procedures used for an efficient integration of the hands-on simulation exercises into a teaching environment were evaluated. The results showed that students{\textquoteright} knowledge of lean manufacturing concepts increased significantly compared with lecture-based learning only.},
1255         author = {Elbadawi, Isam and McWilliams, Douglas and Tetteh, Edem}
1256 }
1257 @article {4485,
1258         title = {Exploring the Application of Simulations and Games in Advanced Manufacturing},
1259         journal = {Simulation \& Gaming},
1260         volume = {41},
1261         number = {4},
1262         year = {2010},
1263         note = {10.1177/1046878110378060},
1264         month = {Aug 1},
1265         pages = {463-464},
1266         author = {Ncube, Lisa and McWilliams, Douglas}
1267 }
1268 @article {4487,
1269         title = {An Information Provision Framework for Performance-Based Interactive eLearning Application for Manufacturing},
1270         journal = {Simulation \& Gaming},
1271         volume = {41},
1272         number = {4},
1273         year = {2010},
1274         note = {10.1177/1046878109334332},
1275         month = {Aug 1},
1276         pages = {511-536},
1277         abstract = {Fundamental concepts and definitions of electronic learning (eLearning) continue to emerge, and theories of eLearning that have been advanced thus far cover an array of academic perspectives including training and education, learning and knowledge, and technology and applications to specific market segments. Any study of the effectiveness and efficiency of eLearning, therefore, has to address a variety of issues, including the role of eLearning in knowledge and learning, its contribution to competent performance, its relationship to organizational transformation, and strategies for embedding it into other forms of electronic interaction. eLearning refers to a form of learning in which the instructor and student are physically separated by space or time, and the gap between the two is bridged through the use of online technologies. Virtual technology utilizes an interactive approach to computer-based learning by providing real-time feedback to the user. Surveys of manufacturing companies have verified their interest and enthusiasm in the potential of virtual technology for industrial applications; however, the companies noted that one of the barriers to investing in the technology is the need for a structured methodology to guide the application identification, as well as the model building and evaluation for this technology. The study referenced in this article addresses this need by providing a framework for the development of a virtual environment that provides information for manufacturing task completion. It builds upon extant research into the use of virtual reality for task completion as well as proposes a structure for virtual environment development.},
1278         author = {Sanders, Janet and Udoka, Silvanus}
1279 }
1280 @article {4486,
1281         title = {Literary and Historical 3D Digital Game{\textemdash}Based Learning: Design Guidelines},
1282         journal = {Simulation \& Gaming},
1283         volume = {41},
1284         number = {4},
1285         year = {2010},
1286         note = {10.1177/1046878108330312},
1287         month = {Aug 1},
1288         pages = {607-629},
1289         abstract = {As 3D digital game{\textemdash}based learning (3D-DGBL) for the teaching of literature and history gradually gains acceptance, important questions will need to be asked regarding its method of design, development, and deployment. This article offers a synthesis of contemporary pedagogical, instructional design, new media, and literary-historical theories to articulate design guidelines for these types of game environments. From the synthesis emerges a discussion of critical components for the design of space, the virtual objects within it, and the needs of player-as-learner in synthetic worlds. Guidelines include preserving the otherness of the game world, supporting knowledge and social networks of learners in virtual spaces, and the importance of point of view with respect to situated contexts. This effort seeks to open a broader, multidisciplinary discussion on the design and use of 3D-DGBL in humanities curricula.},
1290         author = {Neville, David and Shelton, Brett}
1291 }
1292 @article {4488,
1293         title = {Serious Video Games for Health: How Behavioral Science Guided the Development of a Serious Video Game},
1294         journal = {Simulation \& Gaming},
1295         volume = {41},
1296         number = {4},
1297         year = {2010},
1298         note = {10.1177/1046878108328087},
1299         month = {Aug 1},
1300         pages = {587-606},
1301         abstract = {Serious video games for health are designed to entertain players while attempting to modify some aspect of their health behavior. Behavior is a complex process influenced by multiple factors, often making it difficult to change. Behavioral science provides insight into factors that influence specific actions that can be used to guide key game design decisions. This article reports how behavioral science guided the design of a serious video game to prevent Type 2 diabetes and obesity among youth, two health problems increasing in prevalence. It demonstrates how video game designers and behavioral scientists can combine their unique talents to create a highly focused serious video game that entertains while promoting behavior change.},
1302         author = {Thompson, Debbe and Baranowski, Tom and Buday, Richard and Baranowski, Janice and Thompson, Victoria and Jago, Russell and Griffith, Melissa}
1303 }
1304 @article {4484,
1305         title = {A Simulation of Lean Manufacturing: The Lean Lemonade Tycoon 2},
1306         journal = {Simulation \& Gaming},
1307         volume = {41},
1308         number = {4},
1309         year = {2010},
1310         note = {10.1177/1046878109334336},
1311         month = {Aug 1},
1312         pages = {568-586},
1313         abstract = {This article discusses the functions and effectiveness of games and simulations in the learning processes, in particular as an experiential learning methodology. The application of the game Lemonade Tycoon in the development of lean manufacturing concepts is described. This article addresses the use of the game to teach the principles of lean enterprise, including zero waiting time, zero inventory, scheduling, internal customer pull instead of push system, batch to flow, cut batch sizes, line balancing, and cut actual process times. Other outcomes of learning such as promoting communication and interaction, facilitating cooperative learning, encouraging peer learning and fostering teamwork are also discussed. Games and simulations are relevant in all of the four learning phases of experiential learning and have a very positive impact on the learning and future application of lean manufacturing principles. Games are especially relevant in the generalization and application phases by helping shift learner{\textquoteright}s personal paradigms.},
1314         author = {Ncube, Lisa}
1315 }
1316 @article {4481,
1317         title = {Teaching Lean Manufacturing With Simulations and Games: A Survey and Future Directions},
1318         journal = {Simulation \& Gaming},
1319         volume = {41},
1320         number = {4},
1321         year = {2010},
1322         note = {10.1177/1046878109334331},
1323         month = {Aug 1},
1324         pages = {465-486},
1325         abstract = {Problem-based learning focuses on small groups using authentic problems as a means to help participants obtain knowledge and problem-solving skills. This approach makes problem-based learning ideal for teaching lean manufacturing, which is driven by a culture of problem solving that values learning as one key output of manufacturing production. Thus, simulations that organize participants in teams for realistic manufacturing production problem solving are widespread as a way to use problem-based learning to teach lean manufacturing. But a critical assessment of existing simulations for lean manufacturing instruction has been lacking. Accordingly, a literature survey is conducted and existing simulations are classified according to their emphasis on lean tools or the overall lean system; the degree of their focus on soft skills, if any; and their area of application, whether academic or industry. Four gaps are found in existing simulation designs: lack of stress on soft skills, a mistaken focus on {\textquotedblleft}linear lean,{\textquotedblright} misunderstanding of the key role of the facilitator, and lack of realism. Future directions for study and improvement in lean simulation design are suggested.},
1326         author = {Badurdeen, Fazleena and Marksberry, Philip and Hall, Arlie and Gregory, Bob}
1327 }
1328 @article {4483,
1329         title = {A Web-Based Lean Simulation Game for Office Operations: Training the Other Side of a Lean Enterprise},
1330         journal = {Simulation \& Gaming},
1331         volume = {41},
1332         number = {4},
1333         year = {2010},
1334         note = {10.1177/1046878109334945},
1335         month = {Aug 1},
1336         pages = {487-510},
1337         abstract = {This research proposes a Web-based version of a lean office simulation game (WeBLOG). The game is designed to be used to train lean concepts to office and administrative personnel. This group belongs to the frequently forgotten side of a lean enterprise. Over four phases, the game presents the following seven lean tools: one-piece flow, error-proofing, elimination of overprocessing, balanced workload, multifunctional workforce, pull, and total quality. The concept of continuous improvement is also covered. Participants can play the game from remote and separate locations by logging into a specified Internet site. Additionally, the game can be played with a combination of real and virtual (simulated) players. Several performance metrics are automatically calculated and displayed at the conclusion of each phase. The results of the current phase can then be compared to the results from all previous phases to better illustrate the impact of newly introduced lean tools.},
1338         author = {Kuriger, Glenn and Wan, Huang-da and Mirehei, S and Tamma, Saumya and Chen, F}
1339 }
1340 @article {4389,
1341         title = {Effects of Video-Game Ownership on Young Boys{\textquoteright} Academic and Behavioral Functioning},
1342         journal = {Psychological Science},
1343         volume = {21},
1344         number = {4},
1345         year = {2010},
1346         month = {April 2010},
1347         pages = {463-470},
1348         abstract = {Young boys who did not own video games were promised a video-game system and child-appropriate games in exchange for participating in an {\textquotedblleft}ongoing study of child development.{\textquotedblright} After baseline assessment of boys{\textquoteright} academic achievement and parent- and teacher-reported behavior, boys were randomly assigned to receive the video-game system immediately or to receive the video-game system after follow-up assessment, 4 months later. Boys who received the system immediately spent more time playing video games and less time engaged in after-school academic activities than comparison children. Boys who received the system immediately also had lower reading and writing scores and greater teacher-reported academic problems at follow-up than comparison children. Amount of video-game play mediated the relationship between video-game ownership and academic outcomes. Results provide experimental evidence that video games may displace after-school activities that have educational value and may interfere with the development of reading and writing skills in some children.},
1349         url = {http://pss.sagepub.com/content/21/4/463.full.pdf+html},
1350         author = {Robert Weis and Brittany C. Cerankosky}
1351 }
1352 @article {4397,
1353         title = {Researching Travel Behavior and Adaptability: Using a Virtual Reality Role-Playing Game},
1354         journal = {Simulation Gaming},
1355         year = {2010},
1356         month = {April 14, 2010},
1357         abstract = {This article describes a virtual reality role-playing game that was developed as a survey tool to collect travel behavior data and explore and monitor travel behavior adaptation. The Advanced Energy and Material Systems Laboratory has designed, developed a prototype, and tested such a game platform survey tool, called Travel Activity Constraint Adaptation Simulation (TACA SIM). A main objective is investigating adaptability under the simulated situation of rapid fuel price. The computer game survey approach has the potential to capture real behavior data through a well-controlled experiment, because the participant experiences the survey as a role-play exploration. Feedback from participants confirms that TACA SIM collects data efficiently in an acceptable time while the participants enjoyed the experience. The authors propose that this gamed-based survey approach provides the basis for collecting and evaluating travel behavior data and adaptation behavior.},
1358         keywords = {adaptability, Experience, gamed-based survey, high fuel price, role-playing game, Survey, travel, travel behavior, travel behavior adaptation, virtual reality},
1359         url = {http://sag.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/1046878110366070v1},
1360         author = {Watcharasukarn, Montira and Krumdieck, Susan and Green, Richard and Dantas, Andre}
1361 }
1362 @article {4420,
1363         title = {A Breath Biofeedback Computer Game for Children With Cystic Fibrosis},
1364         journal = {Clinical Pediatrics},
1365         volume = {49},
1366         number = {4},
1367         year = {2010},
1368         month = {April 1, 2010},
1369         pages = {337-342},
1370         abstract = {The authors sought to develop and test a breath-controlled video game using a digital spirometer that, by providing visual breath biofeedback, could promote awareness of breathing techniques in children with cystic fibrosis (CF). To assess improvement in game performance during hospitalizations for CF exacerbations, the authors conducted a trial on 10 inpatients. Subjects had at least five 15-minute exposures to a breath biofeedback game that challenged them to track a moving target using their breath. Subjects reacted positively to the breath tracking challenge. Repeated-measures analysis of variance of a tracking fidelity statistic showed improvement in eye--breath coordination over 5 sessions ( P = .026). It was concluded that an electronic breath game is safe and can improve breath awareness among children with CF. This technology could also contribute to awareness of respiratory symptoms and foster social ties among CF patients.},
1371         keywords = {cystic fibrosis, Exercise, respiratory therapy, user computer interface, Video Games},
1372         url = {http://cpj.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/49/4/337},
1373         author = {Bingham, Peter M. and Bates, Jason H. T. and Thompson-Figueroa, John and Lahiri, Thomas}
1374 }
1375 @article {4416,
1376         title = {Games for traffic education: An experimental study of a game-based driving simulator},
1377         journal = {Simulation Gaming},
1378         volume = {41},
1379         number = {2},
1380         year = {2010},
1381         month = {April 1, 2010},
1382         pages = {145-169},
1383         abstract = {In this article, the authors report on the construction and evaluation of a game-based driving simulator using a real car as a joystick. The simulator is constructed from off-the-shelf hardware and the simulation runs on open-source software. The feasibility of the simulator as a learning tool has been experimentally evaluated. Results are reported from an experimental study of games and traffic safety performed in an advanced gaming environment. During car simulator sessions, the authors collected data about different traffic safety variables, such as speed, headway distance, and lane change behavior, from 70 participants. The data were analyzed to investigate possible individual learning effects and differences between groupings of participants. The experiment shows clear, positive, individual learning effects for all traffic safety variables analyzed. The authors also made a qualitative analysis of the participants{\textquoteright} perception of the simulator as a learning tool. From the results, it is concluded that a game-based simulation can be used to enhance learning in driving education.},
1384         keywords = {driving education, driving simulator, game-based training},
1385         url = {http://sag.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/41/2/145},
1386         author = {Backlund, Per and Engstrom, Henrik and Johannesson, Mikael and Lebram, Mikael}
1387 }
1388 @article {4417,
1389         title = {Orientations to Video Games Among Gender and Age Groups},
1390         journal = {Simulation Gaming},
1391         volume = {41},
1392         number = {2},
1393         year = {2010},
1394         month = {April 1, 2010},
1395         pages = {238-259},
1396         abstract = {Questionnaires were completed by 5th-, 8th-, and 11th-grade public schools students in rural and suburban school districts and by undergraduates at two universities in the United States (n = 1,242). They were asked about their orientation to video games--the amount of time they played, their motives for doing so, and the game types they preferred--to better understand the context in which effects research might be organized. The conceptual schema for this research was the uses-and-gratifications perspective. The males in the sample played video games at twice the weekly average of the females, were consistently stronger in all measured motives than the females, and preferred physically oriented video games over the females{\textquoteright} preference for more traditional, thoughtful games. Younger players opted for the fantasy motive in their playing and older players more so for competition. Preference for physical games declined among the older males, and generally motives were stronger in the middle years of playing for both males and females than in the youngest and oldest age groups. Regression analyses explained considerably more variance in game playing for males than for females.},
1397         keywords = {age differences, children, competition, Game play, Gender Differences, imagination, Leisure Activities, motives, Physical games, Time, uses and gratifications, video game genres, Video Games},
1398         url = {http://sag.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/41/2/238},
1399         author = {Greenberg, Bradley S. and Sherry, John and Lachlan, Kenneth and Lucas, Kristen and Holmstrom, Amanda}
1400 }
1401 @article {4418,
1402         title = {Theorizing on the Treatment of Time in Simulation Gaming},
1403         journal = {Simulation Gaming},
1404         volume = {41},
1405         number = {2},
1406         year = {2010},
1407         month = {April 1, 2010},
1408         pages = {170-186},
1409         abstract = {A key element in organizational decision making is the progress of time and the ability to live with it. This article discusses the factor of time in decision making and how time can be taken into account in computerized simulation gaming. The discussion is based on recent definitions and classifications of time. The author reflects on these classifications and argues that embedding a richer time conception could increase the application domain of simulation gaming in the organizational context. Finally, the author theorizes on the implications of continuous processing in simulation gaming. The results indicate that continuous gaming provides an intense and meaningful learning environment.},
1410         keywords = {business games, classification of time, complexity, continuous processing, decision making, definitions of time, progress of time, real-time gaming, Theory, Time},
1411         url = {http://sag.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/41/2/170},
1412         author = {Lainema, Timo}
1413 }
1414 @article {4419,
1415         title = {Urban Sprawl: Using a Game to Sensitize Stakeholders to the Interdependencies Among Actors{\textquoteright} Preferences},
1416         journal = {Simulation Gaming},
1417         volume = {41},
1418         number = {2},
1419         year = {2010},
1420         month = {April 1, 2010},
1421         pages = {260-277},
1422         abstract = {This article introduces QuAG, a role-playing game, to enhance understanding of urban development through a social simulation. The participants represent actors of city development, divided into moving (e.g., residents, industry, retail) and nonmoving actors (e.g., planners, politicians). Development is performed by the relocation of actors between urban and suburban areas depending on the regions{\textquoteright} attractiveness and the actors{\textquoteright} preferences. An area{\textquoteright}s attractiveness varies with the location changes of actors and the manipulation by planners. The game is based on a qualitative computer model with similar rules and elements. The role-play was effective in two ways: it sensitized participants to the interdependencies among actors and their contribution to a region{\textquoteright}s attractiveness and made the computer model more tangible to them. If a similar impact of the planning measures in the game can be expected in the real world, the effects of investments can provide strong incentives for the movers.},
1423         keywords = {attractiveness, mathematical model, migration, qualitative differential equation, role-play, social gaming simulation, stakeholder, sustainable development, urban development, urban planning, urban sprawl},
1424         url = {http://sag.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/41/2/260},
1425         author = {Reckien, Diana and Eisenack, Klaus}
1426 }
1427 @proceedings {4506,
1428         title = {deGendering Games: Towards A Gender-Inclusive Framework For Games},
1429         journal = {IADIS Multiconference on Computer Science \& Information Systems (MCCSIS 2010)},
1430         year = {2010},
1431         month = {26/07/2010},
1432         pages = {127-130},
1433         address = {Frieburg, Germany},
1434         abstract = {Despite the dramatic growth of gender and games research, many challenges remain in designing a more gender-inclusive game. This article addresses the problem of differences in gender preferences in gameplay, conflict resolution, response to stimulation, rewards, genre, content, environment and design features. These unresolved issues have created gaps in designing a more gender-inclusive game.
1435 This paper argues a more gender-inclusive game is achievable by incorporating gender-inclusive components during the design process.The proposed framework defines gender-inclusivity in three key components: (1) genre, which indicates the type of game, (2) gameplay, which describes the game behaviour and (3) content, which describes the game content. Some applications of the framework are outlined.},
1436         keywords = {games design, Gender, gender inclusive, gender neutral},
1437         url = {http://eprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk/21564/},
1438         author = {Roziana Ibrahim and Gary B Wills and Lester Gilbert}
1439 }
1440 @conference {4475,
1441         title = {Can "Gaming 2.0" Help Design "Serious Games"? - A Comparative Study},
1442         booktitle = {SIGGRAPH 2010},
1443         year = {2010},
1444         month = {25/07/2010},
1445         publisher = {ACM SIGGRAPH},
1446         organization = {ACM SIGGRAPH},
1447         address = {Los Angeles},
1448         abstract = {The "Serious Games" field raises a specific need. People without professional game design skills, such as teachers, corporate trainers, therapists and advertising professionals, request tools that could allow them to create or modify such games. This article will analyze "Gaming 2.0" examples in order to identify tools that could help fulfill this need. Indeed, "Gaming 2.0" is a way for players to create videogame content without skills from the entertainment videogame industry. Can these tools be also used to create "Serious Games"?
1450 To answer this question, we will first define a simple theoretical model of videogames. This model outlines four "game parts" that players can create through "Gaming 2.0"-related tools, and it will be used to provide a comparative analysis of fifteen "Gaming 2.0" examples. From this analysis, insights on the relevance of "Gaming 2.0" for the "Serious Games" field will be drawn.},
1451         keywords = {game design, gaming 2.0, level design, player-generated content, serious games},
1452         isbn = {978-1-4503-0210-4},
1453         url = {http://www.ludoscience.com/files/ressources/seriousgames_gaming20.pdf},
1454         author = {Damien Djaouti and Julian Alvarez and Jean-Pierre Jessel}
1455 }
1456 @conference {4499,
1457         title = {Too Fast or Too Furious? The Effects of Displayed Violence and Game Speed in First-Person Shooters on Physiological Arousal and Aggressive Behavior.},
1458         booktitle = {Future and Reality of Gaming 2010},
1459         year = {2010},
1460         month = {24/09/2010},
1461         address = {Vienna, Austria},
1462         abstract = {Most laboratory experiments on the effects of displayed violence on physiological arousal and aggressive behavior in digital game players share a certain design: Physiological variables and behavioral test results are compared for groups that either played a first-person shooter or another non-violent game. However, games usually differ on more variables than just the displayed violence, so the question whether the determined effects can be traced back to violent content only remains unanswered. One very obvious difference between first-person shooters and other digital games is the speed of gameplay.
1463 We present an experiment in which participants play a modified version of a latest-generation first-person shooter in one of four conditions (A: high vs. normal speed, B: high vs. low violence). Physiological arousal is measured through conductive skin response, heart rate, force applied on mouse and keyboard, and body movement. Aggressive behavior measurements are taken through the Competitive Reaction Time Test.},
1464         keywords = {Aggression, body movement, first-person shooter, modding, psychophysiology, speed, TCRTT, Violence},
1465         url = {http://www.digra.org:8080/Plone/Members/malteelson/Too\%20fast\%20or\%20too\%20furious.pdf/view},
1466         author = {Elson, Malte and Breuer, Johannes and Quandt, Thorsten}
1467 }
1468 @conference {4470,
1469         title = {Social motivations and experiences of playing videogames and the associated outcomes for mood},
1470         booktitle = {Social Networking in Cyberspace Conference},
1471         year = {2010},
1472         month = {23/04/2010},
1473         address = {Lighthouse Media Centre, Wolverhampton},
1474         abstract = {The increasingly popularity of videogames suggests the need to examine the derived experiences and potential outcomes of gaming. Furthermore because gaming is becoming increasingly social, it is important to understand the influence of social gaming experiences for affective and psychological outcomes. The current research examined the associations between social motivations and gaming experiences and aimed to explore the associations of these factors with the outcomes for mood and life satisfaction. The programme of research consisted of two studies of different methodologies in which videogamers (N = 327) took part.  Results showed that there were significant correlations between social motivations, social gaming contexts and the positive experiences derived through gaming. Also social motivations showed to be predictive of perceptions of life satisfaction. Qualitative analysis revealed the importance of social connectedness and belonging for game enjoyment and suggested these social factors to be key features which keep gamers playing. Social interactions and networking in gameplay were also influential to game enjoyment. Findings revealed, however, that social experiences could influence feelings of frustration in gameplay. This showed to arise from bad social dynamics and competitiveness against other players. The current research findings therefore show the importance of social experiences and their influences on the outcomes of gaming. Future research is needed to examine the role of competiveness on social dynamics in gaming and its influence on gaming effects. Furthermore, research examining the differences between gaming experiences for online and offline contexts, for both solo and multiplayer gaming is warranted. },
1475         keywords = {enjoyment; frustration, flow, motivations, socialisation, videogames},
1476         author = {Linda K Kaye and Bryce, Jo}
1477 }
1478 @conference {4521,
1479         title = {The Dematerialisation and Democratisation of Currencies: a historical description of currencies and how the physical has been replaced with the virtual},
1480         booktitle = {Internet Research 11.0},
1481         volume = {31},
1482         year = {2010},
1483         month = {21/10/2010},
1484         chapter = {275},
1485         address = {Gothenburg, Sweden},
1486         abstract = {In this paper we examine the relation between the dematerialisation of currencies and democracy. We argue that money play an important role in any democratization process, as it enables and provide assets needed for individuals. Physical currency has a long history in supporting trade. It has also existed in many different shapes, depending on local demands and practices. In the shaping of virtual worlds cybercash has been made a part of this, although the trade practices depends on the type of virtual world: extension worlds or detension worlds. But, learning from the historical development, cybercash can be compared to other forms of currencies and therefore it is very likely that cybercash will be as important for any democratization process in virtual worlds as currencies has been in the physical world.},
1487         keywords = {currency, cybercash, money, Virtual world},
1488         author = {Sandqvist, Ulf and Zackariasson, Peter}
1489 }
1490 @article {4497,
1491         title = {Assimilation of Public Policy Concepts Through Role-Play: Distinguishing Rational Design and Political Negotiation},
1492         journal = {Simulation \& Gaming},
1493         volume = {41},
1494         year = {2010},
1495         month = {2010/10/01},
1496         pages = {743 - 766},
1497         abstract = {One important objective of introductory courses in public administration is to sensitize students to the difference between two concepts: substantive rationality and political rationality. Both types of rationality play an important role in policy processes. Yet, although the difference is straightforward in theory, and is addressed and well-illustrated in most standard textbooks on public administration, students seem to have difficulty internalizing it. This article reports on our findings from a role-playing game designed to make students experience the difference between policy making as a process of rational design and policy making as a process of political negotiation. We conducted an experiment involving a large group of students enrolled in a first year, one-semester course, and a control group of students who enrolled in the same course 1 year later. The former were tested four times (start of the course, immediately before and after playing the game, and 3 months later) and the latter two times (at the start of the course and at the exam) for their understanding of how policy making{\textemdash}as-rational-design and policy making{\textemdash}as-political-negotiation differ on seven characteristics. Comparison of test results obtained before and after the role-play indicates a positive learning effect for some characteristics, and a negative learning effect for others.},
1498         url = {http://sag.sagepub.com/content/41/5/743.abstract},
1499         author = {Bots, Pieter W. G. and Wagenaar, F. Pieter and Willemse, Rolf}
1500 }
1501 @article {4496,
1502         title = {Educational Validity of Business Gaming Simulation: A Research Methodology Framework},
1503         journal = {Simulation \& Gaming},
1504         volume = {41},
1505         year = {2010},
1506         month = {2010/10/01},
1507         pages = {705 - 723},
1508         abstract = {Many past educational validity studies of business gaming simulation, and more specifically total enterprise simulation, have been inconclusive. Studies have focused on the weaknesses of business gaming simulation; which is often regarded as an educational medium that has limitations regarding learning effectiveness. However, no attempts have been made to provide guidelines for assessing educational validity in terms of building, implementing, and validating business gaming simulation. Accordingly, this study has combined literature on learning, simulation design, and research methods to formulate a methodology to assess the educational validity of total enterprise simulation; the concepts of which can be applied more broadly to business gaming simulation. The authors propose that the framework introduced within this article can provide a foundation for future educational validity studies that can assist simulation designers to implement valuable and powerful simulation learning media in the future.},
1509         url = {http://sag.sagepub.com/content/41/5/705.abstract},
1510         author = {Stainton, Andrew J. and Johnson, Johnnie E. and Borodzicz, Edward P.}
1511 }
1512 @article {4495,
1513         title = {Effects of Third Person Perspective on Affective Appraisal and Engagement: Findings From SECOND LIFE},
1514         journal = {Simulation \& Gaming},
1515         volume = {41},
1516         year = {2010},
1517         month = {2010/10/01},
1518         pages = {724 - 742},
1519         abstract = {This study investigates the influence of a first-person perspective (1PP) and a third-person perspective (3PP), respectively, on the affective appraisal and on the user engagement of a three-dimensional virtual environment in SECOND LIFE. Participants explored the environment while searching for five targets during a limited time span, using either a 1PP or a 3PP. No significant overall effect was found for viewing perspective on the appraisal of the three-dimensional virtual environment on the dimensions of arousal and valence. However, a 3PP yields more perceived control over the avatar and the events, which is a requirement for engagement. Analysis of the performance on the search task shows that participants using a 3PP find more objects but also need more time to find them. The present results suggest that a 3PP conveys a more distinct impression of the environment, thereby increasing engagement, and probably induces a different viewing strategy. Hence, a 3PP appears preferable for simulation and training applications in which the correct assessment of the affective properties of an environment is essential.},
1520         url = {http://sag.sagepub.com/content/41/5/724.abstract},
1521         author = {Schuurink, Ellen L. and Toet, Alexander}
1522 }
1523 @article {4161,
1524         title = {Investigating the {\textquoteright}{\textquoteright}Why{\textquoteright}{\textquoteright} in Whypox: Casual and Systematic Explorations of a Virtual Epidemic},
1525         journal = {Games and Culture},
1526         volume = {5},
1527         year = {2010},
1528         note = {10.1177/1555412009351265},
1529         month = {2010/1/1},
1530         pages = {116 - 135},
1531         abstract = {Learning scientists have created and used virtual worlds to support players{\textquoteright} historical, scientific, and ecological inquiries. Much less explored has been the impact of community events on players{\textquoteright} investigations in virtual worlds. The authors present here the case of a community event Whypox, a virtual epidemic whose annual outbreak in Whyville affects players{\textquoteright} communication and appearance. The authors analyze the different levels of participation ranging from casual to systematic in which players searched out more information about the Whypox, participated in online discussions about its causes and investigated different scenarios with simulations. The discussion examines ethical concerns, the contributions of our findings for the design of such community events, and educational resources in virtual worlds to support informal learning.},
1532         url = {http://gac.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/1/116},
1533         author = {Kafai, Yasmin B. and Quintero, Maria and Feldon, David}
1534 }
1535 @article {4160,
1536         title = {Knowing and Throwing Mudballs, Hearts, Pies, and Flowers: A Connective Ethnography of Gaming Practices},
1537         journal = {Games and Culture},
1538         volume = {5},
1539         year = {2010},
1540         note = {10.1177/1555412009351263},
1541         month = {2010/1/1},
1542         pages = {88 - 115},
1543         abstract = {Little is known concerning how young players learn to participate in various activities in virtual worlds. We use a new integrative approach called connective ethnography that focuses on how a gaming practice spread across a network of youth at an after school club that simultaneously participated in a virtual world, Whyville.net. To trace youth participation in online and offline social contexts, we draw on multiple sources of information: observations, interviews, videos, online tracking and chat data, and hundreds of hours of play in Whyville ourselves. One gaming practice -- the throwing of projectiles and its social uses and nuances -- became the focal point of our analyses. The discussions address the methodological challenges underlying the synthesis of diverse types of data that allowed us to follow youth across multiple spaces as well as initial insights into how this practice was used to negotiate relationships in multiple spaces through play.},
1544         url = {http://gac.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/1/88},
1545         author = {Fields, Deborah A. and Kafai, Yasmin B.}
1546 }
1547 @article {4164,
1548         title = {{\textquoteright}{\textquoteright}Stealing From Grandma{\textquoteright}{\textquoteright} or Generating Cultural Knowledge?: Contestations and Effects of Cheating in a Tween Virtual World},
1549         journal = {Games and Culture},
1550         volume = {5},
1551         year = {2010},
1552         note = {10.1177/1555412009351262},
1553         month = {2010/1/1},
1554         pages = {64 - 87},
1555         abstract = {Much research has described the various practices needed of gaining access and participation in multi-user game communities. Cheat sites are a continuation of game communities where players engage in knowledge building about game related challenges. In this paper we analyze the cheat sites created by players for a tween virtual world called Whyville.net, which encourages youth to participate in a range of social activities and play casual science games. Through analysis we created typologies for both the cheats and sites related to science content. Further, a case study of an exemplary cheat site elaborates on how some player-generated sites work to build knowledge of Whyville. Finally, investigation of over a hundred player-written articles illuminates how Whyvillians contest different practices of cheating and how cheating affects the virtual world. Implications of these findings as cultural artifacts of the game community and as guides for designing informal online learning activities are discussed.},
1556         url = {http://gac.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/1/64},
1557         author = {Fields, Deborah A. and Kafai, Yasmin B.}
1558 }
1559 @article {4162,
1560         title = {World of Whyville: An Introduction to Tween Virtual Life},
1561         journal = {Games and Culture},
1562         volume = {5},
1563         year = {2010},
1564         note = {10.1177/1555412009351264},
1565         month = {2010/1/1},
1566         pages = {3 - 22},
1567         abstract = {Virtual worlds have become the new playground for millions of tweens but we know little what it takes to become a player in a virtual community. This paper focuses on one virtual world, called Whyville.net, which at the time of our study hosted over 1.2 million players ages 8 to16 years, with the average player 12.3 years old. Girls represent over 68\% of all players. A guided tour to the various places in Whyville, the different types of science games, and the range of players{\textquoteright} activities provides insights into what players talk about, with whom they socialize, what they like to play, and how they engage in investigations. In 2005, a group of researchers set out to study Whyville by recruiting hundreds of participants online and offline in classrooms and after school clubs and by conducting observations, surveys, and interviews about their online activities. In addition, we collected log files that captured their online movements and chat interaction during a six month period. We discuss ethical issues of conducting research as adults in tween virtual communities and limitations of capturing the complexities of interactions simultaneously in online and offline spaces. The paper concludes with an overview of following papers in the special issue that cover players{\textquoteright} avatar designs, representation of race, cheating practices, learning how to throw virtual mudballs, and participation in virtual epidemic.},
1568         url = {http://gac.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/1/3},
1569         author = {Kafai, Yasmin B.}
1570 }
1571 @article {4165,
1572         title = {Your Second Selves: Player-Designed Avatars},
1573         journal = {Games and Culture},
1574         volume = {5},
1575         year = {2010},
1576         note = {10.1177/1555412009351260},
1577         month = {2010/1/1},
1578         pages = {23 - 42},
1579         abstract = {Avatars in online games and worlds are seen as players{\textquoteright} key representations in interactions with each other. In this article, we investigate the avatar design and identity play within a large-scale tween virtual world called Whyville.net, with more than 1.5 million registered players of ages 8--16. One unique feature of Whyville is the players{\textquoteright} ability to customize their avatars with various face parts and accessories, all designed and sold by other players in Whyville. Our findings report on the expressive resources available for avatar construction, individual tween players{\textquoteright} choices and rationales in creating their avatars, and online postings about avatar design in the community at large. With the growing interest in player-generated content for online worlds such as Second Life, our discussion will address the role of avatars in identity play and self-representation as well as the social issues that arise within the game world.},
1580         url = {http://gac.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/5/1/23},
1581         author = {Kafai, Yasmin B. and Fields, Deborah A. and Cook, Melissa S.}
1582 }
1583 @conference {4522,
1584         title = {Alternative Reality Games Explorations},
1585         booktitle = {EURAM conference},
1586         year = {2010},
1587         month = {19/05/2010},
1588         address = {Rome, Italy},
1589         abstract = {We extend our interest in video games to make some exploratory observations on opportunities 
1590 attendant Alternative Reality Games (ARGs).  This sector is a genre of interactive narratives 
1591 where the physical world is used as a platform, frequently involving other media, to encourage 
1592 gamers to collectively solve puzzles.  An analogy is made with the experience one reads about in 
1593 the popular novel, The Da Vinci Code.  The Beast, I Love Bees and The Art of the Heist are cited as examples of usage.  Reflections are made along the lines of the one-time nature of ARGs, the segment they reach, the possible disassociation with purchases, expense and the potential failure of approaches.  They are a cross between advertising and sales promotion because they bear a direct expense to the organization responsible for their commissioning.  Their impact, however, has been along the lines of what one would expect from a publicity effort.},
1594         keywords = {alternative relity game, marketing},
1595         author = {Zackariasson, Peter and Wilson, Timothy L}
1596 }
1597 @booklet {4514,
1598         title = {Gender-Inclusivity Framework (GIF): A Conceptual Framework for Supporting Gender-Inclusivity in Games},
1599         journal = {Graduate Junction International Poster Competition},
1600         year = {2010},
1601         month = {11/2010},
1602         type = {Research Poster},
1603         keywords = {Design Guidelines, Diversity, Game Framework, games design, Gender, Gender-Inclusive, Gender-Neutral, Video Game},
1604         url = {http://eprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk/21669/},
1605         author = {Roziana Ibrahim}
1606 }
1607 @conference {4429,
1608         title = {Software Studies in Computer Gameplay},
1609         booktitle = {ACM 28th Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI)},
1610         year = {2010},
1611         month = {10/4/2010},
1612         address = {Atlanta, Georgia, USA},
1613         abstract = {The computer game software with which we interact on a daily basis not only entertains us, it trains us into specific patterns.  Critical Gameplay is a design practice which endeavors to expose and redesign the patterns to which standard gameplay subscribes.  The ongoing project seeks to identify the dominant values, philosophies and problem solving models reinforced by computer games and provides prototypical alternates to those standards.
1616 },
1617         keywords = {critical design, game design, gameplay, software, Software Design, software studies},
1618         doi = { http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1753846.1753910},
1619         url = {http://portal.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=1753910\&type=pdf\&coll=GUIDE\&dl=GUIDE\&CFID=15151515\&CFTOKEN=6184618},
1620         author = {Lindsay Grace}
1621 }
1622 @booklet {4513,
1623         title = {A Conceptual Framework for Supporting Gender-Inclusivity in Games},
1624         journal = {i<tag> Interactive Technologies and Games: Education, Health and Disability Conference..},
1625         year = {2010},
1626         month = {10/2010},
1627         type = {Conference Poster},
1628         address = {Nottingham, UK},
1629         abstract = {Gender-inclusivity in games has been a much debated issue and despite the dramatic growth of gender and games research, many challenges remain in designing a more gender-inclusive game. Gender-inclusivity in games may support certain features and in turn may even determine the features of applications built based on it. This poses a challenge: although we have good techniques for analyzing, designing and evaluating current games, our techniques for gender-inclusive games are much less formed. We present a brief outline of some unresolved issues concerning gender-inclusivity in games and the gaps in designing a more gender-inclusive game. There is little reported experience in the issues that arise in determining what features should go into a gender-inclusive game and for determining the success or failure in the evaluation of those features. The questions that arise from this situation are how to define gender-inclusivity in games, how to incorporate gender-inclusivity into a game creation process and how to accurately measure gender-inclusivity in games. We propose a framework that defines gender-inclusivity in three key themes: 
1630 (1) gameplay, describing the game behaviour and how a player experiences the game. It include non-violent action (NVA), game support (GS), forgiving gameplay (FG), non-violent challenge (NVC), feedback system (FS), variety of activities (ACT), personalization (PER) and collaboration (COLL);
1631 (2) content, describing the aesthetics elements of a game. It consists of character/avatar portrayal (AVP), game world graphics (GW), sound/music (SM) and storyline (STOR) and;
1632 (3) genre, categorizes games into twelve broad genres: racing, simulation, classic/board, strategy, sports, shooting, role playing game, platform, children, puzzle/quiz, action and adventure. 
1633 On-going research is being planned for experiments to validate the framework through expert reviews, game evaluations and game design projects. We believe the results may extend to other domains in technology enhanced teaching and learning applications to commercial games design.},
1634         keywords = {Design Guidelines, Diversity, Game Framework, games design, Gender-Inclusive, Gender-Neutral, Video Game},
1635         url = {http://eprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk/21606/},
1636         author = {Roziana Ibrahim}
1637 }
1638 @booklet {4512,
1639         title = {deGendering Games: Towards the Development of a Gender-Inclusivity Framework (GIF).},
1640         journal = {Grace Hopper Conference 2010: Grace Hopper Celebration of Women in Computing},
1641         year = {2010},
1642         month = {10/2010},
1643         pages = {51},
1644         publisher = {Grace Hopper Conference },
1645         type = {Conference Poster},
1646         address = {Atlanta, Georgia},
1647         abstract = {Despite the dramatic growth in gender and games research, many challenges remain in designing a more gender-inclusive game. This research addresses some problems relating to gender-inclusivity in games. A framework was proposed to provide a theoretical context and scope about gender-inclusivity in games. The framework defines gender-inclusivity in three components: (1) genre, indicates the type of game, (2) gameplay, describes the game behaviour and, (2) content, describes the game content.},
1648         keywords = {Design Guidelines, Diversit, Game Framework, games design, Gender-Inclusive, Gender-Neutral, Video Game},
1649         url = {http://eprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk/21563/},
1650         author = {Roziana Ibrahim}
1651 }
1652 @conference {4507,
1653         title = {Embracing Diversity: A Gender-Inclusivity Framework in Games},
1654         booktitle = {Ubiquitous Learn 2010},
1655         year = {2010},
1656         month = {10/12/2010},
1657         publisher = {Common Ground Publishing},
1658         organization = {Common Ground Publishing},
1659         address = {Vancouver, Canada},
1660         abstract = {Gender-inclusivity in games has been a much debated issue and despite the dramatic growth of gender and games research, many challenges remain in designing a more gender-inclusive game. One of the challenges in designing a more gender-inclusive game is how to define gender-inclusivity in games. By gender-inclusivity in games, we refer to any component that characterizes a situation related to gameplay, content and genre of a game. A gender-inclusive game promises richer and balanced games for both male and female gamers but the current state of research in this field is still far removed from that potential. This is due to three gaps in game design: (1) the notion of gender-inclusivity in games is still ill-defined; (2) there is a lack of conceptual framework to support the design of a gender-inclusive game; and (3) lack of tools to support the development of a gender-inclusive game.
1662 In this paper, we address these needs in turn through a generic framework, Gender-Inclusivity Framework (GIF). We first define gender-inclusivity in games, identify components of gender-inclusivity content and characterize gender-inclusivity in games behaviour. In conclusion, we outline how such a framework can be used to support the investigation of research in the area of gender-inclusivity in games.},
1663         keywords = {Design Guidelines, Diversit, Game Framework, games design, Gender-Inclusive, Gender-Neutral, Video Game},
1664         url = {http://eprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk/21565/},
1665         author = {Roziana Ibrahim and Gary B Wills and Lester Gilbert}
1666 }
1667 @conference {4430,
1668         title = {An Algorithm for Visual Music},
1669         booktitle = {The Third International Conferences on Advances in Computer-Human Interactions},
1670         year = {2010},
1671         month = {10/02/2010},
1672         pages = {pp 125-129},
1673         publisher = {IEEE},
1674         organization = {IEEE},
1675         address = {St Marteen, Netherlands Antilles},
1676         abstract = {This research proposes a method for producing music via visual composition in a computer-game like environment. This is accomplished through the development of artificial intelligence software that applies the visual rules of standard emergent behaviors to the algorithmic arrangement of musical tones. This research presents the proposed system, defining the algorithm and demonstrating its implementation.},
1677         keywords = {Computer games, computer graphics, music, user interfaces},
1678         isbn = {978-0-7695-3957-7},
1679         doi = {http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/ACHI.2010.18},
1680         url = {http://www.professorgrace.com/documents/ACHI_paper_Music_Box2_IEEE.pdf},
1681         author = {Lindsay Grace}
1682 }
1683 @article {4604,
1684         title = {The effect of interactivity with WarioWare minigames on second language vocabulary learning.},
1685         journal = {Journal of Digital Games Research},
1686         volume = {4},
1687         year = {2010},
1688         month = {09/2010},
1689         abstract = {This experimental study investigated whether videogame interactivity would help or hinder the acquisition of second language vocabulary. Forty-six Japanese university undergraduates participated. In pairs, one subject played English-language minigames for 10 minutes and another subject watched the games. Immediate and delayed vocabulary recall tests and a cognitive load measure were administered. Players recalled significantly less vocabulary than watchers, and this seems to be a result of the extraneous cognitive load induced by the interactivity of the game. We suggest implications for the research, design, pedagogy and study of educational games for language learning.},
1690         keywords = {Cognitive Load, educational games, Interactivity, minigames, second language acquisition},
1691         issn = {1882-0913},
1692         url = {http://langcom.u-shizuoka-ken.ac.jp/dehaan},
1693         author = {deHaan, Jonathan and Kono, Fumiya}
1694 }
1695 @conference {4472,
1696         title = {{\textquotedblleft}The XBox Factor{\textquotedblright}: Experiencing videogames and the consequences for affect and psychological well-being},
1697         booktitle = {British Psychological Society Social Section Conference},
1698         year = {2010},
1699         month = {07/09/2010},
1700         address = {University of Winchester},
1701         abstract = {Research studying the effects of playing videogames has largely focused on their negative effects on aggressive attitudes and behaviour. The potential positive effects have received less theoretical and empirical attention. The current study used flow theory to permit a wider examination of the potential consequences of gaming for measures of affect and psychological well-being. It also aimed to examine the relationship between aggressive personality, gaming experience and mood effects. An experimental design was used, in which frequent gamers (N = 56) were recruited to play one of two videogames. Pre-test measures of trait aggression, psychological well-being and affect were taken. Following a forty minute gameplay period, post-test measures on affect and flow were completed. Findings of the pre and post-test affect measures showed that gaming facilitated positive mood and activation. Also, flow in gameplay showed to have positive associations with dimensions psychological well-being. Aggression showed no relationship with flow or with post-test positive or negative affect which suggests that gaming experiences are not significantly influenced by aggressive personality. The findings revealed minimal differences in measures of post-test affect or flow between the two game conditions. This suggests that violent game content is not the most crucial factor in determining the nature of the gaming experience and its impact on outcomes. Rather, it implies the process of gaming to be more important for gamers. Future research should aim to address this issue by considering gaming as a holistic experience rather than focusing too strongly on outcomes of exposure to violent content. 
1702 },
1703         keywords = {Affect, flow, psychological well-being, trait aggression, Videogaming},
1704         author = {Linda K Kaye and Bryce, Jo}
1705 }
1706 @article {4438,
1707         title = {Designing Game Affordances to Promote Learning and Engagement},
1708         journal = {Cognitive Technology Journal},
1709         volume = {1-2},
1710         year = {2010},
1711         month = {06/2010},
1712         type = {journal},
1713         chapter = {43},
1714         abstract = {Applied research will be presented from a qualitative study that highlights high school students{\textquoteright} learning and use of several game interfaces, describing how particular affordances and game interface designs can encourage learning. Inductive generalizations from several {\textquoteright}commercial{\textquoteright} games for good, including Civilization IV, Making History: The Calm \& the Storm, and RollerCoaster Tycoon describe patterns of learning among game players, showing how the design of in-game visualizations either led to success or failure to learn to use basic game controls. This analysis, inspired by ethnomethodology and grounded theory, sought patterns from gathered video data of student gameplay to highlight learning episodes and patterns of interface use. Patterns in affordance use (uptake of a perceived action potential) during collaborative gameplay reveal relationships among the video game interface and player behavior, giving focus to how an interface design can guide game player interaction. In line with Csikszentmihalyi{\textquoteright}s concept of flow, a proper balance of difficulty (between feelings of boredom, and too much difficulty) encouraged player engagement and learning. As evidenced in transcripts of collaborative gameplay, feelings of frustration with a game interface often led students to abandon in-game tasks, as did boredom with a given task. However, frustrated goal achievement often led to the re-negotiation of in-game strategies: an indication of engagement. Additionally, games that presented information using multiple channels encouraged learning, as did the use of specific visualizations such as the animation of in-game objects. Finally, a discussion of the affordances created by different game designs will offer educators and game designers guidelines to encourage motivated gameplay.},
1715         keywords = {Affordances, Cognition, cognitive, cognitive technology journal, collaboration, collaborative learning, design, engagement, game design, Games, games for good, learning, Learning games, situated cognition, situated learning, Technology, Video Games},
1716         issn = {1091-8388},
1717         url = {http://www.situatedresearch.com/CogTech14-2-15-1.pdf},
1718         author = {Sharritt, Matthew J}
1719 }
1720 @article {4455,
1721         title = {The Effect of Interactivity with a Music Video Game on Second Language Vocabulary Recall},
1722         journal = {Language Learning and Technology},
1723         volume = {14},
1724         year = {2010},
1725         month = {06/2010},
1726         chapter = {74},
1727         abstract = {Video games are potential sources of second language input; however, the medium{\textquoteright}s fundamental characteristic, interactivity, has not been thoroughly examined in terms of its effect on learning outcomes. This experimental study investigated to what degree, if at all, video game interactivity would help or hinder the noticing and recall of second language vocabulary. Eighty randomly-selected Japanese university undergraduates were paired based on similar English language and game proficiencies. One subject played an English-language music video game for 20 minutes while the paired subject watched the game simultaneously on another monitor. Following gameplay, a vocabulary recall test, a cognitive load measure, an experience questionnaire, and a two-week delayed vocabulary recall test were administered. Results were analyzed using paired samples t-tests and various analyses of variance. Both the players and the watchers of the video game recalled vocabulary from the game, but the players recalled significantly less vocabulary than the watchers. This seems to be a result of the extraneous cognitive load induced by the interactivity of the game; the players perceived the game and its language to be significantly more difficult than the watchers did. Players also reported difficulty simultaneously attending to gameplay and vocabulary. Both players and watchers forgot significant amounts of vocabulary over the course of the study. We relate these findings to theories and studies of vocabulary acquisition and video game-based language learning, and then suggest implications for language teaching and learning with interactive multimedia.},
1728         keywords = {Cognitive Load, Interactivity, music video game, second language acquisition, vocabulary},
1729         issn = {1094-3501},
1730         url = {http://llt.msu.edu/vol14num2/abstracts.html$\#$dehaanreedkuwada},
1731         author = {deHaan, Jonathan and Reed, W. Michael and Kuwada, Katsuko}
1732 }
1733 @conference {4453,
1734         title = {A mixed method approach to studying collaborative video game play},
1735         booktitle = {Games + Learning + Society (GLS) 6.0},
1736         year = {2010},
1737         month = {06/11/2010},
1738         address = {Madison, Wisconsin, USA},
1739         abstract = {Activity Theory supports the idea that human activity is hierarchically organized. Our research follows a qualitative case study that highlights the use of affordances, or potentials for action, during video game player interaction among peers and the game interface. Activity Theory{\textquoteright}s meditational triangle will shed light on motivated activity itself, the tools available to complete the activity, and peer relationships (such as role specialization and rules of interaction) to evaluate game designs and their ability to fulfill serious purposes with meaningful outcomes. This presentation will focus on Activity Theory and how the meditational triangle can be used to evaluate peer relationships within game play.
1741 A blended approach incorporating features of Ethnomethodology and grounded theory will be used to construct an open-ended, bottom-up approach to studying collaborative game play. A true Ethnomethodological approach would reject the top-down, theory-driven approach required by Activity Theory, Activity Theory can highlight particular relationships during game player interactions to provide a frame for game player activity. Activity theory, when applied in conjunction with an emergent approach, can both broaden our concept of affordances and remind us to look for action potentials on the various levels of activity, and does not necessarily have to constrain findings by introducing preconceptions. While bound to the specific situation being studied and not seeking of patterns in observations, Ethnomethodology can be a very useful starting point for the analysis of game player activity in order to reveal underlying, and commonly overlooked, social assumptions.
1743 Activity theory can be incorporated following an initially open-ended, emergent Ethnomethodological approach to highlight relationships and game player motivations that might have been initially overlooked. While this process becomes partially theory-driven in the end, it also allows us to obtain some of the benefits of initially using an open-ended ethnomethodologically inspired approach. This approach can help construct a context-dependent, bottom-up, indexical and descriptive representation of game player activity, which is crucial to understanding interactions within Serious Games and their associated meaningful outcomes.},
1744         keywords = {activity, Activity Theory, Affordances, approach, collaboration, collaborative learning, game player, gameplay, Games, learning, mediation, method, mixed method, qualitative, research, serious games, Video Games},
1745         url = {http://www.glsconference.org/2010/program/event/199},
1746         author = {Sharritt, Matthew J and Sharritt, Michel A.}
1747 }
1748 @conference {4454,
1749         title = {User-experience game research?},
1750         booktitle = {Games + Learning + Society (GLS) 6.0},
1751         year = {2010},
1752         month = {06/11/2010},
1753         address = {Madison, Wisconsin, USA},
1754         abstract = {Situated Research offers in-depth video game analysis, accomplished by recording and analyzing player interaction within situated gaming environments. Techniques will be presented which uncover user practices and behaviors, aimed at uncovering a balance between aesthetics and functionality while maximizing interactive experiences. Research will be presented that outlines how to unpack gameplay experiences, so designers can design situations that yield intended, meaningful outcomes with lasting results.
1756 The cutting-edge research approach described draws from a multi-disciplinary background to construct a very detailed picture of actual use, which informs the design process. Existing literature supports the idea that games can communicate complex ideas through exploration and play-testing, using constant feedback and assessment, by observing players{\textquoteright} behavior through interaction with other related objects in an environment. The design of specific visualizations, rules, and behaviors will be discussed, with impacts on human interaction and game play. By studying relationships among game interfaces and player behavior, patterns can be found that help to maximize motivation and flow, a feeling where one loses track of time and their surroundings (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990).
1758 In addition, research outlining the importance of role specialization and complimentary virtual identities in games like MMORPGs is presented, highlighting the importance of role-specialization, where group participation is required for success: such as guild formation, where characters of different ability work together towards mutual goals. Research methods addressing group activities and specialization (assuming roles) will be described, with effects on engagement: e.g., social ties to play games.
1760 A blended method drawing from ethnomethodology (Garfinkel, 1967; Clayman \& Maynard, 1995) and grounded theory (Glaser \& Strauss, 1967; Charmaz, 2005) will describe how to go about finding patterns in gameplay, helping to design situations that yield intended, meaningful outcomes with lasting results. This open-ended approach allows observation of game players while they act in their natural environment, {\textquotedblleft}in-situ{\textquotedblright}, obtaining information that is highly relevant to the players themselves. Applying these results to game design can yield more effective, fun and playable games.},
1761         keywords = {Affordances, analysis, Experience, flow, gameplay, Games, learning, method, motivation, player experience, research, serious games, sharritt, situated, situated learning, situated research, usability, User experience, user-experience, ux, Video Games},
1762         url = {http://www.glsconference.org/2010/program/event/129},
1763         author = {Sharritt, Matthew J and Sharritt, Michel A.}
1764 }
1765 @article {4398,
1766         title = {Short-Term Effects of Playing Computer Games on Attention},
1767         journal = {Journal of Attention Disorders},
1768         volume = {13},
1769         year = {2010},
1770         month = {05/2010},
1771         pages = {668-676},
1772         chapter = {668},
1773         abstract = {Objective: The main aim of the present study is to investigate the short-term cognitive effects of computer games in children with different psychiatric disorders and normal controls. Method: One hundred one children are recruited for the study (aged between 9 and 12 years). All participants played a motor-racing game on the computer for 1 hour. The TBAG form of the Stroop task was administered to all participants twice, before playing and immediately after playing the game. Results: Participants with improved posttest scores, compared to their pretest scores, used the computer on average 0.67 {\textpm} 1.1 hr/day, while the average administered was measured at 1.6 {\textpm} 1.4 hr/day and 1.3 {\textpm} 0.9 hr/day computer use for participants with worse or unaltered scores, respectively. According to the regression model, male gender, younger ages, duration of daily computer use, and ADHD inattention type were found to be independent risk factors for worsened posttest scores. Conclusion: Time spent playing computer games can exert a short-term effect on attention as measured by the Stroop test. (J. of Att. Dis. 2010; 13(6) 668-676)},
1774         keywords = {ADHD, Attention, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, Computer, Computer games, Media},
1775         doi = {10.1177/1087054709347205},
1776         author = {Aysegul Yolga Tahiroglu and Gonca Gul Celik and Ayse Avci and Gulsah Seydaoglu and Mehtap Uzel and Handan Altunbas}
1777 }
1778 @article {4330,
1779         title = {Implementing digital game-based learning in schools: augmented learning environment of {\textquoteleft}Europe 2045{\textquoteright}},
1780         journal = {Multimedia Systems},
1781         volume = {16},
1782         year = {2010},
1783         month = {02/2010},
1784         pages = {19},
1785         type = {Regular Paper},
1786         chapter = {23},
1787         abstract = {It is widely agreed that the traditional process of schooling can benefit from the usage of computers as supportive tools. Of various approaches using computers in education over the last decade, e-learning and edutainment have become the most prominent. Recently, a number of authors have criticised these approaches arguing that they conserve traditional {\textquoteleft}drill and practice{\textquoteright} behaviouristic methods of teaching instead of enhancing and augmenting them. It has been proposed that a {\textquoteleft}paradigm shift{\textquoteright} is needed and that this shift may come through utilizing all the advantages of full-fledged video games, so-called digital game-based learning (DGBL). However, several case studies reported serious problems with the DGBL. Among the most notable issues are the lack of acceptance of games as an educational tool, problems with integration of games into formal schooling environments, and the so-called transfer problem, which is the problem of the inherent tension between game play and learning objectives, the tension that mitigates the ability of students to transfer knowledge gained in the video game to the real-world context. Here, we present a framework for an augmented learning environment (ALE), which verbalises one way of how these problems can be challenged. The ALE framework has been constructed based on our experience with the educational game, Europe 2045, which we developed and which has been implemented in a number of secondary schools in the Czech Republic during 2008. The key feature of this game is that it combines principles of on-line multi-player computer games with social, role-playing games. The evaluation which we present in this paper indicates the successful integration of the game and its acceptance by teachers and students. The ALE framework isolates key principles of the game contributing to this success, abstracts them into theoretical entities we call action-based spaces and causal and grounding links, and condenses them in a coherent methodological structure, which paves the way for further exploitation of the DGBL by educational game researchers and designers.},
1788         keywords = {Educational game, Europe 2045, formal schooling, game-based learning, simulation, transfer problem},
1789         issn = {0942-4962},
1790         doi = {10.1007/s00530-009-0174-0},
1791         url = {http://www.springerlink.com/openurl.asp?genre=article\&id=doi:10.1007/s00530-009-0174-0},
1792         author = {Brom, Cyril and Sisler, Vit and Slavik, Radovan}
1793 }
1794 @conference {4524,
1795         title = {It{\textquoteright}s Anarchy! Translating Beliefs and Desires into Prescription for Participation},
1796         booktitle = {EASST conference},
1797         year = {2010},
1798         month = {02/09/2010},
1799         address = {Trento, Italy},
1800         abstract = {This paper explored the production on an MMORPG using an ANT vocabulary. The production of games can equally be understood as building networks and finding allies to make the game idea durable. When filling this game with content developers translate their beliefs about the world that surround them and desires in this into the virtual game world. This results in game worlds that are distilled copies of a physical world, as seen be a small number of video game develpers.},
1801         keywords = {ANT, Virtual world},
1802         author = {Zackariasson, Peter}
1803 }
1804 @conference {4441,
1805         title = {I Build to Study: A Manifesto for Development-led Research in Games},
1806         booktitle = {Under The Mask 2010},
1807         year = {2010},
1808         month = {02/06/2010},
1809         publisher = {University of Bedfordshire},
1810         organization = {University of Bedfordshire},
1811         address = {University of Bedfordshire},
1812         abstract = {This paper sets out a position for development-led research as a specific form of study into games. It is argued that cataloguing elements of representative samples of games is the only real solution to building solid foundations of knowledge from which to understand patterns across the medium, within which to base specific analysis or theorising. The creation of this baseline data leads to questions about game design, particularly, which cannot be addressed by analysing existing titles. Developing experimental games and releasing these into the market place is put forwards as the only viable means of doing so. One such title is introduced and discussed, and the response from the gaming community is summarised to support this argument.},
1813         keywords = {development, first person, FPS, games studies, Korsakovia, practice-led, research, thechineseroom},
1814         url = {http://www.thechineseroom.co.uk/pinchbeckbuild.pdf},
1815         author = {Pinchbeck, D.}
1816 }
1817 @conference {188-2010-AVI-ShortPaper-GazeVis,
1818         title = {3D Attentional Maps - Aggregated Gaze Visualizations in Three-Dimensional Virtual Environments},
1819         booktitle = {Proceedings of the International Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces (AVI 2010)},
1820         year = {2010},
1821         note = {Short Paper. ISBN 978-1-4503-0076-6.},
1822         pages = {345-348},
1823         publisher = {ACM},
1824         organization = {ACM},
1825         abstract = {Gaze visualizations hold the potential to facilitate usability studies of interactive systems. However, visual gaze analysis in three-dimensional virtual environments still lacks methods and techniques for aggregating attentional representations. We propose three novel gaze visualizations for the application in such environments: projected, object-based, and surface-based attentional maps. These techniques provide an overview of how visual attention is distributed across a scene, among different models, and across a model{\textquoteright}s surface. Two user studies conducted among eye tracking and visualization experts approve the high value of these techniques for the fast evaluation of eye tracking studies in virtual environments.},
1826         keywords = {3d world, eye tracking, Game, gaze, Virtual world, Visualization, xna},
1827         url = {http://hci.usask.ca/publications/view.php?id=188},
1828         author = {Stellmach, Sophie and Nacke,Lennart and Dachselt, Raimund}
1829 }
1830 @proceedings {4476,
1831         title = {Advanced gaze visualizations for three-dimensional virtual environments},
1832         journal = {Proceedings of the 2010 Symposium on Eye-Tracking Research \& Applications},
1833         year = {2010},
1834         pages = {109-112},
1835         publisher = {ACM},
1836         address = {Austin, TX},
1837         abstract = {Gaze visualizations represent an effective way for gaining fast insights into eye tracking data. Current approaches do not adequately support eye tracking studies for three-dimensional (3D) virtual environments. Hence, we propose a set of advanced gaze visualization techniques for supporting gaze behavior analysis in such environments. Similar to commonly used gaze visualizations for two-dimensional stimuli (e.g., images and websites), we contribute advanced 3D scan paths and 3D attentional maps. In addition, we introduce a models of interest timeline depicting viewed models, which can be used for displaying scan paths in a selected time segment. A prototype toolkit is also discussed which combines an implementation of our proposed techniques. Their potential for facilitating eye tracking studies in virtual environments was supported by a user study among eye tracking and visualization experts.},
1838         keywords = {eye tracking, Game, Visualization, xna},
1839         doi = {10.1145/1743666.1743693 },
1840         url = {http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?doid=1743666.1743693},
1841         author = {Stellmach, Sophie and Nacke, Lennart E. and Dachselt, Raimund}
1842 }
1843 @article {4424,
1844         title = {Agency as Commitment to Meaning: Communicative Competence in Games},
1845         journal = {Digital Creativity},
1846         volume = {21},
1847         number = {1},
1848         year = {2010},
1849         pages = {11-17},
1850         abstract = {Agency has long been considered one of the core pleasures of interacting with digital games. Recent treatments of agency in games culture and game design have grown increasingly concerned with providing the player with limitless freedom to act. While this describes one form of pleasure, in narratively focused games it has the unfortunate consequence of pitting the agency of the player against the will of the designer. We contend that for narrative games it is valuable to refocus our definitions of agency on the notion of meaning, and propose a treatment of agency that emphasises communicative commitments. This form of agency draws on ideas from speech act theory, and relies on a degree of {\textquoteright}communicative competence{\textquoteright} on the part of both the game designer and player in order to function. We discuss mechanisms for training players in the necessary literacies needed to commit to meanings in games, and provide an example analysis of a game that successfully accomplishes this task. },
1851         keywords = {Agency, game design, game studies, Interactive Storytelling, narrative, Speech Act Theory},
1852         doi = {10.1080/14626261003654509 },
1853         url = {http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~db=all~content=a922546769~frm=abslink},
1854         author = {Tanenbaum, Karen and Tanenbaum, Joshua}
1855 }
1856 @book {4607,
1857         title = {Character-Driven Game Design: A Design Approach and its Foundations in Character Engagement},
1858         series = {Publication Series of the School of Art and Design A 101},
1859         year = {2010},
1860         publisher = {Aalto University},
1861         organization = {Aalto University},
1862         issn = {978-952-60-0002-2},
1863         url = {https://www.taik.fi/kirjakauppa/product_info.php?cPath=23\&products_id=163},
1864         author = {Lankoski, Petri}
1865 }
1866 @proceedings {4552,
1867         title = {Dark Gold: Statistical Properties of Clandestine Networks in Massively Multiplayer Online Games},
1868         journal = {IEEE, SocialComm-10},
1869         year = {2010},
1870         abstract = {Gold farming is a set of illicit practices for gathering and distributing virtual goods in online games for real money. Using anonymized data from a popular online game to construct networks of characters involved in gold farming, we examine the trade networks of gold farmers, their trading affiliates, and uninvolved characters at large. Our analysis of these complex networks{\textquoteright} connectivity, assortativity, and attack tolerance demonstrate farmers exhibit distinctive behavioral signatures which are masked by brokering affiliates. Our findings are compared against a real world drug trafficking network and suggest similarities in both organizations{\textquoteright} network structures reflect similar effects of secrecy, resilience, and efficiency.},
1871         url = {http://www.vwobservatory.com/wp/?p=110},
1872         author = {Keegan, B. and Ahmad, M. and Srivastava, J. and Williams, Dmitri and Contractor, N.}
1873 }
1874 @inbook {4551,
1875         title = {Dude looks like a lady: Gender swapping in an online game},
1876         booktitle = {Online worlds: Convergence of the real and the virtual},
1877         year = {2010},
1878         publisher = {Springer},
1879         organization = {Springer},
1880         address = {New York},
1881         abstract = {The chapter will review the literature on online identity construction and then offer an empirical account of online gender swapping in an online virtual world. By using a novel combination of survey data and game-generated behavioral logs, the chapter examines who the gender swappers are, why they engage in the practice, and what they do when swapped.
1882 },
1883         url = {http://www.vwobservatory.com/wp/?p=143},
1884         author = {Huh, S. and Williams, Dmitri},
1885         editor = {Bainbridge, W.}
1886 }
1887 @inbook {4450,
1888         title = {Evaluating Video Game Design and Interactivity},
1889         booktitle = {Interdisciplinary Models and Tools for Serious Games: Emerging  Concepts and Future Directions},
1890         year = {2010},
1891         publisher = {IGI Global},
1892         organization = {IGI Global},
1893         address = {Hershey, PA},
1894         abstract = {An emergent, bottom-up construction of video game interaction is presented, drawing from influences in ethnomethodology (Garfinkel, 1967), grounded theory (Glaser \& Strauss, 1967), and activity theory (Vygotsky, 1978; Cole \& Engestr{\"o}m, 1993; Kaptelinin \& Nardi, 2006). Following, a qualitative case study highlights the use of affordances, or potentials for action, during video game player interaction among peers and the game interface. Relationships among affordances and levels of activity are presented, which broaden the concept of affordances to include motivations. Additionally, activity theory will complement analysis by introducing the mediational triangle (Cole \& Engestr{\"o}m, 1993), providing a guide with which to analyze game player interactions and motives. The mediational triangle sheds light on the motivated activity itself, the tools available to complete the activity, and peer relationships (such as role specialization and rules of interaction) to evaluate game designs and their ability to fulfill serious purposes with meaningful outcomes.},
1895         keywords = {activity, Activity Theory, Affordances, collaboration, collaborative learning, education, gameplay, Games, interaction, learning, serious games, sharritt, situated learning, usability, Video Games},
1896         author = {Sharritt, Matthew J},
1897         editor = {Van Eck, R.}
1898 }
1899 @book {bissell_extra_2010,
1900         title = {Extra Lives: Why Video Games Matter},
1901         year = {2010},
1902         pages = {240},
1903         publisher = {Pantheon Books},
1904         organization = {Pantheon Books},
1905         abstract = {Tom Bissell is a prizewinning writer who published three widely acclaimed books before the age of thirty-four. He is also an obsessive gamer who has spent untold hours in front of his various video game consoles, playing titles such as Far Cry 2, Left 4 Dead, BioShock, and  Oblivion for, literally, days. If you are reading this flap copy, the same thing can probably be said of you, or of someone you know.
1907 Until recently, Bissell was somewhat reluctant to admit to his passion for games. In this, he is not alone. Millions of adults spend hours every week playing video games, and the industry itself now reliably outearns Hollywood. But the wider culture seems to regard video games as, at best, well designed if mindless entertainment.
1909 Extra Lives is an impassioned defense of this assailed and misunderstood art form. Bissell argues that we are in a golden age of gaming{\textemdash}but he also believes games could be even better. He offers a fascinating and often hilarious critique of the ways video games dazzle and, just as often, frustrate. Along the way, we get firsthand portraits of some of the best minds (Jonathan Blow, Clint Hocking, Cliff Bleszinski, Peter Molyneux) at work in video game design today, as well as a shattering and deeply moving final chapter that describes, in searing detail, Bissell{\textquoteright}s descent into the world of Grand Theft Auto IV, a game whose themes mirror his own increasingly self-destructive compulsions.
1911 Blending memoir, criticism, and first-rate reportage, Extra Lives is like no other book on the subject ever published. Whether you love video games, loathe video games, or are merely curious about why they are becoming the dominant popular art form of our time, Extra Lives is required reading.},
1912         isbn = {0307378705},
1913         issn = {0307378705},
1914         author = {Tom Bissell}
1915 }
1916 @conference {4550,
1917         title = {Is a {\textquotedblleft}Friend{\textquotedblright} a Friend? Investigating the Structure of Friendship Networks in Virtual Worlds},
1918         booktitle = {CHI2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems},
1919         year = {2010},
1920         address = {Atlanta, GA, USA},
1921         abstract = {In this paper, we examine online friendships at a network level. We focus on three structural signatures: network size, balance (triangles), and age homophily in the friendship ego-networks of 30 users of the virtual to previous findings from world Second Life. In relation studies of offline friendship networks, our results reveal that online networks are similar in age-homophily, but in size and balance.},
1922         url = {http://www.vwobservatory.com/wp/?p=145},
1923         author = {Foucault Welles, B. and B., Van Devender, A. and Contractor, N.}
1924 }
1925 @article {DennisCharsky04012010,
1926         title = {From Edutainment to Serious Games: A Change in the Use of Game Characteristics},
1927         journal = {Games and Culture},
1928         volume = {5},
1929         number = {2},
1930         year = {2010},
1931         pages = {177-198},
1932         abstract = {Serious games use instructional and video game elements for nonentertainment purposes. Serious games attempt to create instructionally sound and relevant learning experiences for a wide variety of audiences and industries. The author contends that for serious games to be effective, instructional designers and video game designers need to understand how the game characteristics, competition and goals, rules, challenges, choices, and fantasy, used in both edutainment and serious games, can influence motivation and facilitate learning.},
1933         keywords = {Edutainment, game characteristics, Games, serious games, Simulations},
1934         doi = {10.1177/1555412009354727},
1935         author = {Charsky, Dennis}
1936 }
1937 @article {4517,
1938         title = {Game Characters as Narrative Devices. A Comparative Analysis of Dragon Age: Origins and Mass Effect 2},
1939         journal = {Eludamos: Journal for Computer Game Culture},
1940         volume = {4},
1941         year = {2010},
1942         pages = {315-331},
1943         chapter = {315},
1944         abstract = {This article presents a comparative analysis of how characters are used as narrative tools in Bioware{\textquoteright}s computer role-playing games Dragon Age: Origins (2009) and Mass Effect 2 (2010). The analysis aims to demonstrate how sophisticated narrative features can be integrated in gameplay through the development of interesting characters. Using a comparative analysis, the author shows that the two games{\textquoteright} have different approaches to using characters as narrative tools within the same genre, while also incorporating these narrative features tightly into gameplay. Central to the argument is the idea that presenting the player as protagonist is not necessarily the most fruitful approach to narrative experiences in games, and that narrative coherence may be better established and maintained through letting non-player characters carry the weight of narrative progression. },
1945         keywords = {BioWare, CRPG, Game characters, game narrative, RPG, WRPG},
1946         issn = {1866-6124},
1947         url = {http://www.eludamos.org/index.php/eludamos/article/view/vol4no2-13},
1948         author = {J{\o}rgensen, Kristine}
1949 }
1950 @article {4071,
1951         title = {Game design as marketing: How game mechanics create demand for virtual goods},
1952         journal = {International Journal of Business Science and Applied Management},
1953         volume = {5},
1954         year = {2010},
1955         pages = {14-29},
1956         abstract = {Selling virtual goods for real money is an increasingly popular revenue model for massively-multiplayer online games (MMOs), social networking sites (SNSs) and other online hangouts. In this paper, we argue that the marketing of virtual goods currently falls short of what it could be. Game developers have long created compelling game designs, but having to market virtual goods to players is a relatively new situation to them. Professional marketers, on the other hand, tend to overlook the internal design of games and hangouts and focus on marketing the services as a whole. To begin bridging the gap, we propose that the design patterns and game mechanics commonly used in games and online hangouts should be viewed as a set of marketing techniques designed to sell virtual goods. Based on a review of a number of MMOs, we describe some of the most common patterns and game mechanics and show how their effects can be explained in terms of analogous techniques from marketing science. The results provide a new perspective to game design with interesting implications to developers. Moreover, they also suggest a radically new perspective to marketers of ordinary goods and services: viewing marketing as a form of game design.},
1957         keywords = {Business model, captology, online games, social networking, sustainability, virtual goods, Virtual world},
1958         url = {http://www.business-and-management.org/paper.php?id=48},
1959         author = {Hamari, Juho and Lehdonvirta, Vili}
1960 }
1961 @inbook {4452,
1962         title = {Gamer Talk: Becoming Impenetrably Efficient},
1963         booktitle = {Business, Technological and Social Dimensions of Computer Games: Multidisciplinary Developments},
1964         year = {2010},
1965         publisher = {IGI Global},
1966         organization = {IGI Global},
1967         address = {Hershey, PA},
1968         abstract = {A qualitative case study of student game play is presented, describing how game player communication becomes increasingly complex, efficient, and impenetrable by those who have not actively played the game. Transcripts of gathered video tape reveal how student {\textquoteleft}gamer talk{\textquoteright} became increasingly implicit, using terminology provided by the game and their shared context of playing the game. Over time, communication among game player group members generally became more efficient and less penetrable by members outside the group (such as new players), as players engaged in culture-building activities around their shared context. However, players occasionally became more explicit in their communication when grounding was required to reach shared meaning, such as in instances where players disagreed on the purpose of a particular game feature or strategy. Finally, implications are offered to suggest ways in which gamer cultures can be made more accessible to game designers and those guiding classroom interactions.},
1969         keywords = {aune, Common ground, cooperative, efficient, Ethnomethodology, explicit, grounding, identity, Implicit, inference making, joint activity, natural language processing, sharritt, situated cognition, situated learning, speech acts, suthers},
1970         author = {Sharritt, Matthew J and Aune, R. Kelly and Suthers, Daniel D.},
1971         editor = {Cruz-Cunha, M. and Carvalho, V. and Tavares, P.}
1972 }
1973 @article {albrechtslund_gamers_2010,
1974         title = {Gamers Telling Stories: Understanding Narrative Practices in an Online Community},
1975         journal = {Convergence},
1976         volume = {16},
1977         number = {1},
1978         year = {2010},
1979         pages = {112{\textendash}124},
1980         abstract = {In this article, I introduce a theoretical framework, based on the philosophy of Paul Ricoeur, for grasping how and why members of online communities construct narratives in their communications with one another. This is exemplified through a study of how players from one particular game, World of Warcraft , make sense of their gaming experience, and how they build and uphold a community identity by telling stories online. I argue that in studying and conceptualizing these types of texts through the proposed theoretical framework, we can gain insights into the process of the formation of meaning and the building of identity and community in an online setting.},
1981         keywords = {community, Fandom, gaming, identity, Internet, narrative},
1982         author = {Anne-Mette Albrechtslund}
1983 }
1984 @article {Boyden:2010p5364,
1985         title = {Games and Other Uncopyrightable Systems},
1986         journal = {Marquette Law School Legal Studies Paper},
1987         number = {10-11},
1988         year = {2010},
1989         abstract = {This article solves two puzzles in copyright law. First, it has long been blackletter law that games are not copyrightable. But the origins of this rule are lost to history, and the reasons for it are not obvious. Second, it has never been adequately explained what makes something a "system{\textquoteright}" excluded from copyright protection under Section 102(b) of the Copyright Act. Modern courts interpret "system" as merely a synonym for "idea" or "process", two other categories of exclusions. Others have interpreted it using the broadest definition in the dictionary, which would sweep in large amounts of copyrightable material as well. Neither definition gives the term any meaningful content. Like solving a crossword puzzle, this Article uses each of these questions to shed light on the other. Games are uncopyrightable because they are systems. The case law that led to the adoption of Section 102(b) demonstrates that systems are schemes for transforming user inputs into a correlated set of outputs. Games do exactly that. A game is a scheme for transforming player activities into moves within the game. The reason why games and other systems are uncopyrightable then becomes clear: the purpose of a system is to serve as a forum for user activity; it is users, not authors, who provide the primary informational value to the outputs of a system. Games and other systems are excluded in order to fence in copyright protection before it reaches user creation.},
1990         keywords = {Copyright, Games, systems},
1991         url = {http://ssrn.com/paper=1580079},
1992         author = {Bruce Boyden}
1993 }
1994 @article {ChadRaphael04012010,
1995         title = {Games for Civic Learning: A Conceptual Framework and Agenda for Research and Design},
1996         journal = {Games and Culture},
1997         volume = {5},
1998         number = {2},
1999         year = {2010},
2000         pages = {199-235},
2001         abstract = {Scholars, educators, and media designers are increasingly interested in whether and how digital games might contribute to civic learning. However, there are three main barriers to advancing understanding of games{\textquoteright} potential for civic education: the current practices of formal schooling, a dearth of evidence about what kinds of games best inspire learning about public life, and divergent paradigms of civic engagement. In response, this article develops a conceptual framework for how games might foster civic learning of many kinds. The authors hypothesize that the most effective games for civic learning will be those that best integrate game play and content, that help players make connections between their individual actions and larger social structures, and that link ethical and expedient reasoning. This framework suggests an agenda for game design and research that could illuminate whether and how games can be most fruitfully incorporated into training and education for democratic citizenship and civic leadership.},
2002         keywords = {Agency, citizenship, civic, ethics, Games, Leadership, politics},
2003         doi = {10.1177/1555412009354728},
2004         author = {Raphael, Chad and Bachen, Christine and Lynn, Kathleen-M. and Baldwin-Philippi, Jessica and McKee, Kristen A.}
2005 }
2006 @conference {moreuroplop08,
2007         title = {Guess my X and other patterns for teaching and learning mathematics},
2008         booktitle = {Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Pattern Languages of Programs (EuroPLoP 2008)},
2009         year = {2010},
2010         pages = {348-384},
2011         publisher = {CEUR-WS},
2012         organization = {CEUR-WS},
2013         abstract = {Most people see learning mathematics as a demanding, even threatening, endeavour. Consequently, creating technology-enhanced environments and activities for learning mathematics is a challenging domain. It requires a synergism of several dimensions of design knowledge: usability, software design, pedagogical design and subject matter. This paper presents a set of patterns derived from a study on designing collaborative learning activities in mathematics for children aged 10-14, and a set of tools to support them.},
2014         keywords = {design designpatterns elp-feasst gmx haifa-edtech haifa-games-course learning mathematics my patterns pedagogicalpatterns polonsky top},
2015         issn = {1613-0073},
2016         url = {http://telearn.noe-kaleidoscope.org/open-archive/browse?resource=2232},
2017         author = {Yishay Mor},
2018         editor = {Till Sch{\"u}mmer and Allan Kelly}
2019 }
2020 @article {4498,
2021         title = {Imagined Commodities: Video Game Localization and Mythologies of Cultural Difference},
2022         journal = {Games and Culture},
2023         volume = {5},
2024         year = {2010},
2025         abstract = {Broadly interested in the agents and institutions that structure social imaginations and subjectivities by mediating which images are available to what audiences to imagine through, this paper specifically considers the power at play when intermediaries{\textemdash}in this case, video game localizers{\textemdash}filter the images and narratives that are sold and marketed to global consumers, and the way these mediating processes in turn are both produced by, and productive of, (cultural) imaginings. This paper also discusses the way that localization practices{\textemdash}while often framed by a discourse that positions cultural differences as both incommensurable and easily and discretely bounded by the borders of nation-states{\textemdash}typically involve a nuanced negotiation of contradictions, dilemmas and interests. },
2026         doi = {10.1177/1555412010377322},
2027         author = {Rebecca Carlson and Jonathan Corliss}
2028 }
2029 @article {MikeSchmierbach04012010,
2030         title = {"Killing Spree": Exploring the Connection Between Competitive Game Play and Aggressive Cognition},
2031         journal = {Communication Research},
2032         volume = {37},
2033         number = {2},
2034         year = {2010},
2035         pages = {256-274},
2036         abstract = {Although scholars have repeatedly linked video games to aggression, little research has investigated how specific game characteristics might generate such effects. In this study, we consider how game mode{\textendash}cooperative, competitive, or solo{\textendash}shapes aggressive cognition. Using experimental data, we find partial support for the idea that cooperative play modes prompt less aggressive cognition. Further analysis of potential mediating variables along with the influence of gender suggests the effect is primarily explained by social learning rather than frustration.},
2037         doi = {10.1177/0093650209356394},
2038         url = {http://crx.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/37/2/256},
2039         author = {Schmierbach, Mike}
2040 }
2041 @book {4392,
2042         title = {Ludoliteracy: Defining, Understanding, and Supporting Games Education},
2043         year = {2010},
2044         pages = {162},
2045         publisher = {ETC Press},
2046         organization = {ETC Press},
2047         edition = {1},
2048         address = {Pittsburgh},
2049         abstract = { It seems like teaching about games should be easy. After all, students enjoy engaging with course content and have extensive experience with videogames. However, games education can be surprisingly complex. This book explores ludoliteracy, or the question of what it means to understand games, by looking at the challenges and problems faced by students taking games-related classes. In response to these challenges, this book then describes how online learning environments can be used to support learning about games by helping students get more from their experiences with games, and helping students use what they know to establish deeper understanding. Based on the findings from a series of research studies, Ludoliteracy examines the broader implications for supporting games education. },
2050         isbn = {978-0-557-27791-9},
2051         issn = {978-0-557-27791-9},
2052         url = {http://www.ludoliteracy.com/},
2053         author = {Zagal, Jose P.}
2054 }
2055 @article {4555,
2056         title = {The mapping principle, and a research framework for virtual worlds},
2057         journal = {Communication Theory},
2058         volume = {20},
2059         year = {2010},
2060         pages = {451-470},
2061         abstract = {Virtual worlds have exploded in popularity and drawn attention from researchers as worth studying in their own right. An additional, more radical form of scholarship has also emerged, namely, using virtual worlds to study real-world behaviors. If valid, this would enable using virtual worlds as {\textquotedblleft}petri dishes{\textquotedblright} for communication scholars. However, there are several necessary conditions to be met first. The most fundamental is the establishment of a {\textquotedblleft}mapping principle,{\textquotedblright} or the extent to which behaviors in one space are consistent with behaviors in another. This article outlines the mapping principle, spells out potential misuses, and offers a systematic exploration of validity and reliability issues. With those laid out, a research framework for mapping is presented.},
2062         url = {http://www.vwobservatory.com/wp?p=124},
2063         author = {Williams, Dmitri}
2064 }
2065 @article {179-IwCArticle-Manuscript,
2066         title = {More Than a Feeling: Measurement of Sonic User Experience and Psychophysiology in a First-Person Shooter Game},
2067         journal = {Interacting with Computers},
2068         volume = {22},
2069         number = {5},
2070         year = {2010},
2071         note = {Special Issue: Modelling user experience - An agenda for research and practice},
2072         pages = {336-343},
2073         abstract = {The combination of psychophysiological and psychometric methods provides reliable measurements of affective user experience (UX). Understanding the nature of affective UX in interactive entertainment, especially with a focus on sonic stimuli, is an ongoing research challenge. In the empirical study reported here, participants played a fast-paced, immersive first-person shooter (FPS) game modification, in which sound (on/off) and music (on/off) were manipulated, while psychophysiological recordings of electrodermal activity (EDA) and facial muscle activity (EMG) were recorded in addition to a Game Experience Questionnaire (GEQ). Results indicate no main or interaction effects of sound or music on EMG and EDA. However, a significant main effect of sound on all GEQ dimensions (immersion, tension, competence, flow, negative affect, positive affect, and challenge) was found. In addition, an interaction effect of sound and music on GEQ dimension tension and flow indicates an important relationship of sound and music for gameplay experience. Additionally, we report the results of a correlation between GEQ dimensions and EMG/EDA activity. We conclude subjective measures could advance our understanding of sonic UX in digital games, while affective tonic (i.e., long-term psychophysiological) measures of sonic UX in digital games did not yield statistically significant results. One approach for future affective psychophysiological measures of sonic UX could be experiments investigating phasic (i.e., event-related) psychophysiological measures of sonic gameplay elements in digital games. This could improve our general understanding of sonic UX beyond affective gaming evaluation.},
2074         keywords = {Action video games, Affective gaming, eda, emg, Entertainment; Emotion, evaluation, music, psychophysiology, Sonic user experience (UX), sound, usability, User experience},
2075         doi = {10.1016/j.intcom.2010.04.005},
2076         url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intcom.2010.04.005},
2077         author = {Nacke,Lennart and Grimshaw, Mark and Craig Lindley}
2078 }
2079 @proceedings {181-Future-Play-2010{\textendash}-Bateman{\textendash}-Nacke.Final,
2080         title = {The Neurobiology of Play},
2081         journal = {Proceedings of Future Play 2010},
2082         year = {2010},
2083         pages = {24-31},
2084         publisher = {ACM},
2085         address = {Vancouver, BC},
2086         abstract = {A large volume of neurobiological research has been conducted in recent years, almost all of which has been considered solely from the perspective of biology. However, most of the insights gained through this research are also valuable for the game research field. This paper discusses the implications of existing research in neurobiology to the play of games (including, but not restricted to digital games), and connects neurobiological perspectives with models of play aiming to construct superior player satisfaction models built upon biological foundations. Connections are presented between already recognized patterns of play and recent research on the brain (in particular, the limbic system). By providing a framework for understanding how the brain responds to recurrent patterns inherent to play, we aim to provide a platform for future experimental player-game interaction research (for which possible directions are briefly explored), and a propaedeutic to biologically-grounded player satisfaction models.},
2087         keywords = {brain, brainhex, gamer brain, gaming, literature review, ludology, neurobiology, PLAY, player type, playing},
2088         url = {http://hci.usask.ca/publications/view.php?id=181},
2089         author = {Chris Bateman and Nacke,Lennart}
2090 }
2091 @inbook {4451,
2092         title = {An Open-Ended, Emergent Approach for Studying Serious Games},
2093         booktitle = {Serious Educational Game Assessment},
2094         year = {2010},
2095         publisher = {Sense Publishers},
2096         organization = {Sense Publishers},
2097         address = {Rotterdam},
2098         abstract = {In a recent survey of over 319,223 students, 25,544 teachers, 19,726 parents and 3,263 school leaders in the United States, Project Tomorrow (2008) reports that more than half of students in grades 3 through 12 believe games would help them learn, and average 8-10 hours per week playing games. Only 3\% of elementary school students say they do not play games of any kind. While only 11\% of teachers reported that they already were using video games in class, many teachers feel that games could increase student engagement, address different learning styles, and teach critical thinking skills. Over half of the teachers surveyed were interested in learning more about integrating gaming technologies, with only 6\% of teachers saying that they saw no value in exploring games within education (Project Tomorrow, 2008, p. 4). These figured indicate a huge potential for Serious Games in educational contexts.
2100 Games can create a rich user experience (UX) for game players while presenting opportunities to use meta-cognitive skills. Research suggests that video games can provide a rich experience while providing game players the ability to navigate a virtual world, in which complex decision making and the management of complex issues might resemble the cognitive processes that they would employ in the real world (Ducheneaut, Yee, Nickell, \& Moore, 2006; FAS, 2006; Squire, 2005; Stokes, 2005). Games are engaging, because they: {\textquotedblleft}give us enjoyment and pleasure; give us intense and passionate involvement; give us structure; give us motivation; give us doing; give us flow; give us learning; give us ego gratification; give us adrenaline; they spark our creativity; give us social groups; and give us emotion{\textquotedblright} (Prensky, 2001, p. 144).
2102 Much of the existing research on Serious Games focuses on general introductions to gaming and their application in a classroom, broad case studies, and learning outcomes associated with using games in the classroom. There exists an opportunity for a thorough investigation into the actual uses of games in an educational setting, focusing on the collaborative learning process and how students make use of both cognitive and social affordances of gaming. Affordances can be used to focus on what opportunities are offered (afforded) to an actor by the environment (use of games in educational contexts) being studied. The term cognitive affordance is used to discuss a potential for cognitive action; and social affordance to describe a potential for social action. In this paper both the use of the video game interface and peer group cultures (Kirriemuir \& McFarlane, 2004) are foci of analysis. This descriptive analysis presented in this chapter can inform game design by improving game content and the game interface, as well as aiding in the design of content to achieve meaningful, serious outcomes. 
2104 An open-ended, emergent approach drawing from ethnomethodology and grounded theory will be presented. The descriptive analysis to be described will enable game researchers to conduct qualitative, inductive case studies of game play, digging into actual uses of games in Serious contexts. An emphasis on conducting open-ended, inductive experiments is extremely useful for investigating new situations where a theory-driven approach (deductive hypothesis testing) may not be appropriate, as the method is open-ended and allows participants to describe what they feel is most relevant, rather than the researcher (and his hypotheses) predetermining what is most important.
2106 Several influences are described, drawing from the fields of ethnomethodology, grounded theory, and usability research. While strict adherence to these fields of study is not followed, many features of these fields provide inspiration for investigating what occurs during collaborative gameplay. The hybrid method presented can assist researchers in discovering what is happening on a moment-by-moment basis as video games are played, and will guide researchers in finding patterns during game play to abstract patterns in gamer behavior. These inductively-generated hypotheses can be used to test highly relevant aspects such as a video game{\textquoteright}s usability or ability to create an engaging learning experience.
2108 Following, influential theory will be presented that helps to form the basis for the later described hybrid, qualitative, inductive methodology. Samples of collected data will be presented, in the form of transcriptions of video recorded collaborative game play. The presented transcripts are from a study within an educational context, where analysis focused on learning; however, the method presented could be applicable to other {\textquoteright}serious{\textquoteright} contexts where meaningful outcomes are expected.},
2109         keywords = {Affordances, approach, education, Games, learning, method, research, serious games, Video Games},
2110         author = {Sharritt, Matthew J},
2111         editor = {Annetta, L. and Bronack, S.}
2112 }
2113 @article {4525,
2114         title = {Paradigm Shifts in the Video Game Industry},
2115         journal = {Competitiveness Review},
2116         volume = {20},
2117         year = {2010},
2118         chapter = {139},
2119         abstract = {Purpose {\textendash} The purpose of this paper is to identify, characterize, and discuss paradigm shifts that have occurred in the video game industry with some emphasis on competition and competitiveness. Design/methodology/approach {\textendash} Basically, the paper depends upon a review of the literature associated with video game development. Past history is taken from texts and academic papers dealing with the subject. More current observations are taken from the business and popular press. These observations are placed within a context associated with the classic papers on industry evolution, paradigms, paradigm shifts, competition, and competitiveness. Findings {\textendash} It is difficult to capture present shifts in such a fast-growing industry, but these shifts seem clear: the original entry of video games into the arcade sector that led to the industry and the demise of pinball; the development of the home cartridge and console that made the industry a home-based phenomenon; the entry of independent game-publishers that made the industry a two-tiered one; and the development of massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) that changed the way games are played. Originality/value {\textendash} The video game industry is an interesting one to follow. To an extent, its development characterizes our generation {\textendash} fast paced, technologically oriented, and targeted toward the young and young at heart. This paper takes the subject away from a historical or anecdotal approach and places it within the context of industry evolution, paradigms, and paradigm shifts. It thus should be of value to students of not only video games, but also the evolution of rapidly growing industries and establishment of competitive advantages. },
2120         author = {Zackariasson, Peter and Wilson, Timothy L}
2121 }
2122 @inbook {4554,
2123         title = {The perils and promise of large-scale data extraction},
2124         booktitle = {TBA},
2125         year = {2010},
2126         publisher = {MacArthur Foundation},
2127         organization = {MacArthur Foundation},
2128         address = {Chicago},
2129         abstract = {The Virtual World Exploratorium Project was the first to gain access to the large databases controlled by game developers. However, actually using those data came with unforeseen risks and rewards. This paper discusses the lessons learned for future large-scale data projects of virtual worlds. It covers the process of hosting, formatting, and ultimately using the data sets,. These various projects included longitudinal analyses, cross-sectional designs, collapsed time-series, and the coordination of behavioral and attitudinal data, along with the need to understand the context of the data from a more anthropological point of view. The intent of the chapter is to offer the reader a sense of the challenges and potential for using such large datasets.},
2130         url = {http://www.vwobservatory.com/wp/?p=138},
2131         author = {Williams, Dmitri}
2132 }
2133 @article {JeroenJansz03012010,
2134         title = {Playing The Sims2: an exploration of gender differences in players{\textquoteright} motivations and patterns of play},
2135         journal = {New Media Society},
2136         volume = {12},
2137         number = {2},
2138         year = {2010},
2139         pages = {235-251},
2140         abstract = {The Sims is the best selling PC game of all time. It has regularly been stated that its success is partly due to its attraction to a much wider audience than the proverbial male adolescent, yet academic research on its player base is lacking. This article reports on the first ever explorative survey (N = 760) conducted among players of The Sims2. Our study combined social role theory with gender and games theorizing to enable us to understand gender differences in play. We focused on gender differences in motivation for playing The Sims2, employing uses and gratifications as our guiding theory. Our results revealed that most of our participants were indeed female. The significantly higher score of male players on the challenge motive was anticipated by social role theory, but their higher score on social interaction was unexpected. Accordingly, we discuss the implications of our results for uses and gratifications theory as well as the necessity to investigate actual practices of play in more detail.},
2141         doi = {10.1177/1461444809342267},
2142         url = {http://nms.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/12/2/235},
2143         author = {Jansz, Jeroen and Avis, Corinne and Vosmeer, Mirjam}
2144 }
2145 @article {4494,
2146         title = {Political Internet games: Engaging an audience},
2147         journal = {European Journal of Communication},
2148         volume = {25},
2149         year = {2010},
2150         pages = {227-241},
2151         chapter = {227},
2152         abstract = {This article is concerned with Internet games that critically address political issues. Developers and players of six online games were interviewed about the expressive and engaging power of the games, in particular with respect to the performance of a {\textquoteleft}political self{\textquoteright}. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used in order to explore this issue in some detail. Interviews with the six game-developers revealed that building a game contributed to the enhancement of their everyday political engagement. Players were addressed by an online questionnaire which also included playing a political game (N = 80). The results showed an impact of playing a political game on their knowledge and opinion about the issue addressed in the game.The results also suggested that the construction and expression of a {\textquoteleft}political self{\textquoteright} through the act of playing a political game may have consequences in the real world. },
2153         keywords = {engagement, political internet games, political self, serious games},
2154         doi = {10.1177/0267323110373456},
2155         author = {Joyce Neys and Jansz, Jeroen}
2156 }
2157 @article {4549,
2158         title = {Problematic internet use and psychosocial well-being among MMO players},
2159         journal = {Computers in Human Behavior},
2160         volume = {25(6) },
2161         year = {2010},
2162         chapter = {1312},
2163         abstract = {The current study examined problematic Internet use (PIU) among people who play MMO games and sought to determine whether aspects of the MMO experience are useful predictors of PIU. The study sought to determine whether game-related variables could predict PIU scores after accounting for their relationships with psychosocial well-being. Novel methods allowed us, for the first time, to connect in-game behaviors with survey results of over 4,000 MMO players. The results revealed that MMO gaming variables contributed a substantively small, but statistically significant amount of explained variance to PIU scores.},
2164         url = {http://www.vwobservatory.com//wp/?p=140},
2165         author = {Caplan,Scott and Williams, Dmitri and Yee, Nick}
2166 }
2167 @conference {1785474,
2168         title = {The Reading Glove: designing interactions for object-based tangible storytelling},
2169         booktitle = {AH {\textquoteright}10: Proceedings of the 1st Augmented Human International Conference},
2170         year = {2010},
2171         pages = {1{\textendash}9},
2172         publisher = {ACM},
2173         organization = {ACM},
2174         address = {Megeve, France},
2175         abstract = {In this paper we describe a prototype Tangible User Interface (TUI) for interactive storytelling that explores the semantic properties of tangible interactions using the fictional notion of psychometry as inspiration. We propose an extension of Heidegger{\textquoteright}s notions of "ready-to-hand" and "present-at-hand", which allows them to be applied to the narrative and semantic aspects of an interaction. The Reading Glove allows interactors to extract narrative "memories" from a collection of ten objects using natural grasping and holding behaviors via a wearable interface. These memories are presented in the form of recorded audio narration. We discuss the design process and present some early results from an informal pilot study intended to refine these design techniques for future tangible interactive narratives.},
2176         keywords = {interactive narrative, Object Stories, Tangible user interfaces, Wearable Computing},
2177         isbn = {978-1-60558-825-4},
2178         doi = {http://doi.acm.org.proxy.lib.sfu.ca/10.1145/1785455.1785474},
2179         author = {Tanenbaum, Joshua and Tanenbaum, Karen and Antle, Alissa}
2180 }
2181 @article {4532,
2182         title = {Relaciones mediadas por el sonido entre jugadores en el entorno de juegos multijugador},
2183         journal = {Comunicar},
2184         volume = {34},
2185         year = {2010},
2186         type = {Full},
2187         chapter = {73},
2188         abstract = {This essay examines the relationship between player and diegetic sound FX in immersive computer game environments and how this relationship leads, in large part, to the contextualization of the player within the virtual world of the game. This contextualization presupposes a primarily sonically-based perception of objects and events in the world and, in a multi-player game, this ultimately leads to communication between players through the medium of diegetic sound. The players{\textquoteright} engagement with, and immersion in, the game{\textquoteright}s acoustic environment is the result of a relationship with sound that is technologically mediated. The game engine, for example, produces a range of environmental or ambient sounds and almost every player action has a corresponding sound. A variety of relevant theories and disciplines are assessed for the methodological basis of the points raised, such as film sound theory and sonification, and, throughout, the First-Person Shooter sub-genre is used as an exemplar. Such games include the {\guillemotleft}Doom{\guillemotright} and {\guillemotleft}Quake{\guillemotright} series, the {\guillemotleft}Half-Life{\guillemotright} series and derivatives and later games such as {\guillemotleft}Left 4 Dead{\guillemotright}. The combination of the acoustic environment, the interactive placement of the player {\textendash} as embodied by his virtual, prosthetic arms {\textendash} in the environment and the sonic relationships between players produces the acoustic ecology. An exposition of this multi-player communication and the resultant acoustic ecology and player immersion, is the main objective of the essay.},
2189         keywords = {audio, immersion, sound},
2190         isbn = {1134-3478},
2191         doi = {10.3916/C34-2010-02-07},
2192         url = {http://digitalcommons.bolton.ac.uk/gcct_journalspr/5},
2193         author = {Grimshaw, Mark}
2194 }
2195 @book {donovan_replay:history_2010,
2196         title = {Replay: The History of Video Games},
2197         year = {2010},
2198         publisher = {Yellow Ant},
2199         organization = {Yellow Ant},
2200         abstract = {A riveting account of the birth and remarkable evolution of the most important development in entertainment since television, Replay: The History of Video Games is the ultimate history of video games. From its origins in the research labs of the 1940s to the groundbreaking success of the Wii, Replay sheds new light on gaming{\textquoteright}s past. Along the way it takes in the spectacular rise and fall of Atari, the crazed cottage industry spawned by the computers of Sir Clive Sinclair, Japan{\textquoteright}s rapid ascent to the top of the gaming tree and the seismic impact of Doom.
2202 Replay: The History of Video Games tells the sensational story of how the creative vision of game designers across the globe gave rise to one of the world{\textquoteright}s most popular and dynamic art forms. Based on extensive research and more than 140 interviews, Replay includes insights from video game legends such as Atari founder Nolan Bushnell, Will Wright - the creator of The Sims, Doom designer John Romero and Hironobu Sakaguchi of Final Fantasy fame. Replay also includes a foreword by Richard Garriott (aka Lord British), a gameography covering more than 800 of the most notable games ever made and a 26-page guide to the consoles and computers of gaming{\textquoteright}s past and present.},
2203         isbn = {0956507204},
2204         author = {Tristan Donovan}
2205 }
2206 @article {4553,
2207         title = {Schmoozing and Smiting: Trust, Social Institutions and Communication Patterns in an MMOG},
2208         journal = {Journal of Computer Mediated Communication},
2209         year = {2010},
2210         abstract = {This study examines how trust is related to online social institutions, self-disclosure, mode of communication, and message privacy in a popular MMOG, Everquest II. The findings, based on survey and behavioral data from over 3,500 players, illustrate how MMOGs may support trust-development. Trust was higher within closer social circles: trust was highest in teammates, followed other players across the game, followed by others online. Self-disclosure was positively related to trust of teammates and others in the game, while voice chat was only related to teammate trust. These findings indicate that social structures and communication processes contribute to trust development in MMOGs, supporting the claim that these online spaces provide social support that is unavailable in other realms of our society.},
2211         keywords = {Communication patterns, Trust},
2212         url = {http://www.vwobservatory.com/wp/?p=126},
2213         author = {Ratan, R. and Chung, J. and Shen, C. and Poole, M. and Williams, Dmitri}
2214 }
2215 @inbook {4502,
2216         title = {Time for New Terminology? Diegetic and Non-Diegetic Sounds in Computer Games Revisited},
2217         booktitle = {Game Sound Technology and Player Interaction: Concepts and Developments},
2218         year = {2010},
2219         pages = {78-97},
2220         publisher = {IGI Global},
2221         organization = {IGI Global},
2222         chapter = {5},
2223         abstract = {This chapter is a critical discussion of the use of the concepts diegetic and non-diegetic in connection with computer game sound. It is argued that the terms are problematic because they do not take into account the functional aspects of sound and how gameworlds differ from traditional fictional worlds. The aims of the chapter are to re-evaluate earlier attempts at adapting this terminology to games and to present an alternative model of conceptualizing the spatial properties of game sound with respect to the gameworld.},
2224         keywords = {Computer games, Game Interface, game sound, gameworlds, Transdiegetic},
2225         isbn = {9781616928285},
2226         url = {http://hdl.handle.net/1956/4287},
2227         author = {J{\o}rgensen, Kristine},
2228         editor = {Grimshaw, Mark (ed.)}
2229 }
2230 @book {4377,
2231         title = {Toward a Ludic Architecture: The Space of Play and Games},
2232         year = {2010},
2233         pages = {382},
2234         publisher = {ETC Press},
2235         organization = {ETC Press},
2236         abstract = { Whether we think of a board game, an athletic competition in a stadium, a videogame, playful social networking on the World Wide Web, an Alternate Reality Game, a location-based mobile game, or any combination thereof: Ludic activities are, have, and take place in or at, spaces.
2238 {\textquotedblleft}Toward a Ludic Architecture{\textquotedblright} is a pioneering publication, architecturally framing play and games as human practices in and of space. Filling the gap in literature, Steffen P. Walz considers game design theory and practice alongside architectural theory and practice, asking: how are play and games architected? What kind of architecture do they produce and in what way does architecture program play and games? What kind of architecture could be produced by playing and gameplaying?
2240 {\textquotedblleft}Toward a Ludic Architecture{\textquotedblright} is a must-read for analyzing and designing play and games from an architectural standpoint. Such a contribution is particularly applicable in an era when games extend into physical, designed space that is increasingly permeated by devices, sensors, and information networks, allowing for rules and fictions to superimpose our everyday environments. Including a maze-like, episodic, and critical discussion of interweaving {\textquotedblleft}play-grounds,{\textquotedblright} {\textquotedblleft}Toward a Ludic Architecture{\textquotedblright} is a playful look at the conceptual space of play and games.},
2241         keywords = {architecture, place, PLAY, space, Video Games},
2242         issn = {978-0-557-28563-1},
2243         url = {http://www.lulu.com/content/8042752},
2244         author = {Walz,Steffen P}
2245 }
2246 @article {4534,
2247         title = {Uncanny behaviour in survival horror games},
2248         journal = {Journal of Gaming and Virtual Worlds},
2249         volume = {2},
2250         year = {2010},
2251         chapter = {3-25},
2252         abstract = {This study investigates the relationship between the perceived strangeness of a virtual character and the perception of human likeness for some attributes of motion and sound. Participants (N=100) were asked to rate thirteen video clips of twelve different virtual characters and one human. The results indicate that attributes of motion and sound do exaggerate the uncanny phenomenon and how frightening that character is perceived to be. Strong correlations were identified for the perceived strangeness of a character with how human-like a character{\textquoteright}s voice sounded, how human-like the facial expression appeared and how synchronized the character{\textquoteright}s sound was with lip movement; characters rated as the least synchronized were perceived to be the most frightening. Based on the results of this study, this article seeks to define an initial set of hypotheses for the fear-evoking aspects of character facial rendering and vocalization in survival horror games that can be used by game designers seeking to increase the fear factor in the genre, and that will form the basis of further experiments, which, it is hoped, will lead to a conceptual framework for the uncanny.},
2253         keywords = {characters, photo-realism, uncanny valley},
2254         issn = {1757-191X},
2255         doi = {0.1386/jgvw.2.1.3_1},
2256         url = {http://digitalcommons.bolton.ac.uk/gcct_journalspr/13/},
2257         author = {Angela Tinwell and Grimshaw, Mark and Andrew Williams}
2258 }
2259 @book {4379,
2260         title = {Understanding Computer Game Culture: the Cultural Shaping of a New Medium},
2261         year = {2010},
2262         pages = {280},
2263         publisher = {LAP Lambert Academic Publishing},
2264         organization = {LAP Lambert Academic Publishing},
2265         address = {Saarbr{\"u}cken},
2266         abstract = {In the past few decades, video games have developed from a marginal technological experiment into a mainstream medium. During this period they have gone through several transformations, from arcade machines offering a few minutes of solitary fun for a quarter to monthly subscription-based online MMOs in which thousands of players spend hundreds or even thousands of hours and lead a significant part of their social life as a fantasy character. But what is it that has driven video games? development? Is it technology? Indeed, with every new generation of hardware, game designers were given a broader set of tools for evoking exhilarating experiences. But is not culture at least as important? What would games look like if Tolkien never had written Lord of the Rings, or if Nintendo had not brought Japanese manga drawing styles to the new medium? This book looks at the theoretical challenges and foundations on which to base a cultural shaping approach towards the evolution of video games and proposes a set of concepts for analyzing and describing this process.},
2267         isbn = {383833213X},
2268         issn = {383833213X},
2269         author = {Van Looy, Jan}
2270 }
2271 @article {4394,
2272         title = {Video Game Play, Language Learning, Creation and Community},
2273         year = {2010},
2274         abstract = {Video and computer games are receiving increasing attention by researchers and practitioners in education; however, most of the theory and pedagogy focus on general education (e.g., Squire, 2006) or language and literacy development of native speakers (e.g., Gee, 2007). There are very few investigations of game play or game culture and second language development. Teachers and institutions must know more about games to use the media effectively. This report describes the creation and two-year administration of a Video Game Library in a Japanese university for the purpose of developing players{\textquoteright} language, technology and creative skills. The following activities are discussed: (1) autonomous learning (2) game creation (3) game journalism and (4) community interactions. Analyses of observations, interviews, tests, surveys and student notes and projects for trends in learning outcomes and player experiences are presented. Recommendations for library administrators, project suggestions and materials for teachers, and examples of student projects are appended.},
2275         url = {http://langcom.u-shizuoka-ken.ac.jp/dehaan-games-language-learning},
2276         author = {deHaan, Jonathan}
2277 }
2278 @article {4523,
2279         title = {Virtual identities and market segmentation in marketing in and through Massively Multiplayer Online Games (MMOGs)},
2280         journal = {Services Marketing Quarterly},
2281         volume = {31},
2282         year = {2010},
2283         chapter = {275},
2284         abstract = {It has been asserted that the emergence of virtual worlds has changed the ways that business may be conducted. In massively 
2285 multiplayer online games (MMOGs) a participant is given the opportunity to not only create an identity of how they would like to appear but also select individual activities. Clearly, this opportunity may carry marketing implications because marketers are given the opportunity to consider potential customers as they might like to be. Background in self-identity and buying behavior, the nature of MMOGs, taxonomy of gamers, and the construction of identity is sketched. Five propositions are developed that summarize our observations from this foundation.},
2286         keywords = {identity construction, market segmentation, psychographics, Video Games, virtual worlds},
2287         issn = {1533-2969},
2288         author = {Zackariasson, Peter and W{\r a}hlin, Nils and Wilson, Timothy L}
2289 }
2290 @book {4538,
2291         title = {Virtual Justice},
2292         year = {2010},
2293         note = {The full text of the book is available here: http://bit.ly/virtualjustice (3 MB PDF)},
2294         pages = {240},
2295         publisher = {Yale University Press},
2296         organization = {Yale University Press},
2297         address = {New Haven},
2298         abstract = {Tens of millions of people today are living part of their life in a virtual world. In places like World of Warcraft, Second Life, and Free Realms, people are making friends, building communities, creating art, and making real money. Business is booming on the virtual frontier, as billions of dollars are paid in exchange for pixels on screens. But sometimes things go wrong. Virtual criminals defraud online communities in pursuit of real-world profits. People feel cheated when their avatars lose virtual property to wrongdoers. Increasingly, they turn to legal systems for solutions. But when your avatar has been robbed, what law is there to assist you?
2300 In Virtual Justice, Greg Lastowka illustrates the real legal dilemmas posed by virtual worlds. Presenting the most recent lawsuits and controversies, he explains how governments are responding to the chaos on the cyberspace frontier. After an engaging overview of the history and business models of today{\textquoteright}s virtual worlds, he explores how laws of property, jurisdiction, crime, and copyright are being adapted to pave the path of virtual law.
2302 Virtual worlds are becoming more important to society with each passing year. This pioneering study will be an invaluable guide to scholars of online communities for years to come. },
2303         isbn = {9780300141207},
2304         issn = {9780300141207},
2305         url = {http://bit.ly/virtualjustice},
2306         author = {Lastowka,Greg}
2307 }
2308 @article {ChristopherA. Paul04012010,
2309         title = {Welfare Epics? The Rhetoric of Rewards in World of Warcraft},
2310         journal = {Games and Culture},
2311         volume = {5},
2312         number = {2},
2313         year = {2010},
2314         pages = {158-176},
2315         abstract = {After the Lead Content Designer of World of Warcraft (WoW), Tigole, deemed a new set of rewards welfare{\textquoteright}{\textquoteright} epics, the WoW player community responded in a multitude of fascinating ways. Using rhetorical analysis, gaming studies literature, and a critical analysis of welfare discourse, four rhetorical strategies can be seen in the discourse produced by the playing community. From directly confronting Tigole{\textquoteright}s statements to lamenting a loss of avatar capital and analyzing the role the changes have on the multiplayer aspects of the game, the rhetoric of welfare{\textquoteright}{\textquoteright} epics offers unique insights into the importance of balance and scarcity in the normative structures of WoW, how players accept and perpetuate the belief that rewards in online games should be earned,{\textquoteright}{\textquoteright} and how WoW{\textquoteright}s system of rewards has been fundamentally altered since the game{\textquoteright}s launch.},
2316         keywords = {PvP, raiding, reward systems, rhetoric, welfare epics, World of Warcraft},
2317         doi = {10.1177/1555412009354729},
2318         author = {Paul, Christopher A.}
2319 }
2320 @proceedings {182-Nacke{\textendash}-Wiimote-vs-Controller-EEG-Study,
2321         title = {Wiimote vs. Controller: Electroencephalographic Measurement of Affective Gameplay Interaction},
2322         journal = {Proceedings of Future Play 2010},
2323         year = {2010},
2324         pages = {183-190},
2325         publisher = {ACM},
2326         address = {Vancouver, BC},
2327         abstract = {Psychophysiological methods provide covert and reliable measurements of affective user experience (UX). The nature of affective UX in interactive entertainment, such as digital games, is currently not well understood. With the dawn of new gaming consoles, scientific methodologies for studying user interaction in an immersive entertainment context are needed. This paper reports a study on the influence of interaction modes (Playstation 2 game controller vs. Wii remote and Nunchuk) on subjective experience assessment and brain activity measured with electroencephalography (EEG). Results indicate that EEG alpha and delta power correlate with negative affect and tension when using regular game controller input. EEG beta and gamma power seem to be related to the feeling of possible action in spatial presence with a PS2 game controller. Delta as well as theta power correlate with self-location using a Wii remote and Nunchuk.},
2328         keywords = {brain-computer interface, brainwave, controller, EEG, Experience, Fun, gameplay, immersion, interface, playstation 2, Presence, ui, wii, wiimote},
2329         url = {http://hci.usask.ca/publications/view.php?id=182},
2330         author = {Nacke,Lennart}
2331 }
2332 @article {4376,
2333         title = {Young children{\textquoteright}s play in online virtual worlds},
2334         journal = {Journal of Early Childhood Research},
2335         volume = {8},
2336         year = {2010},
2337         pages = {23-39},
2338         abstract = {Virtual worlds for children are becoming increasingly popular, and yet there are few accounts of children{\textquoteright}s use of these worlds. Young children are spending increasing amounts of time online as technology continues to create significant changes in social and cultural practices in the 21st century. Some of children{\textquoteright}s online interactions can be categorized as playful in nature; however, play and technology are frequently positioned as oppositional. In this article, I explore the tensions surrounding the relationship between play and technology and relate it to similar discourses concerning the concepts of {\textquoteleft}real{\textquoteright} and {\textquoteleft}virtual{\textquoteright}. I then move on to consider the growing popularity of virtual worlds with young children and examine the way in which the worlds have been marketed to children and parents/carers on the basis of their propensity to offer online play in a safe environment. The article provides an overview of two virtual worlds currently targeted at young children and draws on a survey of primary children{\textquoteright}s use of virtual worlds in order to identify the nature of play in these environments. One hundred and seventy-five children aged 5{\textemdash}11 completed an online survey and 15 took part in group interviews in which their use of virtual worlds was explored. This article focuses on the data relating to 17 children aged from five to seven years who used virtual worlds. Findings indicate that virtual worlds offered these young children a wide range of opportunities for play and that the types of play in which they engaged relate closely to {\textquoteleft}offline{\textquoteright} play. The implications for early years educators are considered. },
2339         keywords = {PLAY, virtual worlds},
2340         doi = {10.1177/1476718X09345406},
2341         author = {Jackie Marsh}
2342 }
2343 @article {4546,
2344         title = {At Least Nine Ways to Play: Approaching Gamer Mentalities},
2345         journal = {Games and Culture},
2346         year = {2010},
2347         abstract = {Do digital games and play mean the same things for different people? This article presents the results of a 3-year study in which we sought for new ways to approach digital games cultures and playing practices. First, the authors present the research process in brief and emphasize the importance of merging different kinds of methods and materials in the study of games cultures. Second, the authors introduce a gaming mentality heuristics that is not dedicated to a certain domain or genre of games, addressing light casual and light social gaming motivations as well as more dedicated ones in a joint framework. The analysis reveals that, in contrast to common belief, the majority of digital gaming takes place between {\textquotedblleft}casual relaxing{\textquotedblright} and {\textquotedblleft}committed entertaining,{\textquotedblright} where the multiplicity of experiences, feelings, and understandings that people have about their playing and digital games is wide ranging. Digital gaming is thus found to be a multifaceted social and cultural phenomenon that can be understood, practiced, and used in various ways.},
2348         author = {Kallio, Kirsi Pauliina and Mayra,Frans and Kaipainen, Kirsikka}
2349 }
2350 @article {4492,
2351         title = {{\textquoteright}It{\textquoteright}s in the Game{\textquoteright} and Above the Game: An Analysis of the Users of Sports Videogames},
2352         journal = {Convergence},
2353         volume = {16},
2354         number = {3},
2355         year = {2010},
2356         pages = {334-354},
2357         abstract = {This article is a participant-observer case study of a group of sports videogame players. The game played, Pro Evolution Soccer 2008, belongs to the author-designated {\textquoteleft}televisual{\textquoteright} sub-genre, remediating (Bolter and Grusin, 1999) aspects of televisual coverage such as the broadcast angle, action replays and commentary teams. We investigate the use of these games and their position within both gaming and sport culture. To do so we approach the player from four perspectives: dress, body language, argot (slang, group-specific dialect), and proxemics (examining how people spatially situate themselves in regard to one another within the social environment). These categories then combine to formulate the last section, {\textquoteleft}Social Play{\textquoteright}, where we discuss the social meta-game being enacted between participants to barter social status, capital (Bourdieu, 1984) and specific gamer capital (Consalvo, 2007). },
2358         author = {Steven Conway}
2359 }
2360 @article {4544,
2361         title = {Playing Games With Cultural Heritage: A Comparative Case Study Analysis of the Current Status of Digital Game Preservation},
2362         journal = {Games and Culture},
2363         year = {2010},
2364         abstract = {Digital games are major part of popular culture. They are also an important part of the history of play and as such they deserve to take their rightful place in our cultural legacy. However, they have received little attention in the academic literature on preservation. Despite this lack of interest, some institutions have recognized the significance of preventing the loss of these valuable materials but to what extent is their longevity ensured? What is the current status of game preservation? What are the challenges facing institutions as they {\textquotedblleft}play games with cultural heritage?{\textquotedblright} This article provides an overview of the current state of play and, using a comparative case study analysis, provides an insight into the issues, which lie ahead.},
2365         author = {Barwick, Joanna and Dearnley, James and Muir, Adrienne}
2366 }
2367 @article {4596,
2368         title = {Video Games and Spatial Cognition},
2369         journal = {Review of General Psychology},
2370         volume = {14},
2371         number = {2},
2372         year = {2010},
2373         note = {doi: DOI: 10.1037/a0019491},
2374         pages = {92-104},
2375         abstract = {Video game enthusiasts spend many hours at play, and this intense activity has the potential to alter both brain and behavior. We review studies that investigate the ability of video games to modify processes in spatial cognition. We outline the initial stages of research into the underlying mechanisms of learning, and we also consider possible applications of this new knowledge. Several experiments have shown that playing action games induces changes in a number of sensory, perceptual, and attentional abilities that are important for many tasks in spatial cognition. These basic capacities include contrast sensitivity, spatial resolution, the attentional visual field, enumeration, multiple object tracking, and visuomotor coordination and speed. In addition to altering performance on basic tasks, playing action video games has a beneficial effect on more complex spatial tasks such as mental rotation, thus demonstrating that learning generalizes far beyond the training activities in the game. Far transfer of this sort is generally elusive in learning, and we discuss some early attempts to elucidate the brain functions that are responsible. Finally, we suggest that studying video games may contribute not only to an improved understanding of the mechanisms of learning but may also offer new approaches to teaching spatial skills.},
2376         keywords = {action video game, brain training, Gender Differences, perceptual learning, spatial attention},
2377         isbn = {1089-2680},
2378         author = {Spence, Ian and Feng, Jing}
2379 }
2380 @article {4601,
2381         title = {Video Games in Psychotherapy},
2382         journal = {Review of General Psychology},
2383         volume = {14},
2384         number = {2},
2385         year = {2010},
2386         note = {doi: DOI: 10.1037/a0019439},
2387         pages = {141-146},
2388         abstract = {Video games have found their way into the clinical care of youth in most medical fields, and academic interest in their use is increasing steadily. The popularity of video games among youth may qualify them as a useful tool in psychotherapy for children and adolescents. Limited literature on use of video games in mental health care suggests that they can help young patients become more cooperative and enthusiastic about psychotherapy. Recent experience suggests that video games may facilitate therapeutic relationships, complement the psychological assessment of youth by evaluating cognitive skills, and elaborate and clarify conflicts during the therapy process. Concerns about video game content, perceived effects on youth, and lack of familiarity with this medium may form a barrier in their use in therapy offices. Further research on the benefits of video game use in psychotherapy, including patient characteristics that may moderate outcomes, is needed. Finally, future collaborations between clinicians and video game developers may produce specific games to be used in psychotherapy.},
2389         keywords = {child and adolescent psychotherapy, Media, Video Games},
2390         isbn = {1089-2680},
2391         author = {Ceranoglu, T. Atilla}
2392 }
2393 @article {4597,
2394         title = {Videogames and Young People With Developmental Disorders},
2395         journal = {Review of General Psychology},
2396         volume = {14},
2397         number = {2},
2398         year = {2010},
2399         note = {doi: DOI: 10.1037/a0019438},
2400         pages = {122-140},
2401         abstract = {Young people with developmental disorders experience difficulties with many cognitive and perceptual tasks, and often suffer social impairments. Yet, like typical youth, many appear to enjoy playing videogames. This review considers the appeal of videogames to individuals with autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and specific language impairment. It examines how they respond to the various challenges that play entails with particular reference to sensory, cognitive, and social dimensions. It is argued that research into how these young people engage voluntarily with this dynamic and challenging medium offers great potential to extend our empirical and theoretical understanding of the disorders. Many gaps in our current knowledge are identified and several additional themes for possible future research are proposed.},
2402         keywords = {ADHD, Asperger syndrome, autism, developmental disorders, dopamine, specific language impairment, videogames},
2403         isbn = {1089-2680},
2404         author = {Durkin, Kevin}
2405 }
2406 @article {4584,
2407         title = {Virtual games in social science education},
2408         journal = {Computers \& Education},
2409         volume = {55},
2410         number = {3},
2411         year = {2010},
2412         pages = {1336-1345},
2413         chapter = {1336},
2414         abstract = {The new technologies make the appearance of highly motivating and dynamic games with different levels of interaction possible, in which large amounts of data, information, procedures and values are included which are intimately bound with the social sciences. We set out from the hypothesis that videogames may become interesting resources for their inclusion in the education processes in formal contexts. Videogames become laboratories for social experimentation where the scenarios, conditions and situations affecting a given human phenomenon are reproduced. In this article, 35 videogames are analysed to find out which contents can be approached through them for the teaching of Social Sciences using problem-solving strategies. To this end, instruments for information gathering (data collection grid) and analysis (category system) were designed. The different contents of a social nature are analysed according to the study categories and in turn from the areas of social issues detected in them. We present a working proposal for the use of videogames in the classroom on the basis of resolution of relevant problems, determining which are the issues that we consider relevant, what questions the pupils can be asked to approach through videogames and what the characteristics, benefits and obstacles are in the use of these resources in the teaching of Social Sciences.},
2415         keywords = {applications in subject areas, improving classroom teaching, interactive learning environments, Pedagogical issues, teaching/learning strategies},
2416         isbn = {0360-1315},
2417         author = {Cuenca L{\'o}pez, Jos{\'e} M. and Mart{\'\i}n C{\'a}ceres, Myriam J.}
2418 }
2419 @proceedings {4535,
2420         title = {Bridging the Uncanny: An impossible traverse?},
2421         journal = {MindTrek},
2422         year = {2009},
2423         month = {September 30},
2424         address = {Tampere, Finland},
2425         abstract = {This paper proposes that increasing technological sophistication in the creation of realism for human-like virtual characters is matched by increasing technological discernment on the part of the viewer. One of the goals for achieving a realism that is believable for virtual characters is to overcome the Uncanny Valley where perceived eeriness or familiarity are rated against perceived human-likeness. Empirical evidence shows the uncanny can be applied to virtual characters, yet implies a more complex picture than the shape of a deep valley with a sharp gradient as depicted in Mori"s original plot of the Uncanny Valley. Our results imply that: (1) perceived familiarity is dependent upon a wider range of variables other than appearance and behaviour; and (2) for realistic, human-like characters, the Uncanny Valley is better replaced with the notion of an Uncanny Wall because the Uncanny Valley, as a concept, is not fully supported by the empirical evidence but, more importantly as a standard for creating human-like realism, is an impossible traverse.},
2426         keywords = {characters, photo-realistic, uncanny valley},
2427         url = {http://digitalcommons.bolton.ac.uk/gcct_conferencepr/10/},
2428         author = {Angela Tinwell and Grimshaw, Mark}
2429 }
2430 @proceedings {4531,
2431         title = {The audio uncanny valley: Sound, fear and the horror game},
2432         journal = {Audio Mostly},
2433         year = {2009},
2434         month = {September 2},
2435         address = {Glasgow},
2436         abstract = {The 1970 proposition that there is an Uncanny Valley which man-made characters inhabit as their human-likeness (both appearance and movement) increases has been a growing topic of debate in the fields of robotics, animation and computer games particularly since the turn of the century. However, what the theory and subsequent related writings do not account for is the role of sound in creating perceptions of uncanniness and fear, a particularly useful attribute in computer game genres such as survival horror. This paper has a dual purpose: to explore diverse writings on the uncanny as they relate to sound and to prepare the groundwork for future work investigating the possible relationship between sound and the Uncanny Valley.
2438 The paper comprises, in large part, a survey of selected works on the uncanny and the Uncanny Valley from a variety of disciplines. It emphasizes the link between uncanniness and negative emotions, such as fear and apprehension, and discusses the genesis of the term uncanny in early psychoanalytical writings, relating this to more modern theories on human emotion. Writings on the uncanny, or related emotional states, from psychoacoustics, textiles research, films and computer games are assessed as to their validity and potential application to the fostering of an aural climate of fear in computer games and, where such writings do not explicitly deal with sound, attempts are made to apply the ideas contained within to sound as it exists within computer games. In dealing with the theory of the Uncanny Valley, the paper points out the theory{\textquoteright}s focus on appearance and movement to the exclusion of sound and suggests that there is an uncanny in sound that might, in future, be used to modify the Uncanny Valley theory. Throughout, there is the suggestion that the uncanny (and any future theory of an audio or audiovisual Uncanny Valley) can be harnassed to the design of horror computer games.
2440 Ultimately, it is hoped, such work will be of use to computer game sound designers who wish to create a greater perception of fear and apprehension through the canny use of uncanny sound. Some of the design tips presented at the end of the discussion are already used instinctively by sound designers across a range of media, including computer games, whereas others are less obvious in their origin and affect. Recently published empirical data is provided to strengthen the case for the latter. In some cases, the design tips must await the coming of procedural audio to computer games.},
2441         keywords = {fear, sound, uncanny valley},
2442         url = {http://digitalcommons.bolton.ac.uk/gcct_conferencepr/9},
2443         author = {Grimshaw, Mark}
2444 }
2445 @article {4213,
2446         title = {Games For Health: The Latest Tool In The Medical Care Arsenal},
2447         journal = {Health Affairs},
2448         volume = {28},
2449         number = {5},
2450         year = {2009},
2451         note = {492HPTimes Cited:0Cited References Count:11},
2452         month = {Sep-Oct},
2453         pages = {W842-W848},
2454         abstract = {At the heart of any promising plan to transform the health care system lie two priorities: broader access to care for patients, and deeper engagement in health care by patients. Although the problem of expanding access to affordable care remains unresolved, new tools for deepening consumers{\textquoteright} engagement in health care are proliferating like viral spores in a virtual pond. Digital games, including virtual realities, computer simulations, and online play, are valuable tools for fostering patient participation in health-related activities. This is why gaming is the latest tool in the arsenal to improve health outcomes: gaming makes health care fun. [Health Aff (Millwood). 2009; 28(5): w842-8 (published online 4 August 2009; 10.1377/hlthaff.28.5.w842)]},
2455         keywords = {trial, Video Game},
2456         isbn = {0278-2715},
2457         url = {<Go to ISI>://000269646100060},
2458         author = {Hawn, C.}
2459 }
2460 @article {4289,
2461         title = {The banality of simulated evil: designing ethical gameplay},
2462         journal = {Ethics and Information Technology},
2463         volume = {11},
2464         number = {3},
2465         year = {2009},
2466         note = {499RJTimes Cited:0Cited References Count:46},
2467         month = {Sep},
2468         pages = {191-202},
2469         abstract = {This paper offers an analytical description of the ethics of game design and its influence in the ethical challenges computer games present. The paper proposes a set of game design suggestions based on the Information Ethics concept of Levels of Abstraction which can be applied to formalise ethical challenges into gameplay mechanics; thus allowing game designers to incorporate ethics as part of the experience of their games. The goal of this paper is twofold: to address some of the reasons why computer games present ethical challenges, and to exploit the informational nature of games to suggest how to develop games with ethics at the core of their gameplay.},
2470         keywords = {Computer game design, Desensitization, ethics, game design, gaming, information ethics, level of abstraction, methodologies, Real-life, simulation, Video Games, Violence},
2471         isbn = {1388-1957},
2472         url = {<Go to ISI>://000270242200004},
2473         author = {Sicart, M.}
2474 }
2475 @article {4210,
2476         title = {Impact of IQ, computer-gaming skills, general dexterity, and laparoscopic experience on performance with the da Vinci (R) surgical system},
2477         journal = {International Journal of Medical Robotics and Computer Assisted Surgery},
2478         volume = {5},
2479         number = {3},
2480         year = {2009},
2481         note = {496AUTimes Cited:0Cited References Count:14},
2482         month = {Sep},
2483         pages = {327-331},
2484         abstract = {Background Due to improved ergonomics and dexterity, robotic surgery is promoted as being easily performed by surgeons with no special skills necessary. We tested this hypothesis by measuring IQ elements, computer gaming skills, general dexterity with chopsticks, and evaluating laparoscopic experience in correlation to performance ability with the da Vinci (R) robot.Methods Thirty-four individuals were tested for robotic dexterity, IQ elements, computer-gaming skills and general dexterity. Eighteen surgically inexperienced and 16 laparoscopically trained surgeons were included. Each individual performed three different tasks with the da Vinci surgical system and their times were recorded. An IQ test (elements: logical thinking, 3D imagination and technical understanding) was completed by each participant. Computer skills were tested with a simple computer game (hand-eye coordination) and general dexterity was evaluated by the ability to use chopsticks.Results We found no correlation between logical thinking, 3D imagination and robotic skills. Both computer gaming and general dexterity showed a slight but non-significant improvement in performance with the da Vinci robot (p > 0.05). A significant correlation between robotic skills, technical understanding and laparoscopic experience was observed (p < 0.05).Conclusions The data support the conclusion that there are no significant correlations between robotic performance and logical thinking, 3D understanding, computer gaming skills and general dexterity. A correlation between robotic skills and technical understanding may exist. Laparoscopic experience seems to be the strongest predictor of performance with the da Vinci surgical system. Generally, it appears difficult to determine non-surgical predictors for robotic surgery. Copyright (C) 2009 John Wiley \& Sons, Ltd.},
2485         keywords = {cholecystectomy, computer gaming, da vinci, endoscopy, Games, iq, laparoscopic experience, robotic surgery, robotics, Surgery},
2486         isbn = {1478-5951},
2487         url = {<Go to ISI>://000269941100011},
2488         author = {Hagen, M. E. and Wagner, O. J. and Inan, I. and Morel, P.}
2489 }
2490 @article {4302,
2491         title = {A temporal perspective of the computer game development process},
2492         journal = {Information Systems Journal},
2493         volume = {19},
2494         number = {5},
2495         year = {2009},
2496         note = {482YUTimes Cited:1Cited References Count:45},
2497         month = {Sep},
2498         pages = {479-497},
2499         abstract = {This paper offers an insight into the games software development process from a time perspective by drawing on an in-depth study in a games development organization. The wider market for computer games now exceeds the annual global revenues of cinema. We have, however, only a limited scholarly understanding of how games studios produce games. Games projects require particular attention because their context is unique. Drawing on a case study, the paper offers a theoretical conceptualization of the development process of creative software, such as games software. We found that the process, as constituted by the interactions of developers, oscillates between two modes of practice: routinized and improvised, which sediment and flux the working rhythms in the context. This paper argues that while we may predeterminately lay down the broad stages of creative software development, the activities that constitute each stage, and the transition criteria from one to the next, may be left to the actors in the moment, to the temporality of the situation as it emerges. If all development activities are predefined, as advocated in various process models, this may leave little room for opportunity and the creative fruits that flow from opportunity, such as enhanced features, aesthetics and learning.},
2500         keywords = {computer game, design, model, software development process, software-development, temporal structure, Time},
2501         isbn = {1350-1917},
2502         url = {<Go to ISI>://000268927700003},
2503         author = {Stacey, P. and Nandhakumar, J.}
2504 }
2505 @article {4292,
2506         title = {Children and Video Games: Addiction, Engagement, and Scholastic Achievement},
2507         journal = {Cyberpsychology \& Behavior},
2508         volume = {12},
2509         number = {5},
2510         year = {2009},
2511         note = {504ZCTimes Cited:0Cited References Count:41},
2512         month = {Oct},
2513         pages = {567-572},
2514         abstract = {The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between video gaming habits and elementary school students{\textquoteright} academic performance. More specifically, we seek to examine the usefulness of a distinction between addiction and high engagement and assess the predictive validity of these concepts in the context of scholastic achievement. Three hundred thirty-three children ages 8 to 12 years from two primary schools in Singapore were selected to participate in this study. A survey utilizing Danforth{\textquoteright}s Engagement-Addiction (II) scale and questions from DSM-IV was used to collect information from the schoolchildren, while their grades were obtained directly from their teachers. The findings indicate that addiction tendencies are consistently negatively related to scholastic performance, while no such relationship is found for either time spent playing games or for video game engagement. The implications of these findings are discussed.},
2515         keywords = {computer addiction, Leisure Activities, School Performance, usage},
2516         isbn = {1094-9313},
2517         url = {<Go to ISI>://000270656000017},
2518         author = {Skoric, M. M. and Teo, L. L. C. and Neo, R. L.}
2519 }
2520 @article {4226,
2521         title = {Electronic Game Play and School Performance of Adolescents in Southern Thailand},
2522         journal = {Cyberpsychology \& Behavior},
2523         volume = {12},
2524         number = {5},
2525         year = {2009},
2526         note = {504ZCTimes Cited:0Cited References Count:22},
2527         month = {Oct},
2528         pages = {509-512},
2529         abstract = {Increasing exposure of children and adolescents to electronic media is a worldwide phenomenon, including in Thailand. To date, few studies examine electronic game play in Thai adolescents. Our research describes the prevalence of electronic game play and examines associations between the time spent engaged in electronic game play and school performance of adolescents in Hat-Yai municipality. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,492 adolescents from four secondary schools and one commercial college from January through March 2007, using questionnaires for collecting information about demographic data, school grades, and electronic game play behaviors. The prevalence of electronic game play was 75\% in boys and 59\% in girls. Twenty-two percent of boys and 8.7\% of girls played electronic games every day with more than 2 hours per session. The two most common places of game play were at game shops (71\%), followed by at their own home (70\%). Using linear regression analysis, the "low user or less than 2 hours per session" game players and females were less likely to have school grades below 3.00 with adjusted odds ratios of 0.44 (95\% CI 0.25-0.80, p = 0.004) and 0.49 (95\% CI 0.30-0.76, p = 0.005) respectively. This study finds that excessive playing of electronic games is associated with school grades below 3.00.},
2530         keywords = {Behavior, children, Computer, Internet, media use, Physical-Activity, Television, Time, variables, Youth},
2531         isbn = {1094-9313},
2532         url = {<Go to ISI>://000270656000006},
2533         author = {Jaruratanasirikul, S. and Wongwaitaweewong, K. and Sangsupawanich, P.}
2534 }
2535 @article {4344,
2536         title = {Health-Risk Correlates of Video-Game Playing Among Adults},
2537         journal = {American Journal of Preventive Medicine},
2538         volume = {37},
2539         number = {4},
2540         year = {2009},
2541         note = {500WOTimes Cited:1Cited References Count:51},
2542         month = {Oct},
2543         pages = {299-305},
2544         abstract = {Background: Although considerable research suggests that health-risk factors vary as a function of video-game playing among young people, direct evidence of such linkages among adults is lacking.Purpose: The goal of this Study was to distinguish adult video-game players from nonplayers on the basis of personal and environmental factors. It was hypothesized that adults who play video games, compared to nonplayers, would evidence poorer perceptions of their health, greater reliance on Internet-facilitated social support, more extensive media use, and higher BMI. It was further hypothesized that different patterns of linkages between video-game playing and health-risk factors would emerge by gender.Methods: A cross-sectional, Internet-based survey was conducted in 2006 with a sample of adults from the Seattle-Tacoma area (n=562), examining health risks; media use behaviors and perceptions, including those related to video-game playing; and demographics. Statistical analyses conducted in 2008 to compare video-game players and nonplayers included bivariate descriptive statistics, stepwise discriminant analysis, and ANOVA.Results: A total of 45.1\% of respondents reported playing video games. Female video-game players reported greater depression (M=1.57) and poorer health status (M=3.90) than female nonplayers (depression, M=1.13; health status, M=3.57). Male video-game players reported higher BMI (M=5.31) and more Internet use time (M=2.55) than male nonplayers (BMI, M=5.19; Internet use, M=2.36). The only determinant common to female and male video-game players was greater reliance on the Internet for social support.Conclusions: A number of determinants distinguished video-game players from nonplayers, and these factors differed substantially between men and women. The data illustrate the need for further research among adults to clarify how to use digital opportunities more effectively to promote health and prevent disease. (Am J Prev Med 2009;37(4):299-305)},
2545         keywords = {Addiction, Adolescents, behavior-change, Computer, metabolic syndrome, mood-management, sedentary behavior, selective exposure, Television, Time},
2546         isbn = {0749-3797},
2547         url = {<Go to ISI>://000270336800006},
2548         author = {Weaver, J. B. and Mays, D. and Weaver, S. S. and Kannenberg, W. and Hopkins, G. L. and Eroglu, D. and Bernhardt, J. M.}
2549 }
2550 @article {4254,
2551         title = {Speech-enabled card games for incidental vocabulary acquisition in a foreign language},
2552         journal = {Speech Communication},
2553         volume = {51},
2554         number = {10},
2555         year = {2009},
2556         month = {Oct},
2557         pages = {1006-1023},
2558         abstract = {In this paper, we present a novel application for speech technology to aid students with vocabulary acquisition in a foreign language through interactive card games. We describe a generic platform for card game development and then introduce a particular prototype card game called Word War, designed for learning Mandarin Chinese. We assess the feasibility of deploying Word War via the Internet by conducting our first user study remotely and evaluating the performance of the speech recognition component. It was found that the three central concepts in our system were recognized with ail error rate of 16.02\%. We then turn to assessing the effects of the Word War game on vocabulary retention in a controlled environment. To this end, we performed a user study using two variants of the Word War game: a speaking mode, in which the user issues spoken commands to manipulate the game cards, and a listening mode, in which the computer gives spoken directions that the students must follow by manipulating the cards manually with the mouse. These two modes of learning were compared against a more traditional computer assisted vocabulary learning system: an oil-line flash cards program. To assess long-term learning gains as a function of time-on-task, we had the students interact with each system twice over a period of three weeks. We found that all three systems were competitive in terms of the vocabulary words learned as measured by pre-tests and post-tests, with less than a 5\% difference among the systems{\textquoteright} average overall learning gains. We also conducted surveys, which indicated that the students enjoyed the speaking mode of Word War more than the other two systems.},
2559         keywords = {computer aided vocabulary acquisition, intelligent computer assisted language learning, speech recognition, word meanings},
2560         isbn = {0167-6393},
2561         url = {<Go to ISI>://000269092500016},
2562         author = {McGraw, I. and Yoshimoto, B. and Seneff, S.}
2563 }
2564 @article {4247,
2565         title = {Cognitive and psychological predictors of the negative outcomes associated with playing MMOGs (massively multiplayer online games)},
2566         journal = {Computers in Human Behavior},
2567         volume = {25},
2568         number = {6},
2569         year = {2009},
2570         note = {504OWTimes Cited:0Cited References Count:44},
2571         month = {Nov},
2572         pages = {1306-1311},
2573         abstract = {This study integrates research on problematic Internet use to explore the cognitive and psychological predictors of negative consequences associated with playing massively multiplayer online games (MMOGs). Participants recruited from online discussion boards completed self-report measures on their online game-related cognitions and psychological condition, social skills, psychological well-being, and negative life outcomes associated with game playing. The results demonstrated the important roles that psychological dependency and deficient self-regulation play in negative consequences associated with online gaming. The results also indicated that psychological dependency on MMOGs was predicted by cognitive preference for a virtual life-a construct that is negatively related to social control skills. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.},
2574         keywords = {Addiction, college-students, communication, Computer games, Health, internet addiction, internet dependency, loneliness, pathological internet use, Problematic Internet Use, Self-regulation, Technology, usage},
2575         isbn = {0747-5632},
2576         url = {<Go to ISI>://000270627500013},
2577         author = {Liu, M. and Peng, W.}
2578 }
2579 @article {4260,
2580         title = {Computer game development as a literacy activity},
2581         journal = {Computers \& Education},
2582         volume = {53},
2583         number = {3},
2584         year = {2009},
2585         note = {484TATimes Cited:0Cited References Count:62},
2586         month = {Nov},
2587         pages = {977-989},
2588         abstract = {This study examined computer game development as a pedagogical activity to motivate and engage students in curriculum-related literacy activities. We hypothesized that as a consequence, students would improve their traditional reading and writing skills as well as develop new digital literacy skills. Eighteen classes of grade 4 students were assigned to either an experimental or control group. Both groups studied the same curriculum unit over a 10 week period, however, in addition the experimental group developed computer games related to the unit using a game development shell. An analysis of pre- and post-unit scores on two standardized literacy test batteries revealed that the experimental students performed significantly better on one of the subtests, a measure of logical sentence construction (p = .002). Field notes and teacher interview data indicated that game development helped improve student content retention, ability to compare and contrast information presented, utilize more and different kinds of research materials including digital resources, editing skills, and develop an insight into questioning skills. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.},
2589         keywords = {applications in subject areas, children, growth, improving classroom teaching, interactive learning environments, motivation, multimedia/hypermedia systems, PLAY, Students, teaching/learning strategies},
2590         isbn = {0360-1315},
2591         url = {<Go to ISI>://000269069200039},
2592         author = {Owston, R. and Wideman, H. and Ronda, N. S. and Brown, C.}
2593 }
2594 @article {4194,
2595         title = {Effectiveness of using a video game to teach a course in mechanical engineering},
2596         journal = {Computers \& Education},
2597         volume = {53},
2598         number = {3},
2599         year = {2009},
2600         note = {484TATimes Cited:0Cited References Count:53},
2601         month = {Nov},
2602         pages = {900-912},
2603         abstract = {One of the core courses in the undergraduate mechanical engineering curriculum has been completely redesigned. In the new numerical methods course, all assignments and learning experiences are built around a video/computer game. Students are given the task of writing computer programs to race a simulated car around a track. In doing so, students learn and implement numerical methods content. The design of the course, around a video game, is rooted in commonly accepted theories of how people learn. The article describes a study to assess the effectiveness of the video game-based course. Results show that students taking the game-based course, on average, spend roughly twice as much time, outside of class, on their course work. In a concept mapping exercise, students taking the game-based course demonstrate deeper learning compared to their counterparts taking traditional lecture/textbook-based numerical methods courses.},
2604         keywords = {applications in mechanical engineering, concept map, concept-mapping techniques, education, interactive learning environments, knowledge, post-secondary education, programming, simulation, Tool, Validity},
2605         isbn = {0360-1315},
2606         url = {<Go to ISI>://000269069200033},
2607         author = {Coller, B. D. and Scott, M. J.}
2608 }
2609 @article {4229,
2610         title = {Enhancing Self-Motivation in Learning Programming Using Game-Based Simulation and Metrics},
2611         journal = {Ieee Transactions on Education},
2612         volume = {52},
2613         number = {4},
2614         year = {2009},
2615         note = {515RITimes Cited:0Cited References Count:16},
2616         month = {Nov},
2617         pages = {555-562},
2618         abstract = {Game-based assignments typically form an integral component of computer programming courses. The effectiveness of the assignments in motivating students to carry out repetitive programming tasks is somewhat limited since their outcomes are invariably limited to a simple win or loss scenario. Accordingly, this paper develops a simulation environment in which students can create a game strategy via programming for a challenging strategy-type game. After completion of the game, the environment provides the student with a set of metrics that provides helpful clues as to how the student might reprogram the strategy to improve the result. The provided metrics help to avoid a tedious trial-and-error refinement process and, therefore, greatly motivate the student to complete the assignment and achieve a better result. The simulation environment can be used in either a standalone mode or in an interactive mode in which the students compete against one another online. The competition element increases the motivation of the students to complete the task to the best of their ability.},
2619         keywords = {educational games, learning programming, metrics, self-motivation, simulation},
2620         isbn = {0018-9359},
2621         url = {<Go to ISI>://000271490000012},
2622         author = {Jiau, H. C. and Chen, J. C. and Ssu, K. F.}
2623 }
2624 @article {4262,
2625         title = {Exploring the potential of computer and video games for health and physical education: A literature review},
2626         journal = {Computers \& Education},
2627         volume = {53},
2628         number = {3},
2629         year = {2009},
2630         note = {484TATimes Cited:0Cited References Count:93},
2631         month = {Nov},
2632         pages = {603-622},
2633         abstract = {This study aims at critically reviewing recently published scientific literature on the use of computer and video games in Health Education (HE) and Physical Education (PE) with a view: (a) to identifying the potential contribution of the incorporation of electronic games as educational tools into HE and PE programs, (b) to present a synthesis of the available empirical evidence on the educational effectiveness of electronic games in HE and PE, and (c) to define future research perspectives concerning the educational use of electronic games in HE and PE. After systematically searching online bibliographic databases, 34 relevant articles were located and included in the study. Following the categorization scheme proposed by [Dempsey, J., Rasmussen, K., \& Lucassen, B. (1996). The instructional gaming literature: Implications and 99 sources. University of South Alabama, College of Education, Technical Report No. 96-1], those articles were grouped into the following four categories: (a) research, (b) development, (c) discussion and (d) theory. The overviewed articles suggest that electronic games present many potential benefits as educational tools for HE and PE, and that those games may improve young people{\textquoteright}s knowledge, skills, attitudes and behaviours in relation to health and physical exercise. Furthermore, the newly emerged physically interactive electronic games can potentially enhance young people{\textquoteright}s physical fitness, motor skills and motivation for physical exercise. The empirical evidence to support the educational effectiveness of electronic games in HE and PE is still rather limited, but the findings present a positive picture overall. The outcomes of the literature review are discussed in terms of their implications for future research, and can provide useful guidance to educators, practitioners and researchers in the areas of HE and PE, and to electronic game designers. },
2634         keywords = {Adolescents, applications in subject areas, Assisted-instruction, asthma, children, human-computer interface, interactive learning environments, knowledge, learning communities, Obesity, Prevention, SCHOOL, squires quest, Youth},
2635         isbn = {0360-1315},
2636         url = {<Go to ISI>://000269069200006},
2637         author = {Papastergiou, M.}
2638 }
2639 @article {4219,
2640         title = {Exploring user experiences as predictors of MMORPG addiction},
2641         journal = {Computers \& Education},
2642         volume = {53},
2643         number = {3},
2644         year = {2009},
2645         note = {484TATimes Cited:0Cited References Count:64},
2646         month = {Nov},
2647         pages = {990-999},
2648         abstract = {The overuse of Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games (MMORPGs) is becoming a significant problem worldwide, especially among college students. Similar to Internet addiction, the pathological use of MMORPG is a kind of modern addiction that can affect students{\textquoteright} lives on both a physical and a psychological level. The purpose of this study is to understand MMORPG addiction from a user experience design approach. We first developed a complete model that includes eleven factors (challenge, fantasy, curiosity, control, reward, cooperation, competition, recognition, belonging, obligation and role-playing) to represent users{\textquoteright} experience in MMORPGs. After that, we design a questionnaire to measure student{\textquoteright} gaming experience and level of addiction. Students{\textquoteright} demography information, including gender and game playing habits, was also collected. Four hundred and eighteen Taiwanese college students aged 18-25 years old took part in this online survey. Regression analysis was then conducted to evaluate the relative explanatory power of each variable, with addiction score as the dependent variable and the eleven user experience factors as the independent variables. The results of regression analysis reveal five critical factors (curiosity, role-playing, belonging, obligation and reward) that can be used to predict MMORPG addiction. In addition, this study also infers possible casual mechanisms for increasing college students{\textquoteright} level of addiction. The implications of our findings for both design and educational practitioners were also discussed.},
2649         keywords = {Behavior, Computer games, environments, exploration, human factors, Internet, internet addiction, online games, PLAY, taiwanese adolescents, usage, virtual reality},
2650         isbn = {0360-1315},
2651         url = {<Go to ISI>://000269069200040},
2652         author = {Hsu, S. H. and Wen, M. H. and Wu, M. C.}
2653 }
2654 @article {4167,
2655         title = {Gaming and Territorial Negotiations in Family Life},
2656         journal = {Childhood-a Global Journal of Child Research},
2657         volume = {16},
2658         number = {4},
2659         year = {2009},
2660         note = {521HITimes Cited:0Cited References Count:47},
2661         month = {Nov},
2662         pages = {497-517},
2663         abstract = {This article examines territorial negotiations concerning gaming, drawing on video recordings of gaming practices in middle-class families. It explores how private vs public gaming space was co-construed by children and parents in front of the screen as well as through conversations about games. Game equipment was generally located in public places in the homes, which can be understood in terms of parents{\textquoteright} surveillance of their children, on the one hand, and actual parental involvement, on the other. Gaming space emerged in the interplay between game location, technology and practices, which blurred any fixed boundaries between public and private, place and space, as well as traditional age hierarchies.},
2664         keywords = {children, computer gaming, family politics, parental involvement, place/space, public/private},
2665         isbn = {0907-5682},
2666         url = {<Go to ISI>://000271910900005},
2667         author = {Aarsand, P. A. and Aronsson, K.}
2668 }
2669 @article {4192,
2670         title = {Griefing in virtual worlds: causes, casualties and coping strategies},
2671         journal = {Information Systems Journal},
2672         volume = {19},
2673         number = {6},
2674         year = {2009},
2675         note = {507CRTimes Cited:1Cited References Count:85},
2676         month = {Nov},
2677         pages = {525-548},
2678         abstract = {A virtual world is a computer-simulated three-dimensional environment. They are increasingly being used for social and commercial interaction, in addition to their original use for game playing. This paper studies negative behaviour, or {\textquoteright}griefing{\textquoteright}, inside one virtual world through a series of observations and focus groups with users. Data were collected to identify griefing behaviours and their impact, examine why griefing happens and who the likely targets and perpetrators are, and suggest strategies for coping with it. Findings show that griefing behaviour is common. It is defined as unacceptable, persistent behaviour and is typically targeted at inexperienced residents by those with more knowledge of the virtual world. Community and individual coping strategies are identified and discussed.},
2679         keywords = {acceptance, antisocial behaviour, Behavior, computer-mediated communication, Information-Systems, interpretative phenomenological analysis, organizations, PERCEPTIONS, SCHOOL, sexual-harassment, victimization, virtual worlds, Workplace},
2680         isbn = {1350-1917},
2681         url = {<Go to ISI>://000270829000002},
2682         author = {Chesney, T. and Coyne, I. and Logan, B. and Madden, N.}
2683 }
2684 @article {4201,
2685         title = {The MindGame: A P300-based brain-computer interface game},
2686         journal = {Neural Networks},
2687         volume = {22},
2688         number = {9},
2689         year = {2009},
2690         note = {Sp. Iss. SI523LDTimes Cited:1Cited References Count:13},
2691         month = {Nov},
2692         pages = {1329-1333},
2693         abstract = {We present a Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) game. the MindGame, based oil the P300 event-related potential In the MindGame interface P300 events are translated into movements of a character on a three-dimensional game board A linear feature selection and classification scheme is applied to identify P300 events and calculate gradual feedback features from a scalp electrode array. The classification during the online run of the game is computed oil a single-trial basis without averaging over subtrials We achieve classification rates of O 65 on single-trials during the online operation of the system while providing gradual feedback to the player.},
2694         keywords = {bci, brain-computer interface, EEG, neurofeedback, P300, potentials, Probability, virtual game},
2695         isbn = {0893-6080},
2696         url = {<Go to ISI>://000272073800015},
2697         author = {Finke, A. and Lenhardt, A. and Ritter, H.}
2698 }
2699 @article {4296,
2700         title = {Theorizing Flow and Media Enjoyment as Cognitive Synchronization of Attentional and Reward Networks},
2701         journal = {Communication Theory},
2702         volume = {19},
2703         number = {4},
2704         year = {2009},
2705         note = {504UMTimes Cited:0Cited References Count:100},
2706         month = {Nov},
2707         pages = {397-422},
2708         abstract = {This article reconceptualizes the psychological concept of "flow" as it pertains to media entertainment. Our goal is to advance flow theory in ways that highlight the necessity of reliable and valid operationalization. We posit flow as a discrete, energetically optimized, and gratifying experience resulting from a cognitive synchronization of specific attentional and reward networks under condition of balance between challenge and skill. We identify video-game play as a context in which flow is likely to occur, and where we can observe our neurophysiological conceptualization of flow using measurement techniques (functional magnetic resonance imaging [fMRI]) without disrupting the experiential state. After presenting preliminary evidence consistent with our synchronization theory of flow, we suggest ways to advance this research.},
2709         keywords = {Activation, binding, environments, Experience, human-computer interactions, Mechanisms, model, oscillations, task, visual-cortex},
2710         isbn = {1050-3293},
2711         url = {<Go to ISI>://000270643200003},
2712         author = {Weber, R. and Tamborini, R. and Westcott-Baker, A. and Kantor, B.}
2713 }
2714 @article {4217,
2715         title = {Uncertainty and engagement with learning games},
2716         journal = {Instructional Science},
2717         volume = {37},
2718         number = {6},
2719         year = {2009},
2720         note = {515DRTimes Cited:0Cited References Count:35},
2721         month = {Nov},
2722         pages = {519-536},
2723         abstract = {Uncertainty may be an important component of the motivation provided by learning games, especially when associated with gaming rather than learning. Three studies are reported that explore the influence of gaming uncertainty on engagement with computer-based learning games. In the first study, children (10-11 years) played a simple maths quiz. Participants chose their preferred reward for a correct answer prior to seeing each question. They could either receive a single point or toss an animated coin to receive 2 points for heads or none for tails. A preference for the uncertain option was revealed and this increased during the quiz. The second study explored the discourse around learning when pairs of participants (13-14 years) competed against the computer in a science quiz. Progress depended on the acquisition of facts but also on the outcomes of throwing dice. Discourse was characterised by a close intermingling of learning and gaming talk without salient problematic constructions regarding fairness when losing points due to gaming uncertainty. A final experiment explored whether, in this type of game, the uncertainty provided by the gaming component could influence players{\textquoteright} affective response to the learning component. Electrodermal activity (EDA) of 16 adults was measured while they played the quiz with and without the element of chance provided by the dice. Results showed EDA when answering questions was increased by inclusion of gaming uncertainty. Findings are discussed in terms of the potential benefits of combining gaming uncertainty with learning and directions for further research in this area are outlined.},
2724         keywords = {academic risk-taking, Context, dopamine, Games, learning, memory, motivation, neurons, Responses, reward, Uncertainty, Video-Game},
2725         isbn = {0020-4277},
2726         url = {<Go to ISI>://000271447500002},
2727         author = {Howard-Jones, P. A. and Demetriou, S.}
2728 }
2729 @article {4214,
2730         title = {Exploring success factors of video game communities in hierarchical linear modeling: The perspectives of members and leaders},
2731         journal = {Computers in Human Behavior},
2732         volume = {25},
2733         number = {3},
2734         year = {2009},
2735         note = {Sp. Iss. SI450RMTimes Cited:0Cited References Count:71},
2736         month = {May},
2737         pages = {761-769},
2738         abstract = {Video games are enjoying fast-growing popularity, becoming a major component of young people{\textquoteright}s social lives and leisure activities. Many players share information and conduct social interactions in virtual communities (VC). The current study sought to examine the relationships between members and leaders in such video game communities using a number of variables to describe the member (i.e., knowledge sharing, usefulness, enjoyability, off-site interaction, satisfaction, loyalty, and intention to use) and the leader (i.e., leader involvement). Based on a sample of 2227 members and 41 leaders in 30 video game communities, the research demonstrated the use of a two-level hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) to examine the relationships of VC leaders and members, appropriately adjusted for a nested structure. The results indicated that leaders who engage in higher levels of involvement in VC are more likely to have members who agree with and respond to the community. Furthermore, member- and leader-level factors were significantly associated with member satisfaction: knowledge sharing, usefulness, and enjoyability explained within-VC variance while leader involvement explained between-VC variance. Finally, member satisfaction demonstrated positive effects on both member loyalty and intention to use. The study further discussed the implications of these findings, offering direction for future research. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.},
2739         keywords = {conceptual-framework, customer satisfaction, hierarchical linear model (hlm), Human-computer interaction, knowledge sharing behavior, leader involvement, loyalty, Participation, PERCEPTIONS, play online games, product development teams, Satisfaction, Video Game, virtual communities, virtual community},
2740         isbn = {0747-5632},
2741         url = {<Go to ISI>://000266418500018},
2742         author = {Ho, S. H. and Huang,C H}
2743 }
2744 @article {4206,
2745         title = {Pathological Video-Game Use Among Youth Ages 8 to 18: A National Study},
2746         journal = {Psychological Science},
2747         volume = {20},
2748         number = {5},
2749         year = {2009},
2750         note = {441NATimes Cited:3Cited References Count:27},
2751         month = {May},
2752         pages = {594-602},
2753         abstract = {Researchers have studied whether some youth are "addicted" to video games, but previous studies have been based on regional convenience samples. Using a national sample, this study gathered information about video-gaming habits and parental involvement in gaming, to determine the percentage of youth who meet clinical-style criteria for pathological gaming. A Harris poll surveyed a randomly selected sample of 1,178 American youth ages 8 to 18. About 8\% of video-game players in this sample exhibited pathological patterns of play. Several indicators documented convergent and divergent validity of the results: Pathological gamers spent twice as much time playing as nonpathological gamers and received poorer grades in school; pathological gaming also showed comorbidity with attention problems. Pathological status significantly predicted poorer school performance even after controlling for sex, age, and weekly amount of video-game play. These results confirm that pathological gaming can be measured reliably, that the construct demonstrates validity, and that it is not simply isomorphic with a high amount of play.},
2754         keywords = {Adolescents, children, computer addiction, internet addiction},
2755         isbn = {0956-7976},
2756         url = {<Go to ISI>://000265774700013},
2757         author = {Gentile, D.}
2758 }
2759 @article {4174,
2760         title = {Brain Activity Dissociates Mentalization from Motivation During an Interpersonal Competitive Game},
2761         journal = {Brain Imaging and Behavior},
2762         volume = {3},
2763         number = {1},
2764         year = {2009},
2765         note = {510LRTimes Cited:0Cited References Count:41},
2766         month = {Mar},
2767         pages = {24-37},
2768         abstract = {Studies demonstrating selective brain networks subserving motivation and mentalization (i.e. attributing states of mind to others) during social interactions have not investigated their mutual independence. We report the results of two fMRI studies using a competitive game requiring players to use implicit {\textquoteleft}on-line{\textquoteright} mentalization simultaneously with motivational processes of gains and losses in playing against a human or a computer opponent. We delineate a network, consisting of bilateral temporoparietal junction, temporal pole (TP), medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and right fusiform gyrus, which is sensitive to the opponent{\textquoteright}s response (challenging>not challenging the player) and opponent type (human>computer). This network is similar to a known explicit {\textquoteleft}off-line{\textquoteright} mentalization circuit, suggesting its additional involvement in implicit {\textquoteleft}on-line{\textquoteright} mentalization, a process more applicable to real-life social interactions. Importantly, only MPFC and TP were selective to mentalization compared to motivation, highlighting their specific operation in attributing states of mind to others during social interactions.},
2769         keywords = {Behavior, cognitive neuroscience, cortex, decision-making, fmri, fusiform face area, medial prefrontal cortex, neural systems, perception, reward, social cognition, temporal pole, temporoparietal junction, theory of mind},
2770         isbn = {1931-7557},
2771         url = {<Go to ISI>://000271090500003},
2772         author = {Assaf, M. and Kahn, I. and Pearlson, G. D. and Johnson, M. R. and Yeshurun, Y. and Calhoun, V. D. and Hendler, T.}
2773 }
2774 @article {4221,
2775         title = {"It{\textquoteright}s Fantasy Football Made Real": Networked Media Sport, the Internet, and the Hybrid Reality of MyFootballClub},
2776         journal = {Sociology of Sport Journal},
2777         volume = {26},
2778         number = {1},
2779         year = {2009},
2780         note = {423ONTimes Cited:0Cited References Count:101},
2781         month = {Mar},
2782         pages = {89-106},
2783         abstract = {MyFootballClub (MFC) is a popular computer game, Web site, online networking experiment, business model, and an actual soccer Club. This article uses MFC to address the question of how networked media sport is reshaping the media sports cultural complex (Rowe, 2004). Our aim is to show how the professionalization and mediatization of sport has created a longing to reconstruct a kind of communitas around supporter participation in the ownership and running of their team, We conclude by suggesting that it is now time to think less in terms of the longstanding relationship between sport and media, and more about sport as media given the increasing interpenetration of digital media content, sport, and networked information and communications technologies.},
2784         keywords = {culture, Games, society},
2785         isbn = {0741-1235},
2786         url = {<Go to ISI>://000264505700006},
2787         author = {Hutchins, B. and Rowe, D. and Ruddock, A.}
2788 }
2789 @article {4261,
2790         title = {A Modular Decision-centric Approach for Reusable Design Processes},
2791         journal = {Concurrent Engineering-Research and Applications},
2792         volume = {17},
2793         number = {1},
2794         year = {2009},
2795         note = {417DWTimes Cited:0Cited References Count:27},
2796         month = {Mar},
2797         pages = {5-19},
2798         abstract = {The reusability of design processes modeled in existing Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) and Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) frameworks has been limited to the level of flow charts or activity-based diagrams that serve as planning and organizational aids. Current simulation-based design frameworks provide limited support for reuse of design processes at a level where design processes are networks of computational operations, specifically the capabilities to reuse (a) design processes for different products, and (b) collaborative design strategies. In this article, we address these limitations by providing a modeling approach for simulation-based design processes so that they can be archived in a generic modular fashion and reused for collaborative design of different products. The proposed approach is based on four foundations: (a) modeling design processes as hierarchical systems, (b) separation of declarative and procedural information, (c) modeling design processes as decision-centric activities, and (d) modeling interactions between decision makers using game theoretic protocols. These four fundamentals of the approach are instantiated in the form of generic computational templates for products, processes, decisions, and pertinent interfaces. The approach is illustrated using a proof of concept implementation in ModelCenter. The implementation is validated by showing the reusability of design processes for two different products, a spring and a pressure vessel, in individual and collaborative design scenarios. The approach has potential for supporting reusability of broader PLM processes.},
2799         keywords = {collaboration, decision-centric design, design processes, modularity, reusability, templates},
2800         isbn = {1063-293X},
2801         url = {<Go to ISI>://000264057100001},
2802         author = {Panchal, J. H. and Fernandez, M. G. and Paredis, C. J. J. and Allen, J. K. and Mistree, F.}
2803 }
2804 @article {4204,
2805         title = {Parents of Preschoolers: Expert Media Recommendations and Ratings Knowledge, Media-Effects Beliefs, and Monitoring Practices},
2806         journal = {Pediatrics},
2807         volume = {123},
2808         number = {3},
2809         year = {2009},
2810         note = {413XHTimes Cited:0Cited References Count:19},
2811         month = {Mar},
2812         pages = {981-988},
2813         abstract = {OBJECTIVE. Given the increase in screen media targeted at the very young, the purpose of this study was to examine preschooler parents{\textquoteright} knowledge about expert recommendations for young children{\textquoteright}s screen media experience, their knowledge of specific screen media ratings, their beliefs about screen media effects, and actual monitoring practices.METHOD. Parents of 94 children < 5 years of age (mean age: 2.95 years) were surveyed. Questionnaires were distributed in day care centers and completed at the parents{\textquoteright} convenience. The questionnaire included background questions about parental education, age and gender of child, and parents{\textquoteright} perceptions of their child{\textquoteright}s favorite television show and favorite video or computer game. Eleven multiple-choice questions assessed the respondent{\textquoteright}s knowledge of expert recommendations for screen media for preschoolers and the meaning of television and video game content ratings. Fourteen questions addressed the typical amount of their preschooler{\textquoteright}s screen media exposure, parental rules regarding screen media use, and parents{\textquoteright} beliefs about appropriate use of screen media for preschoolers.RESULTS. Preschoolers were exposed to an average of similar to 12 hours of screen media in a typical week. Parents believe that media do have either short- or long-term effects on preschoolers. Performance on factual questions was poor (mean score: 2.83 of 11). In particular, only 34\% of the parents correctly identified the expert recommendation for children > 2 years of age.CONCLUSIONS. Parents should continue to be educated about the need for preschoolers to participate in activities that promote language development, socialization, imagination, and physical activity. Although professionals should work to improve the ratings, and ultimately to implement a universal ratings system for all screen media, parents need to be encouraged to improve their understanding of current recommendations for screen media exposure and television and video game ratings. Pediatrics 2009;123:981-988},
2814         keywords = {children, Desensitization, expert recommendations, Games, Obesity, parents, preschool children, Ratings, screen media, Television, Violence},
2815         isbn = {0031-4005},
2816         url = {<Go to ISI>://000263825500034},
2817         author = {Funk,J B and Brouwer, J. and Curtiss, K. and McBroom, E.}
2818 }
2819 @article {4310,
2820         title = {Video games and the perception of very long durations by adolescents},
2821         journal = {Computers in Human Behavior},
2822         volume = {25},
2823         number = {2},
2824         year = {2009},
2825         note = {Sp. Iss. SI413FTTimes Cited:0Cited References Count:38},
2826         month = {Mar},
2827         pages = {554-559},
2828         abstract = {In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that adolescents might underestimate time while playing a video game. To test this hypothesis, 116 adolescents (14-15 years old) had to judge prospectively or retrospectively the duration of three consecutive tasks: a 8 min and a 24 min task of playing video game (Tetris) and an 8 min task of reading on a computer screen (control task). The main hypothesis received support: for a same duration, the video game task was estimated as shorter than the reading task. Moreover, participants with a game-inclined profile showed a stronger underestimation of time while playing. Finally, the short durations were overestimated and the long duration underestimated. The main findings are accounted for by an attention-based explanation.},
2829         keywords = {Adolescents, Aggressive-Behavior, Attention, Cognition, demands, flow, Judgments, memory, Performance, Players, time perception, usage, Video Games},
2830         isbn = {0747-5632},
2831         url = {<Go to ISI>://000263779000039},
2832         author = {Tobin, S. and Grondin, S.}
2833 }
2834 @article {4234,
2835         title = {Women{\textquoteright}s Games in Japan Gendered Identity and Narrative Construction},
2836         journal = {Theory Culture \& Society},
2837         volume = {26},
2838         number = {2-3},
2839         year = {2009},
2840         note = {455LZTimes Cited:0Cited References Count:33},
2841         month = {Mar},
2842         pages = {165-188},
2843         abstract = {Women{\textquoteright}s games (sic) refers to a category of games developed and marketed exclusively for the consumption of women and girls in the Japanese gaming industry. Essentially gender-specific games comparable to the {\textquoteright}games for girls{\textquoteright} proposed by the girls{\textquoteright} game movement in the USA, Japanese women{\textquoteright}s games are significant for their history, influence and function as a site for female gamers to play out various female identities and romantic fantasies within diverse generic structures. This article will first review previous research and literature on women and gaming, analyze the key issues raised in the discourse concerning femininity and electronic games, outline the history and development of women{\textquoteright}s games, explain how multiple factors contributed to the appeal of women{\textquoteright}s games by analyzing the games Angelique and Harukanaru Tokino Nakade3 and, lastly, discuss the meaning and significance of women{\textquoteright}s games in the larger context of women and gaming. The 1994 game Angelique succeeded in establishing a loyal and close-knit fan base by actively utilizing popular female culture such as shoujo manga (girls{\textquoteright} comics) and the fan base for voice actors. Angelique also set up the specifics and conventions of women{\textquoteright}s games: a focus on romance, easy controls and utilizing other multimedia. In 2004, Harukanaru Tokino Nakade3 deconstructed the genre and gender conventions of women{\textquoteright}s games and shoujo manga, while developing a new type of feminine identity and narrative. Women{\textquoteright}s games indicate that gender-specific games can be more than educational tools to familiarize girls with technology or perpetuate stereotypes; they can be a significant extension of female culture into the realm of gaming, and contribute to the development of women{\textquoteright}s culture and the diversification of the gaming industry.},
2844         keywords = {Computer games, Gender, Japan},
2845         isbn = {0263-2764},
2846         url = {<Go to ISI>://000266763100009},
2847         author = {Kim, H.}
2848 }
2849 @article {4340,
2850         title = {Unreal: hostile expectations from social gameplay},
2851         journal = {New Media Society},
2852         volume = {11},
2853         number = {4},
2854         year = {2009},
2855         month = {June 1, 2009},
2856         pages = {509-531},
2857         abstract = {This article situates the general aggression model within the social structure of gameplay. Testing a mediated model of play, group gaming is examined in order to demonstrate how certain gameplay situations can promote hostile expectation bias or the tendency to predict how others would think, feel and act aggressively during social conflict. Demonstrating the casual structure inherent within complex gameplay, this study presents a needed step forward in the gaming literature. The mediated model presented departs from the typically examined direct effect model. Further, completing the model, this study suggests that when state hostility is heightened, hostile expectation bias increases.},
2858         url = {http://nms.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/11/4/509},
2859         author = {Eastin, Matthew S. and Griffiths, Robert P.}
2860 }
2861 @article {4341,
2862         title = {Wii has never been modern: {\textquoteright}active{\textquoteright} video games and the {\textquoteright}conduct of conduct{\textquoteright}},
2863         journal = {New Media Society},
2864         volume = {11},
2865         number = {4},
2866         year = {2009},
2867         month = {June 1, 2009},
2868         pages = {621-640},
2869         abstract = {This article considers the role of {\textquoteright}active{\textquoteright} video games -- specifically the Nintendo {\textquoteright}Wii{\textquoteright} -- as technologies that foster control over corporeality. New media scholars have examined the politics of embodiment and hybridity as they relate to video games, yet have paid limited attention to the ways in which new gaming technologies might contribute to contemporary systems of {\textquoteright}government{\textquoteright}, or what Foucault calls the {\textquoteright}conduct of conduct{\textquoteright}. Borrowing from influential social theorists, the article argues that, by undergoing what Latour labels {\textquoteright}translation{\textquoteright} (by merging with the body), the Wii invokes and reinscribes governmental and post-disciplinary rationalities. The analysis concludes by contending that the Wii might be a particularly influential innovation in risk-based post-disciplinary societies: rather than connecting {\textquoteright}at-risk{\textquoteright} subjects to human experts, the Wii functions as an active and autonomous quasi-object risk expert, able to diagnose {\textquoteright}problematic{\textquoteright}tendencies and prescribe basic behavioural remedies.},
2870         url = {http://nms.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/11/4/621},
2871         author = {Millington, Brad}
2872 }
2873 @article {4286,
2874         title = {Lateral Intraparietal Cortex and Reinforcement Learning during a Mixed-Strategy Game},
2875         journal = {Journal of Neuroscience},
2876         volume = {29},
2877         number = {22},
2878         year = {2009},
2879         note = {453SPTimes Cited:2Cited References Count:62},
2880         month = {Jun 3},
2881         pages = {7278-7289},
2882         abstract = {Activity of the neurons in the lateral intraparietal cortex (LIP) displays a mixture of sensory, motor, and memory signals. Moreover, they often encode signals reflecting the accumulation of sensory evidence that certain eye movements might lead to a desirable outcome. However, when the environment changes dynamically, animals are also required to combine the information about its previously chosen actions and their outcomes appropriately to update continually the desirabilities of alternative actions. Here, we investigated whether LIP neurons encoded signals necessary to update an animal{\textquoteright}s decision-making strategies adaptively during a computer-simulated matching-pennies game. Using a reinforcement learning algorithm, we estimated the value functions that best predicted the animal{\textquoteright}s choices on a trial-by-trial basis. We found that, immediately before the animal revealed its choice, similar to 18\% of LIP neurons changed their activity according to the difference in the value functions for the two targets. In addition, a somewhat higher fraction of LIP neurons displayed signals related to the sum of the value functions, which might correspond to the state value function or an average rate of reward used as a reference point. Similar to the neurons in the prefrontal cortex, many LIP neurons also encoded the signals related to the animal{\textquoteright}s previous choices. Thus, the posterior parietal cortex might be a part of the network that provides the substrate for forming appropriate associations between actions and outcomes.},
2883         keywords = {anterior cingulate cortex, competitive game, decision-making, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, human brain, matching behavior, neural basis, Orbitofrontal cortex, posterior parietal cortex, reward expectancy},
2884         isbn = {0270-6474},
2885         url = {<Go to ISI>://000266632400019},
2886         author = {Seo, H. and Barraclough, D. J. and Lee, D.}
2887 }
2888 @article {4315,
2889         title = {Rationale, design and methods for a randomised and controlled trial to investigate whether home access to electronic games decreases children{\textquoteright}s physical activity},
2890         journal = {BMC Public Health},
2891         volume = {9},
2892         year = {2009},
2893         note = {472PHTimes Cited:0Cited References Count:75},
2894         month = {Jun 29},
2895         pages = {-},
2896         abstract = {Background: Many children are reported to have insufficient physical activity (PA) placing them at greater risk of poor health outcomes. Participating in sedentary activities such as playing electronic games is widely believed to contribute to less PA. However there is no experimental evidence that playing electronic games reduces PA. There is also no evidence regarding the effect of different types of electronic games (traditional sedentary electronic games versus new active input electronic games) on PA. Further, there is a poor understanding about how characteristics of children may moderate the impact of electronic game access on PA and about what leisure activities are displaced when children play electronic games. Given that many children play electronic games, a better understanding of the effect of electronic game use on PA is critical to inform child health policy and intervention.Methods: This randomised and controlled trial will examine whether PA is decreased by access to electronic games and whether any effect is dependent on the type of game input or the child{\textquoteright}s characteristics. Children aged 10-12 years (N = 72, 36 females) will be recruited and randomised to a balanced ordering of {\textquoteright}no electronic games{\textquoteright}, {\textquoteright} traditional{\textquoteright} electronic games and {\textquoteright}active{\textquoteright} electronic games. Each child will participate in each condition for 8 weeks, and be assessed prior to participation and at the end of each condition. The primary outcome is PA, assessed by Actical accelerometers worn for 7 days on the wrist and hip. Energy expenditure will be assessed by the doubly labelled water technique and motor coordination, adiposity, self-confidence, attitudes to technology and PA and leisure activities will also be assessed. A sample of 72 will provide a power of > 0.9 for detecting a 15 mins difference in PA (sd = 30 mins).Discussion: This is the first such trial and will provide critical information to understand whether access to electronic games affects children{\textquoteright}s PA. Given the vital importance of adequate PA to a healthy start to life and establishing patterns which may track into adulthood, this project can inform interventions which could have a profound impact on the long term health of children.Trial registration: This trial is registered in the Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN 12609000279224).},
2897         keywords = {activity intervention, Body-Mass Index, communication technology, computer use, doubly-labeled water, resting energy-expenditure, Risk-Factors, screen-based media, sedentary behavior, time spent},
2898         isbn = {1471-2458},
2899         url = {<Go to ISI>://000268143600001},
2900         author = {Straker, L. M. and Abbott, R. A. and Piek, J. P. and Pollock, C. M. and Davies, P. S. and Smith, A. J.}
2901 }
2902 @article {4169,
2903         title = {An Analysis of the Insertion of Virtual Players in GMABS Methodology Using the Vip-JogoMan Prototype},
2904         journal = {JASSS: The Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation},
2905         volume = {12},
2906         number = {3},
2907         year = {2009},
2908         note = {499LHTimes Cited:0Cited References Count:36},
2909         month = {Jun},
2910         pages = {-},
2911         abstract = {The GMABS (Games and Multi-Agent-Based Simulation) methodology was created from the integration of RPG and MABS techniques. This methodology links the dynamic capacity of MABS (Multi-Agent-Based Simulation) and the discussion and learning capacity of RPG (Role-Playing Games). Using GMABS, we have developed two prototypes in the natural resources management domain. The first prototype, called JogoMan (Adamatti et. al, 2005), is a paper-based game: all players need to be physically present in the same place and time, and there is a minimum needed number of participants to play the game. In order to avoid this constraint, we have built a second prototype, called ViP-JogoMan (Adamatti et. al, 2007), which is an extension of the first one. This second game enables the insertion of virtual players that can substitute some real players in the game. These virtual players can partially mime real behaviors and capture autonomy, social abilities, reaction and adaptation of the real players. We have chosen the BDI architecture to model these virtual players, since its paradigm is based on folk psychology; hence, its core concepts easily map the language that people use to describe their reasoning and actions in everyday life. ViP-JogoMan is a computer-based game, in which people play via Web, players can be in different places and it does not have a hard constraint regarding the minimum number of real players. Our aim in this paper is to present some test results obtained with both prototypes, as well as to present a preliminary discussion on how the insertion of virtual players has affected the game results.},
2912         keywords = {multi-agent based simulation, natural resources, role-playing games, virtual players},
2913         isbn = {1460-7425},
2914         url = {<Go to ISI>://000270221200006},
2915         author = {Adamatti, D. F. and Sichman, J. S. and Coelho, H.}
2916 }
2917 @article {4199,
2918         title = {Information-Driven Search Strategies in the Board Game of CLUE (R)},
2919         journal = {IEEE Transactions on Systems Man and Cybernetics Part B-Cybernetics},
2920         volume = {39},
2921         number = {3},
2922         year = {2009},
2923         note = {445RQTimes Cited:1Cited References Count:40},
2924         month = {Jun},
2925         pages = {607-625},
2926         abstract = {This paper presents an information-driven sensor management problem, referred to as treasure hunt, which is relevant to mobile-sensor applications such as mine hunting, monitoring, and surveillance. The objective is to infer a hidden variable or treasure by selecting a sequence of measurements associated with multiple fixed targets distributed in the sensor workspace. The workspace is represented by a connectivity graph, where each node represents a possible sensor deployment, and the arcs represent possible sensor movements. An additive conditional entropy reduction function is presented to efficiently compute the expected benefit of a measurement sequence over time. Then, the optimal treasure hunt strategy is determined by a novel label-correcting algorithm operating on the connectivity graph. The methodology is illustrated through the board game of CLUE (R), which is shown to be a benchmark example of the treasure hunt problem. The game results show that a computer player implementing the strategies developed in this paper outperforms players implementing Bayesian networks, Q-learning, or constraint satisfaction, as well as human players.},
2927         keywords = {Algorithm, bayesian networks (bns), computer game playing, influence diagrams (ids), label-correcting algorithms, mine hunting, NETWORKS, path planning, search theory, sensor management, sensor planning, value of information},
2928         isbn = {1083-4419},
2929         url = {<Go to ISI>://000266069600003},
2930         author = {Ferrari, S. and Cai, C. H.}
2931 }
2932 @article {4287,
2933         title = {Worlds of affect: virtual geographies of video games},
2934         journal = {Environment and Planning A},
2935         volume = {41},
2936         number = {6},
2937         year = {2009},
2938         note = {465XCTimes Cited:2Cited References Count:70},
2939         month = {Jun},
2940         pages = {1332-1343},
2941         abstract = {Video games are virtual worlds, each with its own, distinctive spatiality. This paper suggests that there are two interrelated conceptual dimensions to the study of video games. First, there are the representational issues concerning the worlds depicted in video games, such as those portraying hypersexualized women or Orientalist depictions of Arab enemies. We suggest, however, that these cultural, sexual, and political representations are not the only forces doing work on the player within the virtual world of a video game. This paper complements a purely representational approach by considering {\textquoteright}affect{\textquoteright} as a precognitive force which disrupts and delights the player with reactions ranging from fear to joy. We argue that, as the spatiality of video games has evolved from simple two-dimensional to complex three-dimensional worlds; the importance of an affective experience to the player has become paramount. Exploiting and manipulating the player{\textquoteright}s sensory experience is now the central strategy for many game designers. The paper is divided in two interrelated sections: the first tackles representational issues from culture to violence, while the second section contributes to our understanding of video games as {\textquoteright}worlds of affect{\textquoteright}.},
2942         keywords = {computer game, cyberspace, female characters, landscape, NETWORKS, online, player, space, Technology},
2943         isbn = {0308-518X},
2944         url = {<Go to ISI>://000267622000007},
2945         author = {Shaw, I. G. R. and Warf, B.}
2946 }
2947 @proceedings {4537,
2948         title = {Uncanny as usability obstacle},
2949         journal = {Online Communities and Social Computing, HCI International},
2950         volume = {12},
2951         year = {2009},
2952         month = {July 19},
2953         pages = {622{\textendash}631},
2954         publisher = {Springer},
2955         address = {San Diego},
2956         abstract = {The eerie feeling attributed to photo-realistic human-like video game characters may serve as a usability obstacle leaving viewers dissatisfied with a particular character for a video game. This study investigates the relationships between user satisfaction and perceived strangeness and between user satisfaction and human-like appearance for virtual characters. 65 participants were asked to rate 13 video clips of 12 different virtual characters and one real human. The results indicate that the Uncanny Valley does serve as a usability obstacle with a strong correlation between a user{\textquoteright}s satisfaction rating and the perceived strangeness for a character, with the characters rated the strangest being the least satisfactory. Whilst there was still a positive correlation between human-like appearance for a character with user satisfaction, this was not as significant, with stylised and anthropomorphic characters perceived to be as satisfactory or more so than those of a photo-realistic human-like appearance},
2957         keywords = {photo-realistic, uncanny valley, Usability Obstacle},
2958         isbn = {978-3-642-02773-4},
2959         doi = {10.1007/978-3-642-02774-1_67},
2960         url = {http://digitalcommons.bolton.ac.uk/gcct_conferencepr/12/},
2961         author = {Angela Tinwell}
2962 }
2963 @article {4230,
2964         title = {Context and Driving Forces in the Development of the Early Computer Game Nimbi},
2965         journal = {IEEE Annals of the History of Computing},
2966         volume = {31},
2967         number = {3},
2968         year = {2009},
2969         note = {489SRTimes Cited:0Cited References Count:54},
2970         month = {Jul-Sep},
2971         pages = {44-53},
2972         abstract = {The Danish computer company Regnecentralen developed a computer version of Piet Hein{\textquoteright}s game Nimbi, a variant of the ancient game Nim, in 1962 and 1963. Piet Hein envisioned computers playing against humans, while Regnecentralen hoped Nimbi would illustrate the potential of computers to the public. Although technologically successful, Nimbi never fulfilled its promise due to hardware constraints and a lack of organizational follow-up.},
2973         isbn = {1058-6180},
2974         url = {<Go to ISI>://000269443300005},
2975         author = {Jorgensen, A. H.}
2976 }
2977 @article {4350,
2978         title = {Digital game playing motives among adolescents: Relations to parent-child communication, school performance, sleeping habits, and perceived health},
2979         journal = {Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology},
2980         volume = {30},
2981         number = {4},
2982         year = {2009},
2983         note = {465ZDTimes Cited:0Cited References Count:65},
2984         month = {Jul-Aug},
2985         pages = {463-474},
2986         abstract = {The aims of this research were to describe Finnish adolescents{\textquoteright} different motives for digital game playing, and to examine relations between digital game playing and parent-child communication, school performance, sleeping habits, and perceived health. A questionnaire was used to assess a nationwide postal sample of 12-18-year-old Finns (6761 respondents, response rate 69\%) in winter 2003. Among respondents, 4085 adolescents played digital games and answered questions on digital game motives. Two main motives emerged: instrumental (learn new things and procedures, have a common topic for conversation, use and develop game playing skills, experience different roles/worlds) and ritualized (pastime, entertainment; recover, relax; escape everyday life, forget worries). The importance of all motives increased for participants with longer playing times. Instrumental motives were more important to boys and younger respondents. They were associated with earlier bedtime, worse perceived health, better mother communication, and better school grades, but only among boys. The importance of ritualized motives increased with age and was related to better school performance, worse sleeping habits, and worse perceived health in both sexes. Digital games seem to have the same basic functions as media in serving adolescents{\textquoteright} mood management and stimulation seeking. Among boys, gaming is part of the male socio-cultural communication context. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.},
2987         keywords = {Adolescents, Computer games, digital game playing motives, Electronic Games, internet paradox, local television-news, low-back-pain, media use, parasocial interaction, parent-child communication, Patterns, perceived health, School Performance, schoolchildren, sleeping habits, Video Games},
2988         isbn = {0193-3973},
2989         url = {<Go to ISI>://000267628500008},
2990         author = {Wallenius, M. and Rimpela, A. and Punamaki, R. L. and Lintonen, T.}
2991 }
2992 @article {4345,
2993         title = {Playing TETRIS for science counter-regulatory affective processing in a motivationally "hot" context},
2994         journal = {Acta Psychologica},
2995         volume = {131},
2996         number = {3},
2997         year = {2009},
2998         note = {475LQTimes Cited:0Cited References Count:25},
2999         month = {Jul},
3000         pages = {171-177},
3001         abstract = {We adapted the computer game TETRIS to investigate the process of affective-motivational counter-regulation, that is, attentional biases for emotional stimuli that are in opposition to the momentary Motivational focus. Counter-regulation is seen as a mechanism which should prevent escalation and impulsivity, and it should help to avoid becoming "locked up" in affective-motivational states. Accordingly, for a negative outcome focus condition (i.e., risk of losing a current high score), we hypothesized greater interference by positive distractors that were included in the game, whereas for a positive outcome focus (i.e., chance to improve one{\textquoteright}s current high score), we hypothesized greater interference by negative distractors. Supporting our hypotheses, we found the predicted interactions between distractor valence and type of outcome focus. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.},
3002         keywords = {action regulation, attention-grabbing power, attentional biases, automatic attention, emotion, emotion regulation, Facial Expressions, flexibility, memory, negativity bias, social information, Stimuli, task, vigilance},
3003         isbn = {0001-6918},
3004         url = {<Go to ISI>://000268361100001},
3005         author = {Wentura, D. and Voss, A. and Rothermund, K.}
3006 }
3007 @article {4267,
3008         title = {Tipping the Balance Use of Advergames to Promote Consumption of Nutritious Foods and Beverages by Low-Income African American Children},
3009         journal = {Archives of Pediatrics \& Adolescent Medicine},
3010         volume = {163},
3011         number = {7},
3012         year = {2009},
3013         note = {467EKTimes Cited:0Cited References Count:12},
3014         month = {Jul},
3015         pages = {633-637},
3016         abstract = {Objective: To examine how advergames, which are online computer games developed to market a product, affect consumption of healthier and less healthy snacks by low-income African American children.Design: Cross-sectional, between-subjects examination of an advergame in which children were rewarded for having their computer character consume healthier or less healthy foods and beverages. Children were randomly assigned to 1 of the following 3 conditions: (1) the healthier advergame condition, (2) the less healthy advergame condition, or (3) the control condition.Setting: Urban public elementary schools.Participants: Thirty low-income, African American children aged 9 to 10 years.Main Exposure: Children in the treatment conditions played a less healthy or a healthier version of an advergame 2 times before choosing and eating a snack and completing the experimental measures. Children in the control group chose and ate a snack before playing the game and completing the measures.Main Outcome Measures: The number of healthier snack items children selected and ate and how much children liked the game.Results: Children who played the healthier version of the advergame selected and ate significantly more healthy snacks than did those who played the less healthy version. Children reported liking the advergame.Conclusions: Findings suggest that concerns about online advergames that market unhealthy foods are justified. However, advergames may also be used to promote healthier foods and beverages. This kind of social marketing approach could tip the scales toward the selection of higher-quality snacks, thereby helping to curb the obesity epidemic.},
3017         keywords = {children},
3018         isbn = {1072-4710},
3019         url = {<Go to ISI>://000267720400006},
3020         author = {Pempek, T. A. and Calvert, S. L.}
3021 }
3022 @article {4253,
3023         title = {Appetitive and Aversive Taste Conditioning in a Computer Game Influences Real-World Decision Making and Subsequent Activation in Insular Cortex},
3024         journal = {Journal of Neuroscience},
3025         volume = {29},
3026         number = {4},
3027         year = {2009},
3028         note = {400HQTimes Cited:1Cited References Count:32},
3029         month = {Jan 28},
3030         pages = {1046-1051},
3031         abstract = {A stimulus, by virtue of its pairing with a rewarding or an aversive outcome, can acquire motivating properties reflecting that outcome. However, there is uncertainty concerning the extent to which such properties might be carried across contexts. In the current study we sought to determine whether conditioning-dependent motivational properties can transfer from a computer game to the real world and, further, whether this conditioning might be expressed in terms of brain responses measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We studied healthy participants conditioned with aversive and appetitive drinks in the context of a virtual cycling race. Three days after conditioning, participants returned for a fMRI session. We took this opportunity to observe the impact of incidental presentation of conditioned stimuli on a real-world decision (seat choice). We found a significant influence of conditioning on seat choice and, moreover, noted that individual susceptibility to this influence was reflected in differential insula cortex responses during subsequent scanning. The choice was also predicted by participants{\textquoteright} personality scores and, as a statistical trend (p = 0.07), by their sense of immersion in the game environment. Our data show that motivational properties of stimuli can transfer from the virtual to the real world. While much concern has been expressed over the impact of virtual experience on general levels of aggression and mood, our data point to another important consideration: the fact that a stimulus in the virtual environment can acquire motivational properties that persist and modify behavior in the real world.},
3032         keywords = {aversion, classical conditioning, environment, imaging, insights, insula, lesions, motivation, Responses, reward, Virtual-Reality},
3033         isbn = {0270-6474},
3034         url = {<Go to ISI>://000262859000016},
3035         author = {McCabe, J. A. and Tobler, P. N. and Schultz, W. and Dickinson, A. and Lupson, V. and Fletcher, P. C.}
3036 }
3037 @article {4258,
3038         title = {Is aggression in children with behavioural and emotional difficulties associated with television viewing and video game playing? A systematic review},
3039         journal = {Child Care Health and Development},
3040         volume = {35},
3041         number = {1},
3042         year = {2009},
3043         note = {389OVTimes Cited:0Cited References Count:37},
3044         month = {Jan},
3045         pages = {5-15},
3046         abstract = {Possible associations between television viewing and video game playing and children{\textquoteright}s aggression have become public health concerns. We did a systematic review of studies that examined such associations, focussing on children and young people with behavioural and emotional difficulties, who are thought to be more susceptible.We did computer-assisted searches of health and social science databases, gateways, publications from relevant organizations and for grey literature; scanned bibliographies; hand-searched key journals; and corresponded with authors. We critically appraised all studies.A total of 12 studies: three experiments with children with behavioural and emotional difficulties found increased aggression after watching aggressive as opposed to low-aggressive content television programmes, one found the opposite and two no clear effect, one found such children no more likely than controls to imitate aggressive television characters. One case-control study and one survey found that children and young people with behavioural and emotional difficulties watched more television than controls; another did not. Two studies found that children and young people with behavioural and emotional difficulties viewed more hours of aggressive television programmes than controls. One study on video game use found that young people with behavioural and emotional difficulties viewed more minutes of violence and played longer than controls. In a qualitative study children with behavioural and emotional difficulties, but not their parents, did not associate watching television with aggression. All studies had significant methodological flaws. None was based on power calculations.This systematic review found insufficient, contradictory and methodologically flawed evidence on the association between television viewing and video game playing and aggression in children and young people with behavioural and emotional difficulties. If public health advice is to be evidence-based, good quality research is needed.},
3047         keywords = {Adolescents, Aggression, appraising qualitative research, cartoons, child, disturbed children, Exposure, Impact, Media Violence, Sample, systematic review, Television, Video Game},
3048         isbn = {0305-1862},
3049         url = {<Go to ISI>://000262105300002},
3050         author = {Mitrofan, O. and Paul, M. and Spencer, N.}
3051 }
3052 @article {4232,
3053         title = {Designing physical and social intergenerational family entertainment},
3054         journal = {Interacting with Computers},
3055         volume = {21},
3056         number = {1-2},
3057         year = {2009},
3058         note = {Sp. Iss. SI421JGTimes Cited:0Cited References Count:24},
3059         month = {Jan},
3060         pages = {76-87},
3061         abstract = {Present computer games and digital entertainment do not usually facilitate intergenerational family interactions. According to recent survey results in Japan, there is a high percentage of older people who own and play electronic or computer games, but rarely do they play the games with their family members. it is a positive sign that more older people are participating in the digital games arena, but it would be even more beneficial if they Could interact actively with the young family members through gaming activities. This could possibly strengthen family bonding and bridge the gap between older people and youth culture.This paper presents steps for designing an intergenerational family entertainment system which focuses Oil physical and social interactions using a mixed reality floor system. The main design goals include: facilitating interactions between users with varied levels of skill in utilizing technology, utilizing the familiar physical motions from other activities to make an intuitive physical interface, and encouraging social interactions among families and friends. Detailed implementation of these steps is presented in the design of our intergenerational entertainment system, Age Invaders. Four main prototype iterations for the system is presented. Our design process is based on User Centered Design and relies on constant involvement of users to understand the key issues and to help make effective design decisions. The results of the study help to focus the refinements of the existing platform from a usability standpoint and also aids in the development of new physical entertainment and interactive applications. This study provides insights into user issues including how users interact in a complex mixed reality experience, which is heavily based in physicality. The use of one portion of the user base which is most proficient with technology before involving the novice users was found to empower novice users to begin to use digital technology. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved},
3062         keywords = {family entertainment, Game play, mixed reality entertainment, social computing, user, user-centered design},
3063         isbn = {0953-5438},
3064         url = {<Go to ISI>://000264354600009},
3065         author = {Khoo, E. T. and Merritt, T. and Cheok, A. D.}
3066 }
3067 @article {4263,
3068         title = {Digital Game-Based Learning in high school Computer Science education: Impact on educational effectiveness and student motivation},
3069         journal = {Computers \& Education},
3070         volume = {52},
3071         number = {1},
3072         year = {2009},
3073         note = {412CVTimes Cited:1Cited References Count:35},
3074         month = {Jan},
3075         pages = {1-12},
3076         abstract = {The aim of this study was to assess the learning effectiveness and motivational appeal of a computer game for learning computer memory concepts, which was designed according to the curricular objectives and the subject matter of the Greek high school Computer Science (CS) curriculum, as compared to a similar application, encompassing identical learning objectives and content but lacking the gaming aspect. The study also investigated potential gender differences in the game{\textquoteright}s learning effectiveness and motivational appeal. The sample was 88 students, who were randomly assigned to two groups, one of which used the gaming application (Group A, N = 47) and the other one the non-gaming one (Group B, N = 41). A Computer Memory Knowledge Test (CMKT) was used as the pretest and posttest. Students were also observed during the interventions. Furthermore, after the interventions. students{\textquoteright} views on the application they had used were elicited through a feedback questionnaire. Data analyses showed that the gaming approach was both more effective in promoting students{\textquoteright} knowledge of computer memory concepts and more motivational than the non-gaming approach. Despite boys{\textquoteright} greater involvement with, liking of and experience in computer gaming, and their greater initial computer memory knowledge, the learning gains that boys and girls achieved through the use of the game did not differ significantly, and the game was found to be equally motivational for boys and girls. The results suggest that within high school CS, educational computer games can be exploited as effective and motivational learning environments, regardless of students{\textquoteright} gender.},
3077         keywords = {applications in subject areas, gender studies, Home, interactive learning environments, multimedia/hypermedia systems, Secondary education},
3078         isbn = {0360-1315},
3079         url = {<Go to ISI>://000263701900001},
3080         author = {Papastergiou, M.}
3081 }
3082 @article {4175,
3083         title = {The effect of violent and non-violent computer games on cognitive performance},
3084         journal = {Computers in Human Behavior},
3085         volume = {25},
3086         number = {1},
3087         year = {2009},
3088         note = {418XDTimes Cited:2Cited References Count:21},
3089         month = {Jan},
3090         pages = {96-102},
3091         abstract = {Two studies were conducted in order to determine the impact computer games had on the cognitive performance. Study 1 evaluated a measure of cognition, which incorporates aspects of short-term working memory, visual attention, mathematical decision making, and auditory perception. Study 2 measured the cognitive performance between those who did not play video games versus those who played either a violent or non-violent video game. Results from Study 1 indicate participants needed approximately four trials to reach asymptotic performance on the cognitive measure. Results of Study 2 showed that participants who did not play any video game did not have a change in their cognitive performance, while those who played either a violent or non-violent video game had an increase in their cognitive performance.},
3092         keywords = {Cognition, Computer games, environment, Performance, synwin, Video Games},
3093         isbn = {0747-5632},
3094         url = {<Go to ISI>://000264182300011},
3095         author = {Barlett, C. P. and Vowels, C. L. and Shanteau, J. and Crow, J. and Miller, T.}
3096 }
3097 @article {4313,
3098         title = {The effects of computer games on primary school students{\textquoteright} achievement and motivation in geography learning},
3099         journal = {Computers \& Education},
3100         volume = {52},
3101         number = {1},
3102         year = {2009},
3103         note = {412CVTimes Cited:0Cited References Count:37},
3104         month = {Jan},
3105         pages = {68-77},
3106         abstract = {The implementation of a computer game for learning about geography by primary school students is the focus of this article. Researchers designed and developed a three-dimensional educational computer game. Twenty four students in fourth and fifth grades in a private school in Ankara, Turkey learnt about world continents and countries through this game for three weeks. The effects of the game environment on students{\textquoteright} achievement and motivation and related implementation issues were examined through both quantitative and qualitative methods. An analysis of pre and post achievement tests showed that students made significant learning gains by participating in the game-based learning environment. When comparing their motivations while learning in the game-based learning environment and in their traditional school environment, it was found that students demonstrated statistically significant higher intrinsic motivations and statistically significant lower extrinsic motivations learning in the game-based environment. In addition, they had decreased focus on getting grades and they were more independent while participating in the game-based activities. These positive effects on learning and motivation, and the positive attitudes of students and teachers suggest that computer games can be used as an ICT tool in formal learning environments to support students in effective geography learning.},
3107         keywords = {applications in subject areas, classroom, Computer games, Elementary education, interactive learning environments, software, teaching geography, Virtual Environments, virtual reality, worlds},
3108         isbn = {0360-1315},
3109         url = {<Go to ISI>://000263701900007},
3110         author = {Tuzun, H. and Yilmaz-Soylu, M. and Karakus, T. and Inal, Y. and Kizilkaya, G.}
3111 }
3112 @article {4224,
3113         title = {Playing a violent television game affects heart rate variability},
3114         journal = {Acta Paediatrica},
3115         volume = {98},
3116         number = {1},
3117         year = {2009},
3118         note = {382WTTimes Cited:1Cited References Count:30},
3119         month = {Jan},
3120         pages = {166-172},
3121         abstract = {Objective: To investigate how playing a violent/nonviolent television game during the evening affects sympathetic and parasympathetic reactions during and after playing as well as sleep quality during the night after playing.Subjects and Methods: In total, 19 boys, 12-15 years of age, played television games on two occasions in their homes and participated once without gaming. Heart rate, heart rate variability (HRV) and physical activity were measured during gaming/participating and the night to follow using a portable combined heart rate and movement sensor. A sleep diary and questionnaires about gaming experiences and session-specific experiences were filled in.Criteria for Selection of Games: Violent game involves/rewards direct physical violence (no handguns) against another person, and nonviolent game involves/rewards no violence; same game design ({\textquoteright}third-person game{\textquoteright}); conducted in the same manner; no differences concerning motor activity; similar sound and light effects; no sexual content, violence against women or racial overtones.Results: During violent (vs. nonviolent) gaming, there was significantly higher activity of the very low frequency component of the HRV and total power. During the night after playing, very low frequency, low frequency and high frequency components were significantly higher during the violent (vs. nonviolent) condition, just as total power. There were no significant differences between the three conditions (violent/nonviolent/no gaming) with respect to an index reflecting subjectively perceived sleep difficulties. Nor was there any difference between violent and nonviolent condition for any single sleep item.Conclusion: Violent gaming induces different autonomic responses in boys compared to nonviolent gaming - during playing and during the following night - suggesting different emotional responses. Subjectively perceived sleep quality is not influenced after a single gaming experience. Future studies should address the development of the autonomic balance after gaming over longer time than a night, physiological adaptation to frequent gaming and potential gender differences.},
3122         keywords = {Arousal, autonomic nervous system, children, computer game, good sleep, heart rate variability, Impact, latency, mortality, myocardial-infarction, period variability, school children, sleep quality, television game, Video Games},
3123         isbn = {0803-5253},
3124         url = {<Go to ISI>://000261636800035},
3125         author = {Ivarsson, M. and Anderson, M. and Angstrom, T. and Lindblad, F.}
3126 }
3127 @article {4272,
3128         title = {Teaming up humans with autonomous synthetic characters},
3129         journal = {Artificial Intelligence},
3130         volume = {173},
3131         number = {1},
3132         year = {2009},
3133         note = {387DHTimes Cited:0Cited References Count:76},
3134         month = {Jan},
3135         pages = {80-103},
3136         abstract = {Autonomous synthetic characters have the potential to promote the social engagement of users in virtual environments, enhancing their interaction experience. In computer games, for example, poor interaction with game characters can drastically detract from the gaming experience, making the design of autonomous synthetic characters an important issue. In particular, in Role Playing Games (RPGs), for example, users and autonomous characters often perform in a group. Usually, the role of such characters is very limited since they lack the social skills to perform coherently in group scenarios.The goal of the work presented here is to endow autonomous synthetic characters with social skills that allow them to perform in groups with human members. However, to successfully achieve this, it is not enough to assure that the characters behave in a coherent manner from an individual perspective or that they are able to perform the group task optimally. It is also necessary that the autonomous characters exhibit behaviours that are coherent with the group{\textquoteright}s composition, context and structure.For this reason, we have developed a model to support group dynamics of autonomous synthetic characters (SGD model) inspired by theories developed in human social psychological sciences. This model defines the knowledge that each individual should build about the others and the group, and how this knowledge drives their interactions. The model was used in a collaborative computer game that was tested with users. The results showed that the model had a positive effect on the users{\textquoteright} social engagement, namely. on their trust and identification with the group. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.},
3137         keywords = {agents, autonomous synthetic characters, believability, computer-human interaction, group cohesiveness, Group dynamics, Performance, power, Satisfaction, social intelligence, teamwork, Time},
3138         isbn = {0004-3702},
3139         url = {<Go to ISI>://000261931400003},
3140         author = {Prada, R. and Paiva, A.}
3141 }
3142 @article {4300,
3143         title = {Experimental Validation of the Learning Effect for a Pedagogical Game on Computer Fundamentals},
3144         journal = {IEEE Transactions on Education},
3145         volume = {52},
3146         number = {1},
3147         year = {2009},
3148         note = {405LDTimes Cited:0Cited References Count:23},
3149         month = {Feb},
3150         pages = {10-18},
3151         abstract = {The question/answer-based computer game Age of Computers was introduced to replace traditional weekly paper exercises in a course in Computer Fundamentals in 2003. Questionnaire evaluations and observation of student behavior have indicated that the students found the game more motivating than paper exercises and that a majority of the students also perceived the game to have a higher learning effect than paper exercises or textbook reading. This paper reports on a controlled experiment to compare the learning effectiveness of game play with traditional paper exercises, as well as with textbook reading. The results indicated that with equal time being spent on the various learning activities, the effect of game play was only equal to that of the other activities, not better. Yet this result is promising enough, as the increased motivation means that students work harder in the course. Also, the results indicate that the game has potential for improvement, in particular with respect to its feedback on the more complicated questions.},
3152         keywords = {computer fundamentals, computer game, computer science education, Edutainment},
3153         isbn = {0018-9359},
3154         url = {<Go to ISI>://000263225300002},
3155         author = {Sindre, G. and Natvig, L. and Jahre, M.}
3156 }
3157 @article {4180,
3158         title = {FERMT: A computer game based on fermentation process development (vol 6, pg 38, 1971)},
3159         journal = {Process Biochemistry},
3160         volume = {44},
3161         number = {2},
3162         year = {2009},
3163         note = {405VITimes Cited:0Cited References Count:1},
3164         month = {Feb},
3165         pages = {256-256},
3166         isbn = {1359-5113},
3167         url = {<Go to ISI>://000263251900021},
3168         author = {Bungay, H. R.}
3169 }
3170 @article {4178,
3171         title = {Informing Our Own Choices: A Proposal for User-Generated Classification},
3172         journal = {Media International Australia},
3173         number = {130},
3174         year = {2009},
3175         note = {417OFTimes Cited:0Cited References Count:27},
3176         month = {Feb},
3177         pages = {112-126},
3178         abstract = {New media are distrusted media, and computer games are the contemporary currency in new media. Computer game content, like other popular media content, is regulated in different jurisdictions by one of three general models: the open market in which consumption decides the availability of product, industry self-regulation in which industry bodies decide, and government regulation in which government or quasi-governmental bodies decide. Arguably, these models represent the twentieth century state of the art and fail to keep pace with changes in the aesthetics and technologies associated with interactive entertainment. In a networked economy alternative models exist to serve content gatekeeping functions, and they serve to close the lags and limitations that plague existing models. These alternatives include innovations such as user-generated classification and dynamic meta-tagging. This paper examines current classification approaches and their limitations, and presents alternative approaches with a hypothetical game title.},
3179         isbn = {1329-878X},
3180         url = {<Go to ISI>://000264084900012},
3181         author = {Brand, J. and Finn, M.}
3182 }
3183 @article {4181,
3184         title = {Deus Ex Machina-A Higher Creative Species in the Game of Chess},
3185         journal = {AI Magazine},
3186         volume = {30},
3187         number = {3},
3188         year = {2009},
3189         note = {514LXTimes Cited:0Cited References Count:6},
3190         month = {Fal},
3191         pages = {63-70},
3192         abstract = {Computers and human beings play chess differently The basic paradigm that computer programs employ is known as "search and evaluate." Their static evaluation is arguably more primitive than the perceptual one of humans. Yet the intelligence emerging from them is phenomenal. A human spectator is not able to tell the difference between a brilliant computer game and one played by Kasparov Chess played by today{\textquoteright}s machines looks extraordinary, full of imagination and creativity. Such elements may be Me reason that computers are superior to humans in Me sport of kings, at least for the moment. This article is about how roles have changed: humans play chess like machines, and machines play chess the way Minions used to play.},
3193         isbn = {0738-4602},
3194         url = {<Go to ISI>://000271397300006},
3195         author = {Bushinsky, S.}
3196 }
3197 @booklet {4425,
3198         title = {Commitment to Meaning: A Reframing of Agency in Games},
3199         year = {2009},
3200         month = {December 12-15},
3201         abstract = {This paper examines the concept of agency within games and proposes a shift from the notion of agency as representing choice or freedom to one of agency as representing commitment to meaning. This conception of agency is aimed at understanding the pleasures of engaging with narratively rich games, and helps to address the tension between player choice and authorial intent. We draw on what speech act theory says about how trust, meaning and communication are achieved in human conversation, applying these notions to interactive storytelling. This new perspective on agency provides us with a better analytical tool for understanding the relationship between interaction and narrative pleasure, and provides a useful metric for designers of story-rich games. },
3202         keywords = {Agency, game design, game studies, Interactive Storytelling, Speech Act Theory},
3203         url = {http://escholarship.org/uc/item/6f49r74n},
3204         author = {Tanenbaum, Karen and Tanenbaum, Joshua}
3205 }
3206 @article {4349,
3207         title = {Advances in Games Technology: Software, Models, and Intelligence},
3208         journal = {Simulation Gaming},
3209         volume = {40},
3210         number = {6},
3211         year = {2009},
3212         month = {December 1, 2009},
3213         pages = {752-801},
3214         abstract = {Games technology has undergone tremendous development. In this article, the authors report the rapid advancement that has been observed in the way games software is being developed, as well as in the development of games content using game engines. One area that has gained special attention is modeling the game environment such as terrain and buildings. This article presents the continuous level of detail terrain modeling techniques that can help generate and render realistic terrain in real time. Deployment of characters in the environment is increasingly common. This requires strategies to map scalable behavior characteristics for characters as well. The authors present two important aspects of crowd simulation: the realism of the crowd behavior and the computational overhead involved. A good simulation of crowd behavior requires delicate balance between these aspects. The focus in this article is on human behavior representation for crowd simulation. To enhance the player experience, the authors present the concept of player adaptive entertainment computing, which provides a personalized experience for each individual when interacting with the game. The current state of game development involves using very small percentage (typically 4\% to 12\%) of CPU time for game artificial intelligence (AI). Future game AI requires developing computational strategies that have little involvement of CPU for online play, while using CPU{\textquoteright}s idle capacity when the game is not being played, thereby emphasizing the construction of complex game AI models offline. A framework of such nonconventional game AI models is introduced.},
3215         url = {http://sag.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/40/6/752},
3216         author = {Prakash, Edmond and Brindle, Geoff and Jones, Kevin and Zhou, Suiping and Chaudhari, Narendra S. and Wong, Kok-Wai}
3217 }
3218 @article {4348,
3219         title = {A Review of Humor for Computer Games: Play, Laugh and More},
3220         journal = {Simulation Gaming},
3221         volume = {40},
3222         number = {6},
3223         year = {2009},
3224         month = {December 1, 2009},
3225         pages = {802-824},
3226         abstract = {Computer games are now becoming ways to communicate, teach, and influence attitudes and behavior. In this article, we address the role of humor in computer games, especially in support of serious purposes. We begin with a review of the main theories of humor, including superiority, incongruity, and relief. These theories and their interrelationships do well in helping us understand the humor process, but they have been developed in the context of traditional human activity. To explore how they relate to computer games, we present the findings of a qualitative study of player experience of humor and show how it relates to the theoretical perspectives. We then review the main functions of humor, especially its effects on social, emotional, and cognitive behavior. We show how each of these functions can be used in game design to support the specific experiences and outcomes of game-play. Finally, we address the issue of serious games and make suggestions on how humor can inform and support the design of those games. We suggest that humor can support design by smoothing and sustaining the game mechanics. Moreover, games can draw on the functions of humor in the real world for enhancing communication, learning, and social presence. Using humor makes games richer and more powerful, as well as fun.},
3227         url = {http://sag.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/40/6/802},
3228         author = {Dormann, Claire and Biddle, Robert}
3229 }
3230 @article {4491,
3231         title = {Theoretical Consoles: Concepts for Gadget Analysis},
3232         journal = {Journal of Visual Culture},
3233         volume = {8},
3234         number = {3},
3235         year = {2009},
3236         month = {December 1, 2009},
3237         pages = {279-298},
3238         abstract = {Theoretical objects are things that compel us to propose, interrogate, and theorize. They counter the influence of approaches that try to define, position, and fix. The mobile, handheld game console offers us a specific kind of theoretical object. A hybrid screen device that encompasses multiple interfaces, it raises questions about the specificity of the screen gadget as object, and about the entanglement of technologies, applications, and practices. Through an analysis of the Nintendo DS game console I argue that such gadgets are best understood as theoretical consoles: objects that raises theoretical questions, precisely, about their hybrid status.},
3239         keywords = {gadgets, game console, mobile device, mobility, theoretical object, touch screen},
3240         url = {http://vcu.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/8/3/279},
3241         author = {Verhoeff, Nanna}
3242 }
3243 @article {4268,
3244         title = {The Priming Effects of Avatars in Virtual Settings},
3245         journal = {Communication Research},
3246         volume = {36},
3247         number = {6},
3248         year = {2009},
3249         note = {514RUTimes Cited:0Cited References Count:35},
3250         month = {Dec},
3251         pages = {838-856},
3252         abstract = {The study extends research on the Proteus effect by demonstrating that avatars can prime negative attitudes and cognition in desktop virtual settings. Experiment 1 shows that, after virtual group discussions, participants using black-cloaked avatars developed more aggressive intentions and attitudes but less group cohesion than those using white-cloaked avatars. In Experiment 2, individual participants using a Ku Klux Klan (KKK)-associated avatar created more aggressive Thematic Apperception Test stories in comparison to a control group. Participants using the KKK avatar also wrote less affiliative stories in comparison to those employing avatars dressed as doctors. Overall, the resulting pattern of activation of negative thoughts (i.e., aggression) coupled with the inhibition of inconsistent thoughts (i.e., cohesion, affiliation) is consistent with principles of current priming models and provides initial evidence for automatic cognitive priming in virtual settings.},
3253         keywords = {Aggression, automaticity, Avatars, Behavior, computer-mediated communication, Game, Media effects, PERCEPTIONS, physicians, priming, proteus effect, representation, stereotype activation, Thoughts, valence, Virtual Environments},
3254         isbn = {0093-6502},
3255         url = {<Go to ISI>://000271414100005},
3256         author = {Pena, J. and Hancock, J. T. and Merola, N. A.}
3257 }
3258 @article {4339,
3259         title = {As real as real? Macroeconomic behavior in a large-scale virtual world},
3260         journal = {New Media Society},
3261         volume = {11},
3262         number = {5},
3263         year = {2009},
3264         month = {August 1, 2009},
3265         pages = {685-707},
3266         abstract = {This article proposes an empirical test of whether aggregate economic behavior maps from the real to the virtual. Transaction data from a large commercial virtual world -- the first such data set provided to outside researchers -- is used to calculate metrics for production, consumption and money supply based on real-world definitions. Movements in these metrics over time were examined for consistency with common theories of macroeconomic change. The results indicated that virtual economic behavior follows real-world patterns. Moreover, a natural experiment occurred, in that a new version of the virtual world with the same rules came online during the study. The new world{\textquoteright}s macroeconomic aggregates quickly grew to be nearly exact replicas of those of the existing worlds, suggesting that {\textquoteleft}Code is Law{\textquoteright}: macroeconomic outcomes in a virtual world may be explained largely by design structure.},
3267         url = {http://nms.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/11/5/685},
3268         author = {Castronova, Edward and Williams, Dmitri and Cuihua Shen, and Ratan, Rabindra and Xiong,Li and Yun Huang, and Keegan, Brian}
3269 }
3270 @article {4342,
3271         title = {The virtual census: representations of gender, race and age in video games},
3272         journal = {New Media Society},
3273         volume = {11},
3274         number = {5},
3275         year = {2009},
3276         month = {August 1, 2009},
3277         pages = {815-834},
3278         abstract = {A large-scale content analysis of characters in video games was employed to answer questions about their representations of gender, race and age in comparison to the US population. The sample included 150 games from a year across nine platforms, with the results weighted according to game sales. This innovation enabled the results to be analyzed in proportion to the games that were actually played by the public, and thus allowed the first statements able to be generalized about the content of popular video games. The results show a systematic over-representation of males, white and adults and a systematic under-representation of females, Hispanics, Native Americans, children and the elderly. Overall, the results are similar to those found in television research. The implications for identity, cognitive models, cultivation and game research are discussed.},
3279         url = {http://nms.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/11/5/815},
3280         author = {Williams, Dmitri and Martins, Nicole and Consalvo,Mia and Ivory, James D}
3281 }
3282 @article {4223,
3283         title = {AgentCubes: Incremental 3D end-user development},
3284         journal = {Journal of Visual Languages and Computing},
3285         volume = {20},
3286         number = {4},
3287         year = {2009},
3288         note = {Sp. Iss. SI476TPTimes Cited:0Cited References Count:37},
3289         month = {Aug},
3290         pages = {236-251},
3291         abstract = {3D game development can be an enticing way to attract K-12 students to computer science, but designing and programming 3D games is far from trivial. Students need to achieve a certain level of 3D fluency in modeling, animation, and programming to be able to create compelling 3D content. The combination of innovative end-user development tools and standards-based curriculum that promotes IT fluency by shifting the pedagogical focus from programming to design, can address motivational aspects without sacrificing principled educational goals. The AgentCubes 3D game-authoring environment raises the ceiling of end-user development without raising the threshold. Our formal user study shows that with Incremental 3D, the gradual approach to transition from 2D to 3D authoring, middle school students can build sophisticated 3D games including 3D models, animations, and programming. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.},
3292         keywords = {computational thinking, end-user development, game design, incremental 3d, it fluency, visual programming},
3293         isbn = {1045-926X},
3294         url = {<Go to ISI>://000268468800003},
3295         author = {Ioannidou, A. and Repenning, A. and Webb, D. C.}
3296 }
3297 @article {4312,
3298         title = {Effect of the computer based game on pre-service teachers{\textquoteright} achievement, attitudes, metacognition and motivation in chemistry},
3299         journal = {Scientific Research and Essays},
3300         volume = {4},
3301         number = {8},
3302         year = {2009},
3303         note = {481LNTimes Cited:0Cited References Count:61},
3304         month = {Aug},
3305         pages = {780-790},
3306         abstract = {The purpose of this study is to explore whether the support of traditional teaching methods with computer based games has any effect on students{\textquoteright} achievement in chemistry course, their attitude towards chemistry, their metacognition level and motivation. For this aim, before the application, Chemistry Achievement Test (CAT), Chemistry Attitude Scale (CAS) and Metacognitive Activities Inventory (MCA-I) was used as a pre-test. During the application, such units in General Chemistry as "Basic Conceptions", "Structure of Atom and Periodic Table", "Chemical Bound" and "Naming of the Compound" were taught to the students in traditional teaching methods. However, the course was supported by computer-based games developed during the conduction of the course in the experiment group. At the end of the application, the scales used as pre-test were applied as post-test, too. Result shows that the learning environment supported with computer-based games have a positive effect on students{\textquoteright} achievement in chemistry, on attitudes toward chemistry and motivation.},
3307         keywords = {achievement, attitude, chemistry, computer-based games, Instruction, Management, metacognition, Science, Students},
3308         isbn = {1992-2248},
3309         url = {<Go to ISI>://000268812600010},
3310         author = {Tuysuz, C.}
3311 }
3312 @article {4189,
3313         title = {Network Design with Weighted Players},
3314         journal = {Theory of Computing Systems},
3315         volume = {45},
3316         number = {2},
3317         year = {2009},
3318         note = {457LCTimes Cited:0Cited References Count:25},
3319         month = {Aug},
3320         pages = {302-324},
3321         abstract = {We consider a model of game-theoretic network design initially studied by Anshelevich et al. (Proceedings of the 45th Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science (FOCS), pp. 295-304, 2004), where selfish players select paths in a network to minimize their cost, which is prescribed by Shapley cost shares. If all players are identical, the cost share incurred by a player for an edge in its path is the fixed cost of the edge divided by the number of players using it. In this special case, Anshelevich et al. (Proceedings of the 45th Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science (FOCS), pp. 295-304, 2004) proved that pure-strategy Nash equilibria always exist and that the price of stability-the ratio between the cost of the best Nash equilibrium and that of an optimal solution-is I similar to(log k), where k is the number of players. Little was known about the existence of equilibria or the price of stability in the general weighted version of the game. Here, each player i has a weight w (i) a parts per thousand yen1, and its cost share of an edge in its path equals w (i) times the edge cost, divided by the total weight of the players using the edge.This paper presents the first general results on weighted Shapley network design games. First, we give a simple example with no pure-strategy Nash equilibrium. This motivates considering the price of stability with respect to alpha-approximate Nash equilibria-outcomes from which no player can decrease its cost by more than an alpha multiplicative factor. Our first positive result is that O(log w (max) )-approximate Nash equilibria exist in all weighted Shapley network design games, where w (max) is the maximum player weight. More generally, we establish the following trade-off between the two objectives of good stability and low cost: for every alpha=Omega(log w (max) ), the price of stability with respect to O(alpha)-approximate Nash equilibria is O((log W)/alpha), where W is the sum of the players{\textquoteright} weights. In particular, there is always an O(log W)-approximate Nash equilibrium with cost within a constant factor of optimal.Finally, we show that this trade-off curve is nearly optimal: we construct a family of networks without o(log w (max) / log log w (max) )-approximate Nash equilibria, and show that for all alpha=Omega(log w (max) /log log w (max) ), achieving a price of stability of O(log W/alpha) requires relaxing equilibrium constraints by an Omega(alpha) factor.},
3322         keywords = {algorithmic game theory, Equilibria, network design, price of stability},
3323         isbn = {1432-4350},
3324         url = {<Go to ISI>://000266928500007},
3325         author = {Chen,H L and Roughgarden, T.}
3326 }
3327 @article {4207,
3328         title = {Playing Active Video Games Increases Energy Expenditure in Children},
3329         journal = {Pediatrics},
3330         volume = {124},
3331         number = {2},
3332         year = {2009},
3333         note = {475RCTimes Cited:1Cited References Count:28},
3334         month = {Aug},
3335         pages = {534-540},
3336         abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To compare energy expenditure rates in children playing the physically active video games, Dance Dance Revolution ( DDR) and Nintendo{\textquoteright}s Wii Sports in relation to treadmill walking.METHODS: Energy expenditure, heart rate, step rate, and perceived exertion were measured in 14 boys and 9 girls ( ages 10-13 years; BMI at 3-98th percentile for age and gender) while watching television at rest, playing DDR at 2 skill levels, playing Wii bowling and boxing, and walking at 2.6, 4.2, and 5.7 km/h. Arterial elasticity was measured at rest and immediately after gaming.RESULTS: Compared with watching television, energy expenditure while gaming or walking increased 2- to 3-fold. Similarly, high rates of energy expenditure, heart rate, and perceived exertion were elicited from playing Wii boxing, DDR level 2, or walking at 5.7 km/h. This occurred despite variations in step rate among activities, reflecting greater use of upper body during Wii play ( lowest step rate) than during walking ( highest step rate) or DDR play. Wii bowling and beginner level DDR elicited a 2-fold increase in energy expenditure compared to television watching. Large-artery elasticity declined immediately after both DDR and Wii. The change was inversely related to the increment in energy expenditure above rest achieved during the activity.CONCLUSIONS: Energy expenditure during active video game play is comparable to moderate-intensity walking. Thus, for children who spend considerable time playing electronic screen games for entertainment, physically active games seem to be a safe, fun, and valuable means of promoting energy expenditure. Pediatrics 2009; 124: 534-540},
3337         keywords = {Adolescents, arterial stiffness, doubly labeled water, Exercise, generation computer games, indirect calorimetry, movement, Obesity, Overweight, physical activity, Physical-Activity, Sensitivity, Video Games},
3338         isbn = {0031-4005},
3339         url = {<Go to ISI>://000268377000013},
3340         author = {Graf, D. L. and Pratt, L. V. and Hester, C. N. and Short, K. R.}
3341 }
3342 @article {4168,
3343         title = {Response cries and other gaming moves-Building intersubjectivity in gaming},
3344         journal = {Journal of Pragmatics},
3345         volume = {41},
3346         number = {8},
3347         year = {2009},
3348         note = {Sp. Iss. SI469NFTimes Cited:0Cited References Count:41},
3349         month = {Aug},
3350         pages = {1557-1575},
3351         abstract = {The present study focuses on the ways in which response cries (Goffman, 1981) are deployed as interactional resources in computer gaming in everyday life. It draws on a large-scale data set of video recordings of the everyday lives of middleclass families. The recordings of gaining between children and between children and parents show that response cries were not arbitrarily located within different phases of gaining (planning, gaming or commenting on gaining). Response cries were primarily used as interactional resources for securing and sustaining joint attention (cf. Goodwin, 1996) during the gaming as such, that is, during periods when the gaming activity was characterized by a relatively high tempo. In gaining between children, response cries co-occurred with their animations of game characters and with sound making, singing along, and code switching in ways that formed something of an action aesthetic, a type of aesthetic that was most clearly seen in gaining between game equals (here: between children). In contrast, response cries were rare during the planning phases and during phases in which the participants primarily engaged in setting up or adjusting the game.},
3352         keywords = {action aesthetic, Computer, computer gaming, conversation, everyday life, intersubjectivity, Life, response cries, SCHOOL},
3353         isbn = {0378-2166},
3354         author = {Aarsand, P. A. and Aronsson, K.}
3355 }
3356 @article {4225,
3357         title = {Virtual world teaching, experiential learning, and assessment: An interdisciplinary communication course in Second Life},
3358         journal = {Computers \& Education},
3359         volume = {53},
3360         number = {1},
3361         year = {2009},
3362         note = {447JPTimes Cited:0Cited References Count:36},
3363         month = {Aug},
3364         pages = {169-182},
3365         abstract = {While many reports espouse the potential impact that 3-D virtual worlds are expected to have on teaching and learning in higher education in a few years, there are few empirical studies that inform instructional design and learning assessment in virtual worlds. This study explores the nature and process of learning in Second Life in a graduate interdisciplinary communication course in fall 2007. Literature suggests that 3-D virtual worlds can be well suited for experiential learning environments. In this study, the actual instructional effectiveness of Second Life as an experiential learning environment for interdisciplinary communication is empirically examined using mixed research methods of journal content analysis, surveys, focus group, and virtual world snapshots and video. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.},
3366         keywords = {computer-mediated communication, cooperative/collaborative learning, education, Game, interactive learning environments, interdisciplinary projects, virtual reality},
3367         isbn = {0360-1315},
3368         url = {<Go to ISI>://000266187700017},
3369         author = {Jarmon, L. and Traphagan, T. and Mayrath, M. and Trivedi, A.}
3370 }
3371 @conference {4533,
3372         title = {Survival horror games: An uncanny modality},
3373         booktitle = {Thinking After Dark},
3374         year = {2009},
3375         month = {April 23},
3376         address = {Montreal},
3377         abstract = {This study investigates the relationship between the perceived eeriness of a virtual character with the perception of human-likeness for some attributes of motion and sound. 100 participants were asked to rate 13 video clips of 12 different virtual characters and one human. The results indicate that attributes of motion and sound do exaggerate the uncanny phenomenon and how frightening that character is perceived to be. Strong correlations were identified for the perceived eeriness for a character with how human-like a character{\textquoteright}s voice sounded, how human-like facial expression appeared and the synchronization of the character{\textquoteright}s sound with lip movement; characters rated as the least synchronized were perceived to be the most frightening. Based on the results of this study, this paper seeks to define an initial set of hypotheses for the fear-evoking aspects of character facial rendering and vocalization in survival horror games that can be used by game designers seeking to increase the fear factor in the genre and that will form the basis of further experiments which, it is hoped, will lead to a conceptual framework for the uncanny.},
3378         keywords = {uncanny valley},
3379         url = {http://digitalcommons.bolton.ac.uk/gcct_conferencepr/11/},
3380         author = {Angela Tinwell and Grimshaw, Mark}
3381 }
3382 @article {4347,
3383         title = {Human-centered modeling for style-based adaptive games},
3384         journal = {Journal of Zhejiang University-Science A},
3385         volume = {10},
3386         number = {4},
3387         year = {2009},
3388         note = {436AKTimes Cited:0Cited References Count:13},
3389         month = {Apr},
3390         pages = {530-534},
3391         abstract = {This letter proposes a categorization matrix to analyze the playing style of a computer game player for a shooting game genre. Our aim is to use human-centered modeling as a strategy for adaptive games based on entertainment measure to evaluate the playing experience. We utilized a self-organizing map (SOM) to cluster the player{\textquoteright}s style with the data obtained while playing the game. We further argued that style-based adaptation contributes to higher enjoyment, and this is reflected in our experiment using a supervised multilayered perceptron (MLP) network.},
3392         keywords = {adaptive games, categorization matrix, data clustering, human-centered modeling, player modeling},
3393         isbn = {1673-565X},
3394         url = {<Go to ISI>://000265384800008},
3395         author = {Wong, C. O. and Kim, J. and Han, E. and Jung,K}
3396 }
3397 @article {4295,
3398         title = {Relationships between Electronic Game Play, Obesity, and Psychosocial Functioning in Young Men},
3399         journal = {Cyberpsychology \& Behavior},
3400         volume = {12},
3401         number = {2},
3402         year = {2009},
3403         note = {431TOTimes Cited:0Cited References Count:18},
3404         month = {Apr},
3405         pages = {241-244},
3406         abstract = {Most estimates suggest that American youth are spending a large amount of time playing video and computer games, spurring researchers to examine the impact this media has on various aspects of health and psychosocial functioning. The current study investigated relationships between frequency of electronic game play and obesity, the social/emotional context of electronic game play, and academic performance among 219 college-aged males. Current game players reported a weekly average of 9.73 hours of game play, with almost 10\% of current players reporting an average of 35 hours of play per week. Results indicated that frequency of play was not significantly related to body mass index or grade point average. However, there was a significant positive correlation between frequency of play and self-reported frequency of playing when bored, lonely, or stressed. As opposed to the general conception of electronic gaming as detrimental to functioning, the results suggest that gaming among college-aged men may provide a healthy source of socialization, relaxation, and coping.},
3407         keywords = {Performance, Time, Video Games},
3408         isbn = {1094-9313},
3409         url = {<Go to ISI>://000265087100020},
3410         author = {Wack, E. and Tantleff-Dunn, S.}
3411 }
3412 @conference {4057,
3413         title = {Gameplay Experience in a Gaze Interaction Game},
3414         booktitle = {The 5th Conference on Communication by Gaze Interaction {\textendash} COGAIN 2009: Gaze Interaction For Those Who Want It Most},
3415         series = {COGAIN},
3416         year = {2009},
3417         month = {26/05/2009},
3418         pages = {49-54},
3419         publisher = {The COGAIN Association},
3420         organization = {The COGAIN Association},
3421         address = {Lyngby, Denmark},
3422         abstract = {Assessing gameplay experience for gaze interaction games is a challenging task. For this study, a gaze interaction Half-Life 2 game modification was created that allowed eye tracking control. The mod was deployed during an experiment at Dreamhack 2007, where participants had to play with gaze navigation and afterwards rate their gameplay experience. The results show low tension and negative affects scores on the gameplay experience questionnaire as well as high positive challenge, immersion and flow ratings. The correlation between spatial presence and immersion for gaze interaction was high and yields further investigation. It is concluded that gameplay experience can be correctly assessed with the methodology presented in this paper.},
3423         keywords = {eye tracking, flow, Game experience, gaming with gaze, gaze interaction, HCI, Human-computer interaction, immersion, ux},
3424         isbn = {978-87-643-0475-6},
3425         url = {http://www.bth.se/fou/forskinfo.nsf/8ea71836fbadac09c125733300214ab9/4771af1c725ee1f4c12575c500452fa2!OpenDocument},
3426         author = {Nacke,Lennart and Stellmach, Sophie and Sasse, Dennis and Lindley,Craig A}
3427 }
3428 @proceedings {3875,
3429         title = {Easy to use and incredibly difficult: on the mythical border between interface and gameplay},
3430         journal = {Foundations of Digital Games},
3431         year = {2009},
3432         month = {26/04/2009},
3433         pages = {107-112   },
3434         publisher = {ACM},
3435         address = {Orlando, Florida},
3436         abstract = {In video game literature and video game reviews, video games are often divided into two distinct parts: interface and gameplay. Good video games, it is assumed, have easy to use interfaces, but they also provide difficult gameplay challenges to the player. But must a good game follow this pattern, and what is the difference between interface and gameplay? When does the easy-to-use interface stop, and when does the challenging gameplay begin? By analyzing a number of games, the paper argues that it is rare to find a clear-cut border between interface and gameplay and that the fluidity of this border characterizes games in general. While this border is unclear, we also analyze a number of games where the challenge is unambiguously located in the interface, thereby demonstrating that "easy interface and challenging gameplay" is neither universal nor a requirement for game quality. Finally, the paper argues, the lack of a clear distinction between easy interface and challenging gameplay is due to the fact that games are fundamentally designed not to accomplish something through an activity, but to provide an activity that is pleasurable in itself.},
3437         keywords = {challenge, game design, game studies, gameplay, interfaces, usability},
3438         isbn = {978-1-60558-437-9 },
3439         doi = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1536513.1536539},
3440         url = {http://www.jesperjuul.net/text/easydifficult/},
3441         author = {Juul,Jesper and Norton, Marleigh}
3442 }
3443 @conference {4474,
3444         title = {Effects of videogames: Flow, affect and aggression},
3445         booktitle = {Violence in Public Places and Institutions Conference},
3446         year = {2009},
3447         month = {25/06/2009},
3448         address = {University of Central Lancashire},
3449         abstract = {Research studying the effects of playing videogames has largely focused on their negative effects on aggressive attitudes and behaviours. The potential positive effects have received less theoretical and empirical attention. The present study used flow theory to permit a wider examination of the potential consequences of gaming for measures of affect and psychological well-being. Furthermore, it aimed to show how aggressive personality was linked to the gaming experience and whether this was associated with consequences for mood and psychological well-being. An experimental design was used, in which videogamers were recruited to play one of two videogames. Pre-test measures of trait aggression; psychological well-being and affect were taken. Following a forty minute game-play period, post-test measures on affect and flow were completed. Preliminary analyses of the pre and post-test measures of affect, revealed evidence to suggest that gaming can facilitate positive mood. Trait aggression showed to be negatively related to dimensions of psychological well-being but was not correlated with violent game content or flow in gaming. This suggests engagement with gaming to be a product of much more than violent content and that aggressive personality is not inherently linked to enjoyment of games with such content. Further research, however, is needed to confirm the importance of violent content and aggressive personality in predicting the social and psychological outcomes of gaming. },
3450         author = {Linda K Kaye}
3451 }
3452 @conference {4156,
3453         title = {The Making of an Interactive Digital Narrative - InStory},
3454         booktitle = {Euromedia 2009},
3455         year = {2009},
3456         month = {15/04/2009},
3457         publisher = {Ceti - University Hasslet - Eurosis },
3458         organization = {Ceti - University Hasslet - Eurosis },
3459         address = {Bruges, Belgium},
3460         abstract = {This paper describes the problems that had to be faced
3461 during the elaboration of an interactive narrative for the
3462 Instory project (http://img.di.fct.unl.pt/InStory/) directed by
3463 Prof. Nuno Correia. The project had the goal of defining and
3464 implementing a platform for mobile and cinematic
3465 storytelling, information access, and gaming activities, in
3466 Quinta da Regaleira (World Heritage) in Sintra, Portugal.
3467 The system is driven and validated by a set of fictional
3468 threads that are centred on the exploration of physical spaces
3469 (the real world, in real time). The development of a narrative
3470 was naturally constrained by the environment which raised
3471 some practical and theoretical issues in what regards the
3472 literary strategies involved. InStory received the PMA
3473 Award (2006) for best Portuguese multimedia project web{\textendash}
3474 mobile.},
3475         keywords = {Cultural Heritage, Interactive Fiction, Mobile devices, Multimedia storytelling, Narratology, serious games},
3476         url = {http://www2.fcsh.unl.pt/docentes/hbarbas/Textos/instory_euromedia_hb_nc_2009.pdf},
3477         author = {Barbas, Helena and Correia, Nuno}
3478 }
3479 @article {4444,
3480         title = {Conan eller Josefine? Politikk og {\o}konomi i norsk spillbransje},
3481         journal = {Norsk Medietidsskrift},
3482         volume = {16},
3483         year = {2009},
3484         month = {12/2009},
3485         pages = {317-343},
3486         chapter = {317},
3487         abstract = {The article describes the different players in the Norwegian game industry, and discusses the challenges and possibilities that they face. In particular, it is argued that challenges relate to publishing, financial issues and recruitment, and that there are interesting possibilities in
3488 connection with the recent political attention that Norwegian game companies have received. An issue in addition is the fact that Norwegian
3489 game companies have never been closely associated with international publishing houses.},
3490         keywords = {Computer games, game industry, Norway, Video Games},
3491         issn = {0804-8452},
3492         url = {http://www.idunn.no/file/ci/38198929/nmt_2009_04_pdf.pdf},
3493         author = {J{\o}rgensen, Kristine}
3494 }
3495 @conference {4058,
3496         title = {From Playability to a Hierarchical Game Usability Model},
3497         booktitle = {Proceedings of the Conference on Future Play},
3498         series = {Future Play},
3499         year = {2009},
3500         month = {12/05/2009},
3501         pages = {11-12},
3502         publisher = {ACM},
3503         organization = {ACM},
3504         address = {Vancouver, BC, Canada},
3505         abstract = {This paper presents a brief review of current playability and game usability models. This leads to the conception of a high-level game usability framework model that integrates current usability approaches in game industry and game research.},
3506         keywords = {community, functionality, Game, gx, model, playability, player experience, px, quality assurance, Theory, usability, User experience, ux},
3507         url = {http://www.bth.se/fou/forskinfo.nsf/8ea71836fbadac09c125733300214ab9/55cdcbe9e175f256c12575c50057d7a0!OpenDocument},
3508         author = {Nacke,Lennart}
3509 }
3510 @mastersthesis {4510,
3511         title = {A Conceptual Framework For Gender-Inclusivity},
3512         volume = {PhD in Computer Science},
3513         year = {2009},
3514         month = {11/2009},
3515         school = {University of Southampton},
3516         type = {Mini Thesis - Mhil to PhD Upgrade},
3517         address = {Southampton},
3518         abstract = {Despite the dramatic growth of gender and games research, many challenges remain in designing a more gender-inclusive game. This report addresses the problem of how to apply the concept of gender-inclusivity into game design. A central contribution of the research is the development of a gender-inclusivity framework. The conceptual framework is founded on the analysis and synthesized information from related theories and research. It demonstrates how the concept of gender-inclusivity can be defined and expressed in three key components: 1) genre, which indicate the type of game, (2) gameplay, which describes the game behaviour e.g. conflict resolution, feedback, challenge and flexibility, (3) aesthetics content, which describes the game content including character/avatar, music, storyline and game world graphics. This framework can be use as a reference point by providing a common vocabulary for discussing issues of gender-inclusivity i.e. literature, methods and results. In addition to that, it serves as a boundary of what constitutes gender-inclusivity in games. Subsequently, it acts as a filtering tool for what is relevant and not relevant to gender-inclusivity in games. Two novel applications of the gender-inclusivity framework are presented.
3520 The first is a measuring instrument called the Gender-Inclusivity Rating Scale (GIRS). The GIRS instrument was designed to assess the degree of gender-inclusiveness in a game. The second application extends the notion of gender-inclusivity to design practice. The Gender-Inclusive Game Design Model (GIGaDM) guides designers in the design process. It helps to deconstruct the overall gender-inclusivity design tasks into smaller, conceptually distinct and manageable tasks. Finally, the direction of future work is outlined.},
3521         keywords = {computer game, Design Model, Framework, game design, Game Framework, Gender Inclusivity, Video Game},
3522         url = {http://eprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk/21569/},
3523         author = {Roziana Ibrahim}
3524 }
3525 @article {4432,
3526         title = {Educational Fantasy},
3527         journal = {Game Career Guide},
3528         year = {2009},
3529         month = {10/2010},
3530         abstract = {I was reading Chris Crawford{\textquoteright}s book Art of Computer Game Design, and I came to his point about games and fantasy. In short, he reminds us that part of the appeal in games is their relationship to fantasy. It is not so much that every game needs to involve some mystical orb or sacred sword, but that games appeal to us when they release us from the ordinary experiences of everyday life.},
3531         keywords = {educational games, Game design research, meaningful play, serious games},
3532         url = {http://www.gamecareerguide.com/features/791/educational_.php},
3533         author = {Lindsay Grace}
3534 }
3535 @article {Nackeetal2009c,
3536         title = {Brain Training for Silver Gamers: Effects of Age and Game Form on Effectiveness, Efficiency, Self-Assessment, and Gameplay Experience},
3537         journal = {CyberPsychology \& Behavior},
3538         volume = {12},
3539         number = {5},
3540         year = {2009},
3541         month = {10/2009},
3542         pages = {493-499},
3543         type = {Original Article},
3544         chapter = {493},
3545         abstract = {In recent years, an aging demographic majority in the Western world has come to the attention of the game industry. The recently released {\textquotedblleft}brain-training{\textquotedblright} games target this population, and research investigating gameplay experience of the elderly using this game form is lacking. This study employs a 2{\texttimes}2 mixed factorial design (age group: young and old{\texttimes}game form: paper and Nintendo DS) to investigate effects of age and game form on usability, self-assessment, and gameplay experience in a supervised field study. Effectiveness was evaluated in task completion time, efficiency as error rate, together with self-assessment measures (arousal, pleasure, dominance) and game experience (challenge, flow, competence, tension, positive and negative affect). Results indicate players, regardless of age, are more effective and efficient using pen-and-paper than using a Nintendo DS console. However, the game is more arousing and induces a heightened sense of flow in digital form for gamers of all ages. Logic problem{\textendash}solving challenges within digital games may be associated with positive feelings for the elderly but with negative feelings for the young. Thus, digital logic-training games may provide positive gameplay experience for an aging Western civilization.},
3546         keywords = {brain-training, elderly, form effects, Games, motivation, Psychology, silver gamer, usability, ux},
3547         issn = {1094-9313},
3548         doi = {10.1089/cpb.2009.0013},
3549         url = {http://www.liebertonline.com/doi/abs/10.1089/cpb.2009.0013},
3550         author = {Nacke, Lennart E. and Nacke, Anne and Lindley,Craig A}
3551 }
3552 @article {4435,
3553         title = {Video game representations as cues for collaboration and learning},
3554         journal = {International Journal of Gaming and Computer-Mediated Simulations},
3555         volume = {1},
3556         year = {2009},
3557         month = {09/2009},
3558         chapter = {28},
3559         abstract = {Literature suggests that games can support learning in schools by enabling creative problem solving, allowing dynamic resource allocation, by providing a motivating, immersive activity, and by supporting explorations of identity. A descriptive, inductive study was carried out to identify how high school students in a school setting make use of the video game interface and its representations. Results demonstrate that specific cues direct attention, helping to focus efforts on new or underutilized game tasks. In addition, consistent and well-organized visualizations encourage learning and collaboration among students by providing shared referential resources and scaffolding coordinated sequences of problem solving acts during gameplay. Conversely, when affordances are inconsistently represented, students{\textquoteright} focus can shift from problem solving at the goal level (game strategy, etc.) to problem solving why the game interface is frustrating their goals. In general, the design of game representations and behaviors can help guide or hinder student learning.},
3560         keywords = {Affordances, collaboration, collaborative learning, cues, gameplay, Games, learning, representations, Video Game},
3561         author = {Sharritt, Matthew J and Suthers, Daniel D.}
3562 }
3563 @article {4569,
3564         title = {Good clean fun? A content analysis of profanity in video games and its prevalence across game systems and ratings. },
3565         journal = {CyberPsychology and Behavior},
3566         volume = {12},
3567         year = {2009},
3568         month = {08/2009},
3569         chapter = {457},
3570         abstract = {Although violent video game content and its effects have been examined extensively by empirical research, verbal aggression in the form of profanity has received less attention. Building on preliminary findings from previous studies, an extensive content analysis of profanity in video games was conducted using a sample of the 150 top-selling video games across all popular game platforms (including home consoles, portable consoles, and personal computers). The frequency of profanity, both in general and across three profanity categories, was measured and compared to games{\textquoteright} ratings, sales, and platforms. Generally, profanity was found in about one in five games and appeared primarily in games rated for teenagers or above. Games containing profanity, however, tended to contain it frequently. Profanity was not found to be related to games{\textquoteright} sales or platforms.},
3571         keywords = {Content Analysis, Profanity},
3572         doi = {10.1089/cpb.2008.0337},
3573         url = {http://dmitriwilliams.com/Profanity.pdf},
3574         author = {Ivory, J. D. and Williams, Dmitri and Martins, Nicole and Consalvo,Mia}
3575 }
3576 @article {4431,
3577         title = {Truly Independent Game Development: A Case For Making Games By Yourself},
3578         journal = {Game Career Guide},
3579         year = {2009},
3580         month = {08/2009},
3581         publisher = {UBM Tech Web / CMP Media},
3582         type = {Web},
3583         abstract = {For years the industry has focused on the increasing size of development teams. It is both a blessing and a hassle. Teams grow; the quality of games increase. Teams grow; the complexity and investment in each game increases too . . . A brief examination of some of the advantages of truly independent development may prove a plausible approach to building specific types of outlier games. What is a truly independent developer? One person designing and building a game.},
3584         keywords = {game development, independent game design, rapid prototyping},
3585         url = {http://www.gamecareerguide.com/features/776/truly_independent_game_.php},
3586         author = {Lindsay Grace}
3587 }
3588 @conference {4056,
3589         title = {Forget the Magic Circle (or Towards a Sociology of Video Games)},
3590         booktitle = {Under the Mask 2},
3591         year = {2009},
3592         month = {07/06/2009},
3593         address = {University of Bedfordshire},
3594         abstract = {There have been several sociologists who have written, sometimes quite extensively and informatively, on video games, and more commonly many within video games studies have tapped into wider sociological literatures. However, more generally, the willingness of sociology to engage with video games and gamer analysis has been rather underwhelming, and this is particularly significant, for as Neiborg and Hermes (2008) argue, video games offer a key area for developing our understanding of contemporary audience, consumer and production patterns. Similarly, the general level of engagement with sociological literatures within games studies has at times been fairly limited. Though writers sometimes draw on philosophical/sociological ideas, such as {\textquoteleft}the magic circle{\textquoteright}, which they claim are {\textquoteleft}social{\textquoteright} concepts, there is little understanding or engagement with what this actually means. Hence, this paper offers a (further) critique of the magic circle and similar concepts, but argues that the key weakness of these concepts is their lack of engagement with, and applicability to, other spheres of social life. To this end, I suggest that the (also sometimes used in game studies) concept of frame analysis, does offer a more social theory; however, what is truly needed in game studies (reflecting the arguments of early criminological debates in the 1960s and 70s) is a {\textquoteleft}fully social theory{\textquoteright} (Taylor, Walton \& Young 1973) of gaming.   },
3595         keywords = {Frame Analysis, Goffman, magic circle, sociology},
3596         url = {http://underthemask.wdfiles.com/local--files/key-note/Garry\%20Crawford.doc},
3597         author = {Crawford, Garry}
3598 }
3599 @article {4570,
3600         title = {You Can{\textquoteright}t Take It with You? Effects of Handheld Portable Media Consoles on Physiological and Psychological Responses to Video Game and Movie Content},
3601         journal = {CyberPsychology and Behavior},
3602         volume = {12},
3603         year = {2009},
3604         month = {06/2009},
3605         chapter = {291},
3606         abstract = {Portable media consoles are becoming extremely popular devices for viewing a number of different types of media content, both for entertainment and for educational purposes. Given the increasingly heavy use of portable consoles as an alternative to traditional television-style monitors, it is important to investigate how physiological and psychological effects of portable consoles may differ from those of television-based consoles, because such differences in physiological and psychological responses may precipitate differences in the delivered content{\textquoteright}s effectiveness. Because portable consoles are popular as a delivery system for multiple types of media content, such as movies and video games, it is also important to investigate whether differences between the effects of portable and television-based consoles are consistent across multiple types of media. This article reports a 2{\texttimes}2 (console: portable or television-based{\texttimes}medium: video game or movie) mixed factorial design experiment with physiological arousal and self-reported flow experience as dependent variables, designed to explore whether console type affects media experiences and whether these effects are consistent across different media. Results indicate that portable media consoles evoke lower levels of physiological arousal and flow experience and that this effect is consistent for both video games and movies. These findings suggest that even though portable media consoles are often convenient compared to television-based consoles, the convenience may come at a cost in terms of the user experience.},
3607         doi = {10.1089/cpb.2008.0279},
3608         url = {http://www.liebertonline.com/doi/abs/10.1089/cpb.2008.0279},
3609         author = {Ivory, J. D. and Robert G. Magee}
3610 }
3611 @article {3246,
3612         title = {More Than a Game: Sports-Themed Video Games and Player Narratives},
3613         journal = {Sociology of Sport Journal},
3614         volume = {26},
3615         year = {2009},
3616         month = {03/2009},
3617         pages = {50-66},
3618         abstract = {This article considers the social importance of sports-themed video games, and more
3619 specifically, discusses their use and role in the construction of gaming and wider
3620 social narratives. Here, building on our own and wider sociological and video games
3621 studies, we advocate adopting an audience research perspective that allows for consideration
3622 of not only narratives within games but also how these narratives are used
3623 and located within the everyday lives of gamers. In particular, we argue that sportsthemed
3624 games provide an illustrative example of how media texts are used in identity
3625 construction, performances, and social narratives.},
3626         keywords = {audience, identity, narrative, Performance, sociology, Sport, Text, Video Games},
3627         url = {http://www.humankinetics.com/SSJ/viewarticle.cfm?jid=XbPvtE4KXgVfhGMTXgAubr2cXaKymypVXeJnfe2rXcEkqkyzX\&aid=16853\&site=XbPvtE4KXgVfhGMTXgAubr2cXaKymypVXeJnfe2rXcEkqkyzX},
3628         author = {Crawford, Garry and Gosling, Victoria K.}
3629 }
3630 @article {4516,
3631         title = {Reading the Game:Introduction to Video Game Design and Development},
3632         year = {2009},
3633         month = {03/2009},
3634         institution = {University of Southampton},
3635         type = {Book Review},
3636         address = {Southampton},
3637         keywords = {computer game, game design, Video Game},
3638         issn = {2},
3639         url = {http://eprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk/21562/},
3640         author = {Roziana Ibrahim}
3641 }
3642 @article {4571,
3643         title = {Video Games Make People Violent{\textemdash}Well, Maybe Not That Game: Effects of Content and Person Abstraction on Perceptions of Violent Video Games{\textquoteright} Effects and Support of Censorship},
3644         journal = {Communication Reports},
3645         volume = {22},
3646         year = {2009},
3647         month = {01/2009},
3648         chapter = {1},
3649         abstract = {This study explores whether people{\textquoteright}s perceptions of violent video games{\textquoteright} potential for negatively affecting others and their support for censoring such games are influenced by whether people consider specific or abstract content and persons. In a 2 (content abstraction)  3 (person abstraction) between-subjects experiment, 122 undergraduate students from two eastern U.S. universities estimated effects of either a specific violent game or violent games in general on a specific person, others on their campus, or others in the United States, then rated their support for censoring violent video games. Findings indicate that content abstraction influences perceived effects and censorship support. },
3650         keywords = {Media Censorship, Perceptions of Media Effects, Video Games, Violence and Aggression},
3651         doi = {10.1080/08934210902798536 },
3652         url = {http://filebox.vt.edu/users/jivory/IvoryKalyanaraman2009CommReportsContentAbstractionPerceivedEffects.pdf},
3653         author = {Ivory, J. D. and Sriram Kalyanaraman}
3654 }
3655 @conference {4442,
3656         title = {"I{\textquoteright}m overburdened!" An Empirical Study of the Player, the Avatar, and the Gameworld"},
3657         booktitle = {DiGRA 2009: Breaking New Ground: Innovation in Games, Play, Practice and Theory},
3658         year = {2009},
3659         month = {01/09/2009},
3660         publisher = {DiGRA},
3661         organization = {DiGRA},
3662         address = {Brunel University, London},
3663         abstract = {This paper presents the first results of an empirical study of how players interpret the role of the player and the relationship between the player and playable figures in gameworlds. In the following, we will see examples of four genres that situate the player in different positions with
3664 respect to the gameworld. Command \& Conquer 3: Tiberium Wars illustrates a game where the player does not have a playable figure in the gameworld, while Crysis exemplifies a game where player and playable figure viewpoints merge into one entity. Diablo 2 represents a game
3665 with a developing figure, and The Sims 2 demonstrates a hybrid combination of named, developing figures controlled by the player from a god perspective. The study shows that players tend to accept all features that aid them in understanding how to play the game, and that it does not matter whether features have a stylistic or naturalistic relationship to the gameworld. Regarding the relationship between player and playable figure, the respondents do not see the dual position of the player situated in the physical world while having the power to act within the gameworld as a paradox, but a necessary way of communication in games. },
3666         keywords = {avatar, empirical studies, game system, gameworld, player},
3667         url = {http://www.digra.org/dl/db/09287.20429.pdf},
3668         author = {J{\o}rgensen, Kristine}
3669 }
3670 @proceedings {Nackeetal2009b,
3671         title = {Playability and Player Experience Research},
3672         journal = {Proceedings of DiGRA 2009: Breaking New Ground: Innovation in Games, Play, Practice and Theory},
3673         year = {2009},
3674         month = {01/09/2009},
3675         publisher = {DiGRA},
3676         address = {London, UK},
3677         abstract = {As the game industry matures and games become more and more complex, there is an increasing need to develop scientific methodologies for analyzing and measuring player experience, in order to develop a better understanding of the relationship and interactions between players and games. This panel gathers distinguished European playability and user experience experts to discuss current findings and methodological advancements within player experience and playability research.},
3678         keywords = {experimentation, Game experience, gx, methodology, playability, px, techniques, usability, User experience, ux},
3679         url = {http://www.bth.se/fou/forskinfo.nsf/17e96a0dab8ab6a1c1257457004d59ab/e0a8cdd8cfc0c7e6c125762c005557c0!OpenDocument},
3680         author = {Nacke, Lennart E. and Drachen, Anders and Kuikkaniemi, Kai and Niesenhaus, Joerg and Korhonen, Hannu J. and Hoogen, Wouter M. van den and Poels, Karolien and IJsselsteijn, Wijnand A. and Kort, Yvonne A. W. de}
3681 }
3682 @article {4331,
3683         title = {An Analysis of Persistent Non-Player Characters in the First-Person Gaming genre 1998-2007: a case for the fusion of mechanics and diegetics.},
3684         journal = {Eludamos: Journal of Computer Game Cultures},
3685         volume = {3},
3686         year = {2009},
3687         pages = {279},
3688         chapter = {261},
3689         abstract = {This paper describes the results of an analysis of persistent non-player characters (PNPCs) in the first-person gaming genre 1998-2007. Assessing the role, function, gameplay significance and representational characteristics of these critical important gameplay objects from over 34 major releases provides an important set of baseline data within which to situate further research. This kind of extensive, genre-wide analysis is under-represented in game studies, yet it represents a hugely important process in forming clear and robust illustrations of the medium to support understanding. Thus, I offer a fragment of this illustration, demonstrating that many of the cultural and diegetic qualities of PNPCs are a product of a self-assembling set of archetypes formed from gameplay requirements.},
3690         keywords = {Agency, agent, diegetics, first-person, FPS, gameplay, mechanics, non-player character, NPC},
3691         issn = {1866-6124 },
3692         url = {http://www.eludamos.org/index.php/eludamos/article/view/71}
3693 }
3694 @book {3263,
3695         title = {Beyond Barbie and Mortal Kombat: New Perspectives on Gender and Gaming},
3696         year = {2009},
3697         note = {Contributors: Cornelia Brunner, Shannon Campe, Justine Cassell, Mia Consalvo, Jill Denner, Mary Flanagan, Janine Fron, Tracy Fullerton, Elisabeth Hayes, Carrie Heeter, Kristin Hughes, Mizuko Ito, Henry Jenkins, Yasmin B. Kafai, Caitlin Kelleher, Brenda Laurel, Nicole Lazzaro, Holin Lin, Jacki Morie, Helen Nissenbaum, Celia Pearce, Caroline Pelletier, Jennifer Y. Sun, T. L. Taylor, Brian Winn, Nick Yee.
3699 Interviews with: Nichol Bradford, Brenda Braithwaite, Megan Gaiser, Sheri Graner Ray, Morgan Romine.},
3700         publisher = {MIT Press},
3701         organization = {MIT Press},
3702         address = {Cambridge, MA},
3703         abstract = {Ten years after the groundbreaking From Barbie to Mortal Kombat highlighted the ways gender stereotyping and related social and economic issues permeate digital game play, the number of women and girl gamers has risen considerably. Despite this, gender disparities remain in gaming. Women may be warriors in World of Warcraft, but they are also scantily clad "booth babes" whose sex appeal is used to promote games at trade shows. Player-generated content has revolutionized gaming, but few games marketed to girls allow "modding" (game modifications made by players). Gender equity, the contributors to Beyond Barbie and Mortal Kombat argue, requires more than increasing the overall numbers of female players.
3705 Beyond Barbie and Mortal Kombat brings together new media theorists, game designers, educators, psychologists, and industry professionals, including some of the contributors to the earlier volume, to look at how gender intersects with the broader contexts of digital games today: gaming, game industry and design, and serious games. The contributors discuss the rise of massively multiplayer online games (MMOs) and the experience of girl and women players in gaming communities; the still male-dominated gaming industry and the need for different perspectives in game design; and gender concerns related to emerging serious games (games meant not only to entertain but also to educate, persuade, or change behavior). In today{\textquoteright}s game-packed digital landscape, there is an even greater need for games that offer motivating, challenging, and enriching contexts for play to a more diverse population of players.},
3706         isbn = {0262113198},
3707         url = {http://mitpress.mit.edu/catalog/item/default.asp?ttype=2\&tid=11549},
3708         author = {Kafai, Yasmin B. and Heeter, Carrie and Denner,Jill and Sun, Jennifer Y.},
3709         editor = {Kafai, Yasmin B. and Heeter, Carrie and Denner,Jill and Sun, Jennifer Y.}
3710 }
3711 @article {4346,
3712         title = {Boxed Pervasive Games: An Experience with User-Created Pervasive Games},
3713         journal = {Pervasive Computing, Proceedings},
3714         volume = {5538},
3715         year = {2009},
3716         note = {Bjj53Times Cited:0Cited References Count:21Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
3717         pages = {220-237408},
3718         abstract = {Pervasive games are rapidly maturing - from early research experiments with locative games we now start to see a range of commercial projects using locative and pervasive technology to create technology-supported pervasive games. In this paper we report on our experiences in transferring the successful involvement of players in computer games to {\textquoteright}modding{\textquoteright} for pervasive games. We present the design process, the enabling tools and two sample games provided in boxes to end users. Finally we discuss how our findings inform the design of {\textquoteright}modding{\textquoteright} tools for a pervasive game community of the future.},
3719         keywords = {end user programming, games and infotainment, integrated environments, pervasive computing, Pervasive games, programming tools, user-centered design},
3720         isbn = {0302-9743},
3721         url = {<Go to ISI>://000266435000016},
3722         author = {Wetzel, R. and Waern, A. and Jonsson, S. and Lindt, I. and Ljungstrand, P. and Akesson, K. P.}
3723 }
3724 @conference {4393,
3725         title = {Characterizing and Understanding Game Reviews},
3726         booktitle = {4th International Conference on the Foundations of Digital Games},
3727         year = {2009},
3728         publisher = {ACM},
3729         organization = {ACM},
3730         address = {Orlando, FL},
3731         url = {http://facsrv.cs.depaul.edu/~jzagal/Papers/Zagal_et_al_GameReviews.pdf},
3732         author = {Zagal, Jose P. and Ladd, Amanda and Johnson, Terris}
3733 }
3734 @conference {4562,
3735         title = {Churn Prediction in MMORPGs: A Social Influence Based Approach},
3736         booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2009 IEEE Social Computing (SocialCom-09). Symposium on Social Intelligence and Networking (SIN-09)},
3737         year = {2009},
3738         address = {Vancouver, Canada},
3739         abstract = {Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games (MMORPGs) are computer based games in which players interact with one another in the virtual world. Worldwide revenues for MMORPGs have seen amazing growth in last few years and it is more than a 2 billion dollars industry as per current estimates. Huge amount of revenue potential has attracted several gaming companies to launch online role playing games. One of the major problems these companies suffer apart from fierce competition is erosion of their customer base. Churn is a big problem for the gaming companies as churners impact negatively in the word-of-mouth reports for potential and existing customers leading to further erosion of user base.
3741 We study the problem of player churn in the popular MMORPG EverQuest II. The problem of churn prediction has been studied extensively in the past in various domains and social network analysis has recently been applied to the problem to understand the effects of the strength of social ties and the structure and dynamics of a social network in churn. In this paper, we propose a churn prediction model based on examining social influence among players and their personal engagement in the game. We hypothesize that social influence is a vector quantity, with components negative influence and positive influence. We propose a modified diffusion model to propagate the influence vector in the players network which represents the social influence on the player from his network. We measure a players personal engagement based on his activity patterns and use it in the modified diffusion model and churn prediction. Our method for churn prediction which combines social influence and player engagement factors has shown to improve prediction accuracy significantly for our dataset as compared to prediction using the conventional diffusion model or the player engagement factor, thus validating our hypothesis that combination of both these factors could lead to a more accurate churn prediction.},
3742         url = {http://www.vwobservatory.com/wp/?p=203},
3743         author = {Kawale, J. and Pal, A. and Srivastava, J.}
3744 }
3745 @book {4443,
3746         title = {A Comprehensive Study of Sound in Computer Games: How Audio Affects Player Action},
3747         year = {2009},
3748         pages = {263},
3749         publisher = {Edwin Mellen Press},
3750         organization = {Edwin Mellen Press},
3751         isbn = {978-0-7734-3826-2},
3752         url = {http://www.mellenpress.com/mellenpress.cfm?bookid=7897\&pc=9},
3753         author = {J{\o}rgensen, Kristine}
3754 }
3755 @conference {4565,
3756         title = {The Effects of Group Structure on Group Behavior and Outcomes in an Online Gaming Environment},
3757         booktitle = {NGroup Annual Conference},
3758         year = {2009},
3759         address = {Boulder, CO, USA},
3760         abstract = {Small group research has been inadequate in systematically examining the direct and indirect effect of group input on group output and statistically defining the mediating effect of group process. To address this issue, a large dataset (N = 2,465) on grouping behavior was collected from an online game. Structural equation modeling was utilized to examine how group size and group competence diversity influences the group interaction process and group performance. The results suggest that group size has both direct and indirect effects on performance outcomes. Specific path analysis also shows that group size has a positive influence on the aggregation of group expertise, which has a positive effect on group performance. Group competence diversity and group size both have a negative effect on the frequency of group IM-based chat, which is in turn negatively related to group success in the online game environment. Theoretical and methodological implications of the findings for communication and small group research are discussed.},
3761         url = {http://www.vwobservatory.com/wp/?p=272},
3762         author = {Xiong,Li and Poole, M. and Williams, Dmitri and Ahmad, M.}
3763 }
3764 @book {3250,
3765         title = {The Ethics of Computer Games},
3766         year = {2009},
3767         publisher = {MIT Press},
3768         organization = {MIT Press},
3769         address = {Cambridge, MA},
3770         abstract = {Despite the emergence of computer games as a dominant cultural industry (and the accompanying emergence of computer games as the subject of scholarly research), we know little or nothing about the ethics of computer games. Considerations of the morality of computer games seldom go beyond intermittent portrayals of them in the mass media as training devices for teenage serial killers. In this first scholarly exploration of the subject, Miguel Sicart addresses broader issues about the ethics of games, the ethics of playing the games, and the ethical responsibilities of game designers. He argues that computer games are ethical objects, that computer game players are ethical agents, and that the ethics of computer games should be seen as a complex network of responsibilities and moral duties. Players should not be considered passive amoral creatures; they reflect, relate, and create with ethical minds. The games they play are ethical systems, with rules that create game worlds with values at play. Drawing on concepts from philosophy and game studies, Sicart proposes a framework for analyzing the ethics of computer games as both designed objects and player experiences. After presenting his core theoretical arguments and offering a general theory for understanding computer game ethics, Sicart offers case studies examining single-player games (using Bioshack as an example), multi player games (illustrated by Defcon), and online game worlds (illustrated by World of Warcraft) from an ethical perspective. He explores issues raised by unethical content in computer games and its possible effect on players and offers a synthesis of design theory and ethics that could be used as both analytical tool and inspiration in the creation of ethical game play.},
3771         isbn = {0262012650},
3772         issn = {0262012650},
3773         author = {Sicart,Miguel}
3774 }
3775 @inbook {3240,
3776         title = {Fear of Failing? The Many Meanings of Difficulty in Games},
3777         booktitle = {The Video Game Theory Reader 2},
3778         year = {2009},
3779         pages = {237-252},
3780         publisher = {Routledge},
3781         organization = {Routledge},
3782         address = {New York},
3783         abstract = {It is quite simple: When you play a game, you want to win. Winning makes you happy, losing makes you unhappy. If this seems self-evident, there is nonetheless a contradictory viewpoint, according to which games should be {\textquotedblleft}neither too easy nor too hard{\textquotedblright}, implying that players also want not to win, at least part of the time. This is a contradiction I will try resolve in what follows ...},
3784         isbn = {0415962838},
3785         url = {http://www.jesperjuul.net/text/fearoffailing/},
3786         author = {Juul,Jesper},
3787         editor = {Perron, Bernard and World, Mark J. P.}
3788 }
3789 @proceedings {4560,
3790         title = {The Formation of Task-Oriented Groups: Exploring Combat Activities in Online Games},
3791         journal = {Computational Science and Engineering, IEEE International Conference on Social Computing },
3792         volume = {4},
3793         year = {2009},
3794         pages = {122-127},
3795         abstract = {Advanced communication technologies enable strangers to work together on the same tasks or projects in virtual environments. Understanding the formation of taskoriented groups is an important first step to study the dynamics of team collaboration. In this paper, we investigated group combat activities in Sony{\textquoteright}s EverQuest II game to identify the role of player and group attributes on group formation. We found that group formation is highly influenced by players{\textquoteright} common interests on challenging tasks. Players with less combat experience are more likely to participate in group events for difficult tasks and team performance is positively correlated to group size.},
3796         url = {http://www.vwobservatory.com/wp/?p=149},
3797         author = {Huang, Y. and Zhu, M. and Wang, J. and Pathak, N. and Shen, C. and Keegan, B. and Williams, D. and Contractor, N.}
3798 }
3799 @book {4380,
3800         title = {Gaming Cultures and Place in Asia-Pacific},
3801         year = {2009},
3802         publisher = {Routledge},
3803         organization = {Routledge},
3804         address = {London},
3805         abstract = {This collection explores the relationship between digital gaming and its cultural context by focusing on the burgeoning Asia-Pacific region. Encompassing key locations for global gaming production and consumption such as Japan, China, and South Korea, as well as increasingly significant sites including Australia and Singapore, the region provides a wealth of divergent examples of the role of gaming as a socio-cultural phenomenon. Drawing from micro ethnographic studies of specific games and gaming locales to macro political economy analyses of techno-nationalisms and trans-cultural flows, this collection provides an interdisciplinary model for thinking through the politics of gaming production, representation, and consumption in the region.},
3806         issn = {0415996279},
3807         author = {Hjorth, Larissa and Chan, Dean}
3808 }
3809 @conference {4563,
3810         title = {Inferring Player Rating from Performance Data in Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs)},
3811         booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2009 IEEE Social Computing (SocialCom-09). Workshop on Social Intelligence in Applied Gaming},
3812         year = {2009},
3813         address = {Vancouver, Canada},
3814         abstract = {This paper examines online player performance in EverQuest II, a popular massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) developed by Sony Online Entertainment. The study uses the game{\textquoteright}s player performance data to devise performance metrics for online players. We report three major findings. First, we show that the game{\textquoteright}s point-scaling system overestimates performances of lower level players and underestimates performances of higher level players. We present a novel pointscaling system based on the game{\textquoteright}s player performance data that addresses the underestimation and overestimation problems. Second, we present a highly accurate predictive model for player performance as a function of past behavior. Third, we show that playing in groups impacts individual performance and that player-level characteristics alone are insufficient in explaining an individual{\textquoteright}s performance, which calls for a different set of performance metrics methods.},
3815         url = {http://www.vwobservatory.com/wp/?p=156},
3816         author = {Shim, K. and Ahmad, M. and Pathak, N. and Srivastava, S.}
3817 }
3818 @article {4436,
3819         title = {"Its not hard, just requires that you have no life". Computer games and the illusion of learning.},
3820         journal = {Digital kompetanse : nordic journal of digital literacy},
3821         volume = {4},
3822         year = {2009},
3823         pages = {4-19},
3824         chapter = {4},
3825         keywords = {Computer games, Digital game-based learning},
3826         issn = {0809-6724},
3827         author = {Linderoth, Jonas}
3828 }
3829 @article {4564,
3830         title = {Looking for gender (LFG): Gender roles and behaviors among online gamers},
3831         journal = {Journal of Communication},
3832         volume = {59},
3833         year = {2009},
3834         pages = {700-725},
3835         abstract = {Several hypotheses regarding the importance of gender and relationships were tested by combining a large survey dataset with unobtrusive behavioral data from 1 year of play. Consistent with expectations, males played for achievement-oriented reasons and were more aggressive, especially within romantic relationships where both partners played. Female players in such relationships had higher general happiness than their male counterparts. Contrary to stereotypes and current hypotheses, it was the female players who played the most. Female players were also healthier than male players or females in the general population. The findings have implications for gender theory and communication-oriented methods in games and online research{\textemdash}most notably for the use of self-reported time spent, which was systematically incorrect and different by gender.},
3836         url = {http://www.vwobservatory.com/wp/?p=194},
3837         author = {Williams, Dmitri and Consalvo,Mia and Caplan,Scott and Yee, Nick}
3838 }
3839 @conference {4556,
3840         title = {Mining for Gold Farmers: Automatic Detection of Deviant Players in MMOGS},
3841         booktitle = {IEEE Social Computing (SocialCom-09). Symposium on Social Intelligence and Networking (SIN-09)},
3842         year = {2009},
3843         address = {Vancouver, Canada},
3844         abstract = {Gold farming refers to the illicit practice of gathering and selling virtual goods in online games for real money. Although around one million gold farmers engage in gold farming related activities, to date a systematic study of identifying gold farmers has not been done. In this paper we use data from the Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Game (MMO) EverQuest II to identify gold farmers. We pose this as a binary classification problem and identify a set of features for classification purpose. Given the cost associated with investigating gold farmers, we also give criteria for evaluating gold farming detection techniques, and provide suggestions for future testing and evaluation techniques.},
3845         url = {http://www.vwobservatory.com/wp?p=161},
3846         author = {Ahmad, M. and Keegan, Brian and Srivastava, J. and Williams, Dmitri and Contractor, N.}
3847 }
3848 @article {4128,
3849         title = {Mothers, Play, And Everyday Life: Ethnology meets Game Studies},
3850         journal = {Ethnologia Scandinavica:  A Journal for Nordic Ethnology},
3851         volume = {39},
3852         year = {2009},
3853         pages = {27-41},
3854         abstract = {This article should serve as an introduction to a relatively new topic in ethnological studies requiring very specific methods as it involves both offline and online research as well as material objects and immaterial practices. How do we embark on an interdisciplinary venture such as this, and be sure to produce qualitative research of high standard? How should gaming mothers best be studied?
3855 In what follows we try to answer that question. We also assume that not all of our readers are extensively familiar with games and game culture or have engaged with computer games first-hand or as scientific object of study. We thus begin with a short assessment of its current status as a growing genre, whose image is changing as gamers and game culture become increasingly diversified. We also briefly situate games as an academic subject and outline some of the central concepts focused in the fieldii called Game Studies. Furthermore, understanding the ideological underpinnings of play is vital to understanding the contexts in which games and gaming exist because they constitute some of the fundamental conditions of games research. To explain this, we relate the ambiguous status of game/play to the usage of the term --the magic circle{\textbardbl} and of historically ingrained rhetorics [sic] of play.
3856 In our survey of the theoretical land, we notice an increasing attention among games researchers to players in addition to the games themselves. We thus assert that ethnologists have a particular methodological edge and a role to fulfill as games research more and more means studying games in relation to gamers, society and political economy and not only the game itself. As part of a huge industry that is a significant economic driver, games take center stage on a global sociocultural and capital market. Educational programs and cross-disciplinary efforts centered on games and gaming grow steadily. Introducing our research project --Gaming Moms{\textbardbl} we explain why it is interesting {\textendash} and now possible and highly apposite {\textendash} to study gaming from the perspective of culture, the family and the everyday. We give our rendition of how to best study a particular category of players such as mothers and why a marriage between ethnology and the interdisciplinary field of Game Studies is necessary and useful. In doing so, we give specific examples from our ongoing project thus presenting a selection of the various methods we apply in our research. Our examples are chosen around two themes {\textendash} gaming and time management and representations of mothers in the context of gaming. We conclude with a brief discussion of our findings, having thus proposed an answer to our methodological question, and outline some missing perspectives and future challenges.},
3857         keywords = {Computer games, ethnographic-method, ethnography, everyday culture, everyday life, female-gamers, game-time, representation, Time},
3858         issn = {0348-9698},
3859         url = {http://gamingmoms.wordpress.com/publications/},
3860         author = {Enevold, Jessica and Hagstr{\"o}m, Charlotte}
3861 }
3862 @article {4158,
3863         title = {Palestine in Pixels: The Holy Land, Arab-Israeli Conflict, and Reality Construction in Video Games},
3864         journal = {Middle East Journal of Culture and Communication},
3865         volume = {2},
3866         year = {2009},
3867         pages = {17},
3868         chapter = {275},
3869         abstract = {This article explores the ways in which Palestine is envisioned, and its representation constructed, in contemporary video games. At the same time, capitalizing on Bogost{\textquoteright}s notion of {\textquotedblleft}procedurality{\textquotedblright}, this article discusses the potential and limitations of various game genres for modeling complex historical, social, and political realities. It focuses particularly on the ways in which the Arab-Israeli conflict is mediated and its perception and evaluation subsequently shaped by these games. By doing so, this article analyzes how the (re)constructions of reality as provided by the video games{\textquoteright} graphical, textual, and procedural logic, serve parallel {\textendash} albeit contradictory {\textendash} political and ideological interpretations of real-world events. Essentially, this article argues that the procedural forms, i.e. the common models of user interaction as utilized by particular video game genres, fundamentally shape and limit the ways in which reality is communicated to the players. Therefore, on a more general level, this article aims to further develop the game genres{\textquoteright} critique by focusing on two contrasting, but equally signifi cant and simultaneous, aspects of video games {\textendash} the persuasive power of procedurality and the inherent limitations thereof.},
3870         keywords = {Arab-Israeli conflict, Computer games, Digiplay FAQ, game genre, Palestine, procedurality, realism, reality construction, Video Games},
3871         issn = {1873-9857},
3872         url = {http://www.digitalislam.eu/article.do?articleId=2515},
3873         author = {Sisler, Vit}
3874 }
3875 @inbook {4428,
3876         title = {The Philosophies of Software},
3877         booktitle = {Handbook of Research on Computational Arts and Creative Informatics},
3878         year = {2009},
3879         pages = {326-342},
3880         publisher = {Information Science Reference},
3881         organization = {Information Science Reference},
3882         chapter = {The Philosophies of Software},
3883         abstract = {Software is philosophical. Software is designed by people who have been influenced by a specific understanding of the way objects, people and systems work. These concepts are then transferred to the user, who manipulates that software within the rules set forth by the software developer.  The use of these rules by the designer reinforces an understanding of the world that is emphasized by the software they use.  The designer then produces works that mimic these same philosophies instead of departing from them.  The three axis of these philosophies are analogy, reductivism, and transferred agency.},
3884         keywords = {agents, analogy, software philosophy, Visualization},
3885         isbn = {978-1605663524},
3886         issn = {1605663522},
3887         doi = {10.4018/978-1-60566-352-4},
3888         url = {http://www.igi-global.com/Bookstore/TitleDetails.aspx?TitleId=448\&DetailsType=Description},
3889         author = {Lindsay Grace}
3890 }
3891 @book {3242,
3892         title = {Racing the Beam: The Atari Video Computer System},
3893         year = {2009},
3894         note = {Nick Montfort is Assistant Professor of Digital Media at MIT. He is the author of Twisty Little Passages: A New Approach to Interactive Fiction and the coeditor of The New Media Reader, both published by The MIT Press.
3896 Ian Bogost is Assistant Professor in the School of Literature, Communication, and Culture, at Georgia Institute of Technology and Founding Partner, Persuasive Games LLC. He is the author of Persuasive Games: The Expressive Power of Videogame Criticism and Unit Operations: An Approach to Videogame Criticism, both published by the MIT Press.},
3897         pages = {184},
3898         publisher = {MIT Press},
3899         organization = {MIT Press},
3900         abstract = {The Atari Video Computer System dominated the home video game market so completely that {\textquoteright}Atari{\textquoteright} became the generic term for a video game console. The Atari VCS was affordable and offered the flexibility of changeable cartridges. Nearly a thousand of these were created, the most significant of which established new techniques, mechanics, and even entire genres. This book offers a detailed and accessible study of this influential video game console from both computational and cultural perspectives. Studies of digital media have rarely investigated platforms - the systems underlying computing. This book (the first in the series of "Platform Studies") does so, developing a critical approach that examines the relationship between platforms and creative expression. Nick Montfort and Ian Bogost discuss the Atari VCS itself and examine in detail six game cartridges: Combat, Adventure, Pac-Man, Yars{\textquoteright} Revenge, Pitfall!, and Star Wars: The Empire Strikes Back. They describe the technical constraints and affordances of the system and track developments in programming, gameplay, interface, and aesthetics. Adventure, for example, was the first game to represent a virtual space larger than the screen (anticipating the boundless virtual spaces of such later games as World of Warcraft and Grand Theft Auto), by allowing the player to walk off one side into another space; and Star Wars: The Empire Strikes Back was an early instance of interaction between media properties and video games. Montfort and Bogost show that the Atari VCS - often considered merely a retro fetish object - is an essential part of the history of video games.},
3901         isbn = {026201257X},
3902         url = {http://mitpress.mit.edu/catalog/item/default.asp?ttype=2\&tid=11696},
3903         author = {Montfort, Nick and Bogost,Ian}
3904 }
3905 @article {4462,
3906         title = {Rationalizing Play: A Critical Theory of Digital Gaming},
3907         journal = {The Information Society},
3908         volume = {25},
3909         year = {2009},
3910         pages = {105-118},
3911         chapter = {105},
3912         abstract = {This article constructs a new framework for the study of games as sites of social rationalization, applying Feenberg{\textquoteright}s critical theory of technology. We begin by making the case for a consideration of games as systems of social rationality, akin to other modern systems such as capitalist markets and bureaucratic organizations. We then present a conceptualization of play as a process through which the player focuses attention away from the undifferentiated action of everyday life toward a differentiated sphere of playful activity. This approach reveals how the experience of play changes as it becomes rationalized through the technological mediation and widespread standardization that occurs as games become large-scale social practices. We propose a theory of the rationalization of play (ludification), which outlines the key components of socially rationalized games, which we then apply to the specific example of massively multiplayer online games (MMOGs).},
3913         keywords = {critical theory, massively multiplayer online games, PLAY, rationalization},
3914         url = {http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~content=a909230753~db=all~jumptype=rss},
3915         author = {Grimes, Sara M and Feenberg, Andrew}
3916 }
3917 @conference {1581093,
3918         title = {Rock Band: a case study in the design of embodied interface experience},
3919         booktitle = {Sandbox {\textquoteright}09: Proceedings of the 2009 ACM SIGGRAPH Symposium on Video Games},
3920         year = {2009},
3921         pages = {127{\textendash}134},
3922         publisher = {ACM},
3923         organization = {ACM},
3924         address = {New Orleans, Louisiana, USA},
3925         abstract = {There has been a recent surge of novel interface devices available for home gaming systems. With the rise in popularity of games like Guitar Hero and consoles such as Nintendo{\textquoteright}s Wii comes new opportunities for game design at the interface level. In this paper we propose three interrelated dimensions for the analysis of embodied and gestural game interface hardware devices. We demonstrate how gestural and embodied interactions can be understood as ludic, kinesthetic and narrative experiences. We ground this discussion in a close analysis of the interface affordances of the game Rock Band and demonstrate how these three dimensions allow us to understand more clearly the place of the interface in the design and the experience of games.},
3926         keywords = {embodiment, Game Interface, ludology, narrative, Novel Interaction, Physical Interaction Design},
3927         isbn = {978-1-60558-514-7},
3928         doi = {http://doi.acm.org.proxy.lib.sfu.ca/10.1145/1581073.1581093},
3929         author = {Tanenbaum, Joshua and Bizzocchi,Jim}
3930 }
3931 @conference {4561,
3932         title = {The Social Behaviors of Experts in Massive Multiplayer Online Role-playing Games},
3933         booktitle = {Proceedings of the 2009 IEEE Social Computing (SocialCom-09). Symposium on Social Intelligence and Networking (SIN-09)},
3934         year = {2009},
3935         address = {Vancouver, Canada},
3936         abstract = {We examine the social behaviors of game experts in Everquest II, a popular massive multiplayer online role-playing game (MMO). We rely on Exponential Random Graph Models (ERGM) to examine the anonymous privacy-protected social networks of 1,457 players over a five-day period. We find that those who achieve the most in the game send and receive more communication, while those who perform the most efficiently at the game show no difference in communication behavior from other players. Both achievement and performance experts tend to communicate with those at similar expertise levels, and higherlevel experts are more likely to receive communication from other players.},
3937         url = {http://www.vwobservatory.com/wp/?p=153},
3938         author = {Huffaker, D. and Wang, J. and Treem, J. and Ahmad, M. and Fullerton, L. and Williams, Dmitri and Poole, M. and Contractor, N.}
3939 }
3940 @article {4266,
3941         title = {SoundPark: Towards Highly Collaborative Game Support in a Ubiquitous Computing Architecture},
3942         journal = {Distributed Applications and Interoperable Systems, Processings},
3943         volume = {5523},
3944         year = {2009},
3945         note = {Bkh10Times Cited:0Cited References Count:21Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
3946         pages = {157-170171},
3947         abstract = {Ubiquitous computing architectures enable interaction and collaboration in multi-user applications. We explore the challenges of integrating the disparate services required in such architectures and describe how we have met these challenges in the context of a real-world application that operates on heterogeneous hardware and run-time environments. As a compelling example, we consider the role of ubiquitous computing to support the needs of a distributed multi-user game, including mobility, mutual awareness, and geo-localization. The game presented here, "SoundPark", is played in a mixed-reality environment, in which the physical space is augmented with computer-generated audio and graphical content, and the players communicate frequently over a low-latency audio channel. Our experience designing and developing the game motivates significant discussion related to issues of general relevance to ubiquitous game architect tires, including integration of heterogeneous components, monitoring, remote control and scalability.},
3948         isbn = {0302-9743},
3949         url = {<Go to ISI>://000268061500012},
3950         author = {Pellerin, R. and Bouillot, N. and Pietkiewicz, T. and Wozniewski, M. and Settel, Z. and Gressier-Soudan, E. and Cooperstock, J. R.}
3951 }
3952 @inbook {3249,
3953         title = {The Test of Time: McLuhan, Space, and the Rise of Civilization},
3954         booktitle = {Ecosee: Image, Rhetoric, and Nature},
3955         year = {2009},
3956         pages = {257-77},
3957         publisher = {SUNY},
3958         organization = {SUNY},
3959         address = {New York},
3960         abstract = {McLuhan probed and explored the social and cultural environments created by media technologies and the modes of perception engendered in those who found themselves immersed therein. In this essay I argue that digital games produce a form of electronic "acoustic space", an instantaneous, inclusive, decentred environment quite distinct from their carefully realised but ludologically irrelevant backstories. Taking as my case study Sid Meier{\textquoteright}s complex and involving Civilization series, I examine the {\textquoteright}aural{\textquoteright} mode of engagement that digital games can encourage and even require. I close by evaluating the equivocal environmental rhetoric of this enduringly successful title, and the continuing relevance of McLuhan{\textquoteright}s provocative and fruitful analyses.},
3961         keywords = {acoustic space, Civilization, digital game, ecology, electronic age, environment, global village, literacy, McLuhan, print, rhetoric, Sid Meier, space, Test of Time, videogame},
3962         isbn = {978-1-4384-2584-9},
3963         url = {http://www.cyberchimp.co.uk/research/testoftime.htm},
3964         author = {Tyler, Tom},
3965         editor = {Sid Dobrin and Sean Morey}
3966 }
3967 @article {4461,
3968         title = {The Turbulent Rise of the Child Gamer: Public Fears and Corporate Promises in Cinematic and Promotional Depictions of Children{\textquoteright}s Digital Play},
3969         journal = {Communication, Culture and Critique},
3970         volume = {2},
3971         year = {2009},
3972         pages = {319-338},
3973         chapter = {319},
3974         abstract = {This paper examines depictions of the "cyberchild," and the child at risk in Hollywood films and television advertisements portraying children{\textquoteright}s digital gaming. We examine fears of digital play and adjoining hopes for its conversion into a "productive" and educational practice. We find evidence of a stiflingly polarized conflict over children{\textquoteright}s digital gaming: young gamers are either delinquent and violent, or naturally adept "cyberchildren" with bright futures as information workers. We propose three reasons why this polarity remains unresolved, detail how issues of gender and class are sidelined, and suggest that cinematic and promotional depictions have both helped shape and reflect grossly exaggerated characterizations of the child gamer.},
3975         keywords = {child gamers, controversy, film, history, Television, Video Games},
3976         url = {http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/122598460/abstract?CRETRY=1\&SRETRY=0},
3977         author = {Narine, Neil and Grimes, Sara M}
3978 }
3979 @article {3245,
3980         title = {Video games in the Arab world and beyond - Interview with Vit Sisler},
3981         year = {2009},
3982         abstract = {Video games are at the core of a renewed focus of interest and have given birth to what are now known as game studies. Games have to be considered as a fully legitimate field of study for both anthropologists and political scientists, as they are shaping worldviews, social networks and identities and they engage phenomenona of cultural domination/resistance. They eventually crystallise new forms of collective mobilisation and action and have to be considered as cultural artefacts. Vit Sisler, a researcher in game studies, tells us more about the religious and other challenges that games are posing in the Middle East and Muslim world. },
3983         url = {http://religion.info/english/interviews/article_413.shtml},
3984         author = {Haenni, Patrick}
3985 }
3986 @inbook {4159,
3987         title = {Video Games, Video Clips, and Islam: New Media and the Communication of Values},
3988         booktitle = {Muslim Societies in the Age of Mass Consumption},
3989         year = {2009},
3990         pages = {231{\textendash}258},
3991         publisher = {Cambridge Scholars Publishing},
3992         organization = {Cambridge Scholars Publishing},
3993         address = {Newcastle},
3994         abstract = {This chapter analyzes video games and video clips with an Islamic emphasis and the various levels at which they convey ethical and moral values. Both video games and video clips have been neglected and marginalized by the academy, albeit to varying degrees. Given their pervasiveness, especially among Middle Eastern youth, we are in crucial need today of critical understanding of the different ways these media articulate Islam and communicate it to consumers. This chapter in particular discusses the appropriation of games by various private Islamic companies, operating in the broader religious and cultural context of the Islamic revival and piety movement, for educational purposes. Finally, this chapter discusses how Islamic game production and, more generally, the public discourse of the Islamic piety movement are shaping mainstream video game production targeted at Muslim audiences and the marketing strategies of game production companies.},
3995         keywords = {consumption, education, Islam, values, Video Games, virtual worlds},
3996         issn = {1-4438-1405-9},
3997         url = {http://www.digitalislam.eu/article.do?articleId=2550},
3998         author = {Sisler, Vit}
3999 }
4000 @mastersthesis {4325,
4001         title = {Virtual Consumption},
4002         year = {2009},
4003         pages = {243},
4004         school = {University of Turku},
4005         type = {PhD},
4006         address = {Turku},
4007         keywords = {consumer behaviour, cross-cultural study, dematerialisation of consumption, electronic commerce, ethic of consumption, Online communities},
4008         author = {Lehdonvirta, Vili}
4009 }
4010 @proceedings {4559,
4011         title = {Virtually There: Exploring Proximity and Homophily in a Virtual World},
4012         journal = {Computational Science and Engineering, IEEE International Conference on Social Computing},
4013         volume = {4},
4014         year = {2009},
4015         pages = {354-359},
4016         abstract = {Virtual space eliminates the constraints of physical distances on communication and interaction. In this study, we examine the impact of offline proximity and homophily of players on their online interactions in EverQuest II. The results show that spatial proximity as well as homophily still influence players{\textquoteright} online behavior.},
4017         url = {http://www.vwobservatory.com/wp/?p=151},
4018         author = {Huang, Y. and Shen, C. and Williams, Dmitri and Contractor, N.}
4019 }
4020 @conference {4557,
4021         title = {Will You Be My Friend? An Exploration of Adolescent Friendship Online in Teen Second Life},
4022         booktitle = {59th Annual Conference of the International Communication Association},
4023         year = {2009},
4024         address = {Chicago, IL},
4025         abstract = {lthough there have been many studies of the effect that online friendships have on adolescents, fewer have investigated how young people form friendships online. Those that have studied online friendship have found that it is generally different than real-world friendship in form and function. This study applies Monge \& Contractor{\textquoteright}s (2003) Multi-theoretical Multilevel model to study the emergence of adolescent friendships in the online world. This study presents the results of a large scale social network analysis based on computer logs of friendships in Teen Second Life, an online social world for adolescents age 13-17. Results suggest that friendship formation follows several predictable patterns found in the real world, but not found in all previous studies of online friendship formation among adolescents, including tendencies towards balance and a preference for friends of high status and friends who are geographically, temporally, and physically proximate. These findings indicate that online friendship patterns in Teen Second Life mirror those found in real life},
4026         url = {http://www.vwobservatory.com/wp/?p=201},
4027         author = {Foucault Welles, B. and Zhu, M. and Huang, Y. and Atrash, Z. and Contractor, N.}
4028 }
4029 @article {4251,
4030         title = {An Academic Kit for Integrating Mobile Devices into the CS Curriculum},
4031         journal = {Iticse 2009: Proceeding of the 2009 Acm Sigse Annual Conference on Innovation and Technology in Computer Science Education},
4032         year = {2009},
4033         note = {Bkt74Times Cited:0Cited References Count:3},
4034         pages = {40-44406},
4035         abstract = {In this paper we present our freely available academic kit to help universities in integrating mobile devices into the Computer Science (CS) curriculum. The kit was designed and developed at the Centre for Mobile Education and Research at the University of Guelph, and includes instructors{\textquoteright} resources for introducing and teaching mobile application development. The first release of the kit includes the teaching material for a full introductory course on mobile application development, and concrete teaching modules for integrating mobile devices into courses on software engineering, game design and development, web services, information security, and operating systems.},
4036         keywords = {blackberry, mobile application development, Mobile devices, programming for fun, teaching computer programming, teaching tools},
4037         url = {<Go to ISI>://000269212200012},
4038         author = {Mahmoud, Q. H. and Ngo, T. and Niazi, R. and Popowicz, P. and Sydoryshyn, R. and Wilks, M. and Dietz, D.}
4039 }
4040 @article {4314,
4041         title = {Active-Input Provides More Movement and Muscle Activity During Electronic Game Playing by Children},
4042         journal = {International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction},
4043         volume = {25},
4044         number = {8},
4045         year = {2009},
4046         note = {533CATimes Cited:0Cited References Count:48},
4047         pages = {713-728},
4048         abstract = {The majority of children in affluent countries now play electronic games, and this has lead to concerns about the health impact of this activity. Traditional electronic games have used gamepad, keyboard, and mouse input, but newer game interfaces that require more movement are now available. However the movement and muscle activity demands of electronic games have not been described. This study compared the amount of movement and muscle activity while 20 children aged 9 to 12 years watched a DVD and played games using handheld computer, gamepad, keyboard, steering wheel and, active-input (Webcam motion analysis-Sony EyeToy (R)) devices. Movement of the head, sacrum, foot, shoulder, wrist, and thumb was measured along with activity in cervical erector spinae, lumbar erector spinae, rectus femoris, upper trapezius, anterior deltoid, and wrist extensor muscles. Use of the wheel resulted in some increase in upper limb movement and muscle activity, but the other traditional input devices were usually as sedentary as watching a DVD. In contrast, use of the active-input device (EyeToy) resulted in substantial movement and muscle activity in limbs and torso. These results suggest that playing traditional electronic games is indeed a sedentary activity but that new active-input technologies may be useful in encouraging more movement and muscle activity in children.},
4049         keywords = {body fatness, calcium intake, different information technologies, Energy-Expenditure, Exercise, habitual physical-activity, Physiological-Responses, screen-based media, Video Game, Young-Adults},
4050         isbn = {1044-7318},
4051         url = {<Go to ISI>://000272798500001},
4052         author = {Straker, L. and Pollock, C. and Piek, J. and Abbott, R. and Skoss, R. and Coleman, J.}
4053 }
4054 @article {4183,
4055         title = {Activity Module Development for Moodle: A Sample Activity Module, EduGame},
4056         journal = {Proceedings of the 15th American Conference on Applied Mathematics and Proceedings of the International Conference on Computational and Information Sciences 2009, Vols I and Ii},
4057         year = {2009},
4058         note = {Bjk33Times Cited:0Cited References Count:3Mathematics and Computers in Science and Engineering},
4059         pages = {366-371529},
4060         abstract = {Moodle, one of the most popular course management systems (CMSs), has a highly extendable infrastructure. Moodle is an open source CMS. Everyone can easily contribute to the development of Moodle with plug-ins, activity modules, blocks and so on. The most used contribution method is activity modules. Moodle has a list of activities by default (forums, quizzes, assignments, etc.). Teachers can use these activities in their classroom to support lessons. But sometimes default activities do not meet the needs of teachers. Therefore, activity module development can be important for efficient use of Moodle in some circumstances. In this study, Moodle infrastructure and development steps of a sample activity module, EduGame, will be explained in a step by step manner. EduGame activity module is a tool to integrate educational flash games into the Moodle. It also saves the game points of students into the Moodle database. Educational computer games are great ways for teachers to pique children{\textquoteright}s interest in the learning process. So integrating educational computer games to Moodle can be crucial for computer game based learning.},
4061         keywords = {activity module, cms, moodle},
4062         url = {<Go to ISI>://000266634600053},
4063         author = {Cankaya, S. and Izmirli, S.}
4064 }
4065 @article {4308,
4066         title = {An Approach to Sharing Legacy TV/Arcade Games for Real-Time Collaboration},
4067         journal = {2009 29th IEEE International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems},
4068         year = {2009},
4069         note = {Bmk51Times Cited:0Cited References Count:16IEEE International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems},
4070         pages = {165-172647},
4071         abstract = {Interactive TV/arcade games have been entertaining people for over SO years. Nowadays a large number of legacy TV/arcade games have been ported to new platforms such as PCs by emulation. However, they generally require that the players be co-located to interact with one computer that emulates the game. This paper proposes a novel approach to turning those single-computer games into multicomputer games such that multiple players can play their favorite legacy games in real tune over a computer network. The main challenge in this work is how to synchronize multiple replicas of a game without semantic knowledge about or modifications to the game. We present the approach, especially the synchronization algorithm, and evaluate its effectiveness under a variety of network conditions. In future research we will extend this work on mobile devices.},
4072         keywords = {human-performance, local-lag},
4073         isbn = {1063-6927},
4074         url = {<Go to ISI>://000272675500019},
4075         author = {Zhao, S. and Li, D. and Gu, H. and Shao, B. and Gu, N.}
4076 }
4077 @article {4235,
4078         title = {Art Thief: An Educational Computer Game Model for Art Historical Instruction},
4079         journal = {Leonardo},
4080         volume = {42},
4081         number = {2},
4082         year = {2009},
4083         note = {420DVTimes Cited:0Cited References Count:9},
4084         pages = {133-137},
4085         abstract = {Cognitive research has revealed learning techniques more effective than those utilized by the traditional art history lecture survey course. Informed by these insights, the author and fellow graduate researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago designed a "serious" computer game demo, Art Thief, as a potential model for a learning tool that incorporates content from art history. The game design implements constructed learning, simulated cooperation and problem solving in a first-person, immersive, goal-oriented mystery set within a virtual art museum.},
4086         isbn = {0024-094X},
4087         url = {<Go to ISI>://000264269800004},
4088         author = {Kinkley, J.}
4089 }
4090 @article {4173,
4091         title = {Bridging Realty to Virtual Reality: Investigating gender effect and student engagement on learning through video game play in an elementary school classroom},
4092         journal = {International Journal of Science Education},
4093         volume = {31},
4094         number = {8},
4095         year = {2009},
4096         note = {444PJTimes Cited:0Cited References Count:68},
4097         pages = {1091-1113},
4098         abstract = {The purpose of this study was to examine students{\textquoteright} learning of simple machines, a fifth-grade (ages 10-11) forces and motion unit, and student engagement using a teacher-created Multiplayer Educational Gaming Application. This mixed-method study collected pre-test/post-test results to determine student knowledge about simple machines. A survey ascertained the time spent using the computer for general purposes, and the time spent playing computer games as a function of gender. The pre-test and post-test design involved 74 students, 31 males and 43 females, who played the Dr. Friction Multiplayer Educational Gaming Application for several days in the middle of the unit. Results showed the females averaged using the computer more than their male counterparts and males played video games more than females. Analysis of covariance suggested no significant difference between the factor gender (p .05) but statistically significant differences in gain scores (p = .001). Observations and qualitative focus groups suggested high student engagement and how video game technology can scaffold learning of simple machines.},
4099         keywords = {communication, Computer, environment},
4100         isbn = {0950-0693},
4101         url = {<Go to ISI>://000265992600006},
4102         author = {Annetta, L. and Mangrum, J. and Holmes, S. and Collazo, K. and Cheng, M. T.}
4103 }
4104 @article {4271,
4105         title = {Case Study on Using RTF for Developing Multi-player Online Games},
4106         journal = {Euro-Par 2008 Workshops - Parallel Processing},
4107         volume = {5415},
4108         year = {2009},
4109         note = {Bjv48Times Cited:0Cited References Count:9Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
4110         pages = {390-400462},
4111         abstract = {Real-Time Online Interactive Applications (ROIA) include a broad spectrum of online computer games. as well as challenging distributed e-learning applications, like virtual classrooms and collaborative environments. Development of ROIA poses several complex tasks that currently are addressed at a low level of abstraction. In our previous work, we presented the Real-Time Framework (RTF) - a novel middle-ware for a high-level development and execution of ROIA in single- and multi-server environments. This paper describes a case study in which a simple but representative online computer game is developed using RTF. We explain how RTF supports the design of data structures and their automatic serialization for network transmission, as well as determining and processing user actions when computing a new game state; the challenge is to provide the state updates to all players in real time at a very high frequency.},
4112         isbn = {0302-9743},
4113         url = {<Go to ISI>://000267262400038},
4114         author = {Ploss, A. and Glinka, F. and Gorlatch, S.}
4115 }
4116 @article {4182,
4117         title = {Case Study: The Economics of Arden},
4118         journal = {Critical Studies in Media Communication},
4119         volume = {26},
4120         number = {2},
4121         year = {2009},
4122         note = {500PITimes Cited:0Cited References Count:6},
4123         pages = {165-179},
4124         abstract = {A synthetic world is a computer-generated Earth-like environment that is accessible online to hundreds or thousands of people on a persistent basis. Due to the genuine human interactions that are cultivated in these environments, this technology may stand to offer much as a social science research tool. In this paper we describe a synthetic world, Arden, which has been designed and constructed for use in macroeconomic experiments. We detail the basis of the Arden economy, the resources and production technologies involved, the game structures that will entice players to make use of them, and the monetary and fiscal policy tools available for regulating the virtual market. The paper concludes with a description of example experiments that could be conducted, as well as a review of key principles and practical considerations to keep in mind when employing this new research tool.},
4125         keywords = {economics, game design, virtual worlds},
4126         isbn = {1529-5036},
4127         url = {<Go to ISI>://000270315200005},
4128         author = {Castronova, E. and Cummings, J. J. and Emigh, W. and Fatten, M. and Mishler, N. and Ross, T. and Ryan, W.}
4129 }
4130 @article {4202,
4131         title = {cMotion: A New Game Design to Teach Emotion Recognition and Programming Logic to Children using Virtual Humans},
4132         journal = {IEEE Virtual Reality 2009, Proceedings},
4133         year = {2009},
4134         note = {Bjh02Times Cited:0Cited References Count:8},
4135         pages = {249-250323},
4136         abstract = {This paper presents the design of the final stage of a new game currently in development, entitled cMotion, which will use virtual humans to teach emotion recognition and programming concepts to children. Having multiple facets, cMotion is designed to teach the intended users how to recognize facial expressions and manipulate an interactive virtual character using a visual drag-and-drop programming interface. By creating a game which contextualizes emotions, we hope to foster learning of both emotions in a cultural context and computer programming concepts in children. The game will be completed in three stages which will each be tested separately: a playable introduction which focuses on social skills and emotion recognition, an interactive interface which focuses on computer programming, and a full game which combines the first two stages into one activity.},
4137         keywords = {emotion recognition, serious games, virtual humans},
4138         url = {<Go to ISI>://000265769200046},
4139         author = {Finkelstein, S. L. and Nickel, A. and Harrison, L. and Suma, E. A. and Barnes, T.}
4140 }
4141 @article {4270,
4142         title = {Collaborative Game-play as a Site for Participation and Situated Learning of a Second Language},
4143         journal = {Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research},
4144         volume = {53},
4145         number = {2},
4146         year = {2009},
4147         note = {434UOTimes Cited:1Cited References Count:52},
4148         pages = {167-183},
4149         abstract = {This paper addresses additional language learning as rooted in participation in the social activity of collaborative game-play. Building on a social-interactional view of learning, it analyses some of the detailed practices through which players attend to a video game as the material and semiotic structure that shapes play and creates affordances for additional language learning. We describe how players engage with the language resources offered by the game, drawing on the vocabulary, constructions, prosodic features and utterances modelled on game dialogue, in building their own actions during collaborative play. With these resources, the players display their ongoing engagement with the game as well as their competences in recognising, reproducing and creatively reshaping the available linguistic resources in their own activities.},
4150         keywords = {accomplishment, Acquisition, classroom, computer and video games, interactional practices, language play, second language acquisition, task},
4151         isbn = {0031-3831},
4152         url = {<Go to ISI>://000265299800005},
4153         author = {Piirainen-Marsh, A. and Tainio, L.}
4154 }
4155 @article {4179,
4156         title = {Competence Complexity and Obvious Learning Experience from Developing a Language Learning Game},
4157         journal = {Design and Use of Serious Games},
4158         volume = {37},
4159         year = {2009},
4160         note = {Bjb44Times Cited:0Cited References Count:10Intelligent Systems, Control, and Automation: Science and Engineering},
4161         pages = {83-96206},
4162         abstract = {A computer role-playing game for language learning was created in a European project. The process was challenging with a multidisciplinary team from three countries who did not know each other well before the project started. Game designers, linguists, pedagogues and teachers have different approaches to how such an educational tool should function. The requirements for the game were scarce before the project started, so it was up to the team to agree on the game design and contents. We early realised that we had to work much more closely together than what is common in educational projects, so we used virtual meeting rooms extensively in addition to many physical meetings. One important conclusion regarding the process is that small prototypes should have been made very early to enhance the understanding and cooperation between the writers and designers and those responsible for the pedagogical contents. Designers and pedagogical personnel should also have had a much closer cooperation in the early phases to better integrate the learning material into the game story. This paper discusses how we worked together to get consensus about the game. We will also touch upon some of the technical difficulties we had trying to satisfy all our requirements with the chosen open source platforms. We also say a few words about the first reactions of the target group. The focus is however on the process of making educational games and what can be learnt from this experience.},
4163         url = {<Go to ISI>://000264525500006},
4164         author = {Brox, E. and Heggelund, A. and Evertsen, G.}
4165 }
4166 @article {4176,
4167         title = {Computer Game Playing: Clinical characteristics of dependence and abuse among adolescents},
4168         journal = {Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift},
4169         volume = {121},
4170         number = {15-16},
4171         year = {2009},
4172         note = {493TZTimes Cited:1Cited References Count:18},
4173         pages = {502-509},
4174         abstract = {Objective and methods: The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of excessive computer game playing behaviour among adolescents with psychopathological tendencies that resemble the classic symptoms of addiction. To address this question, criteria for excessive computer game playing behaviour were developed on the basis of diagnostic criteria for substance-related disorders according to ICD-10.Results: Excessive computer playing corresponding to addictive behaviour were found in 12.3\% of the adolescents (n = 1068; 9.6\% showed abusive and 2.7\% dependent behaviour). Adolescents with excessive computer and video game playing behaviour also show substantial correlations with other psychosocial and psychopathological abnormalities, such as alterations in the intensity of social conflict, concentration deficits, maladaptive coping behaviour, stress and psychosomatic challenge, and school phobia.Conclusions: The study provides the first empirical data about excessive computer game playing among adolescents in Austria. It shows that pathological computer game playing can be well described by criteria developed in accordance to substance dependence, and that abusive or dependent Computer game playing shows specific connections with psycho-social, psychopathological and motivational factors. Overall, the results demonstrate a clear need for deeper research on this subject and the need for a design of prevention measures.},
4175         keywords = {Adolescents, excessive computer game playing behaviour, maladaptive coping behaviour},
4176         isbn = {0043-5325},
4177         url = {<Go to ISI>://000269762300005},
4178         author = {Batthyany, D. and Muller, K. W. and Benker, F. and Wolfling, K.}
4179 }
4180 @article {4203,
4181         title = {Computer games in childhood and adolescence: Relations to addictive behavior, ADHD, and aggression},
4182         journal = {Zeitschrift Fur Kinder-Und Jugendpsychiatrie Und Psychotherapie},
4183         volume = {37},
4184         number = {5},
4185         year = {2009},
4186         note = {505XSTimes Cited:0Cited References Count:88},
4187         pages = {393-402},
4188         abstract = {Playing computer games has become one of the main leisure activities in children and adolescents and increasingly replaces traditional playing and interactional activities. There might exist developmental benefits or positive effects of computer games that can be used for educational or therapeutic purposes. More important several studies have well demonstrated that excessive computer game playing is associated with behavior that features all components of non-chemical addiction and the prevalences across all age groups seem to be impressingly high. Objective: This overview relies on a Medline research. Its objective is to describe motivational and developmental characteristics attributed to computer games as well as the prevalences of computer playing in children and adolescents to better understand the risks for addictive use. We especially focus on the relations of excessive computer playing with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and aggressive behavior. Results: The results demonstrate that children with ADHD are especially vulnerable to addictive use of computer games due to their neuropsychological profile. Moreover excessive violent computer game playing might be a significant risk variable for aggressive behavior in the presence of personality traits with aggressive cognitions and behavior scripts in the consumers. Conclusions: The increasing clinical meaning of addictive computer games playing urgently necessitates the development of diagnostic and therapeutic tools for clinical practice as well as the cooperation with allied disciplines.},
4189         keywords = {Addiction, aggressive behavior, Attention-Deficit, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (adhd), children, Computer games, Hyperactivity Disorder, internet addiction, Life, model, psychiatric comorbidity, reward deficiency syndrome, Symptoms, Violent Video Games},
4190         isbn = {1422-4917},
4191         url = {<Go to ISI>://000270735700003},
4192         author = {Frolich, J. and Lehmkuhl, G. and Dopfner, M.}
4193 }
4194 @article {4209,
4195         title = {A Computer Simulation Game for Learning Product Lifecycle Planning Through the Engineer-To-Order Case},
4196         journal = {International Journal of Engineering Education},
4197         volume = {25},
4198         number = {5},
4199         year = {2009},
4200         note = {Sp. Iss. SI522BDTimes Cited:0Cited References Count:40},
4201         pages = {864-875},
4202         abstract = {In this paper we present a computer-supported simulation game intended for teaching the planning aspects of Product Lifecycle Management (PLM). The game deals with product lifecycle planning dynamics in the Engineer-To-Order (ETO) industry. The ETO environment that serves as the Working case allows the eliciting of important PLM concepts: unified product development multiproject planning and manufacturing planning, links between PLM software and ERP systems, and emphasis on the PLM holistic approach. The game is designed as a series of group sessions in which the different planning decisions appear progressively so that in the last session a complete lifecycle planning problem is completed The sessions act as a series of practical cases encouraging group discussions. The computer system consists of two main components: a discrete event simulator and a planning decision supper system. The simulator guides the game and stochastically generates the different events that cause the need for planning decisions in the working case. The planning decision support system makes it possible to emulate the resolution of the day-to-day tasks.},
4203         keywords = {computer simulation games, Context, engineer-to-order, environment, Management, product lifecycle planning, project, Skills},
4204         isbn = {0949-149X},
4205         url = {<Go to ISI>://000271971800004},
4206         author = {Gutierrez, M. and Sastron, F.}
4207 }
4208 @article {4318,
4209         title = {Constructing the 2D Adventure Game-Based Assessment System},
4210         journal = {Advances in Web Based Learning - ICWL 2009},
4211         volume = {5686},
4212         year = {2009},
4213         note = {Blc72Times Cited:0Cited References Count:10Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
4214         pages = {376-385478},
4215         abstract = {Due to the advanced computer and network technologies, it could be helpful to conduct an advanced distance learning system for learners to process their learning activities in anytime and anywhere. However, according to many research issues which found that the learning motivation is the most important element to encourage people into their learning and assessment activities. In this paper, we proposed the 2D Adventure Game-Based Assessment System which not only could draw people into their learning activities, but could help instructors easily to design and manage the related learning and assessment content.},
4216         keywords = {assessment system, game design, GBL, learning motivation},
4217         isbn = {0302-9743},
4218         url = {<Go to ISI>://000269930300045},
4219         author = {Tang, J. Y. and Chen, J. H. and Ku, D. T. and Chao, L. R. and Shih, T. K. and Weng, M. M.}
4220 }
4221 @article {4306,
4222         title = {Construction of a Computer Game Oriented to Disaster Education and Reflections on Its Problems},
4223         journal = {Learning by Playing},
4224         volume = {5670},
4225         year = {2009},
4226         note = {Blc82Times Cited:0Cited References Count:9Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
4227         pages = {110-119579},
4228         abstract = {Despite the fact that greater importance has been attached to educational games, the design, development and application of computer games oriented to disaster education is rarely researched. This paper, therefore, attempts to make use of first aid knowledge targeting teenagers to develop a role-playing computer game oriented to disaster education under the guidance of fuzzy strategy. The paper also reflects on some existing problems after a preliminary experiment with the game.},
4229         keywords = {computer game, Construction, disaster education},
4230         isbn = {0302-9743},
4231         url = {<Go to ISI>://000269934000015},
4232         author = {Zhang, S. J. and Gu, H. J.}
4233 }
4234 @article {4186,
4235         title = {Cross Cultural Computer Gaming},
4236         journal = {Internationalization, Design and Global Development, Proceedings},
4237         volume = {5623},
4238         year = {2009},
4239         note = {Bkt52Times Cited:0Cited References Count:37Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
4240         pages = {13-18526},
4241         abstract = {Computer game development is a rapidly growing global business. However, research in the understanding of the global user is lacking. This paper presents a survey of recent research on cross cultural game development. The paper proposes a cross cultural hybrid model to carry out user modeling to assist developers in understanding the cultural nuances of end users.},
4242         keywords = {Framework},
4243         isbn = {0302-9743},
4244         url = {<Go to ISI>://000269191600002},
4245         author = {Chakraborty, J. and Norcio, A. F.}
4246 }
4247 @article {4200,
4248         title = {A Culturally Contextualized Web Based Game Environment to Support Meaningful Learning},
4249         journal = {CSEDU 2009: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Computer Supported Education, Vol Ii},
4250         year = {2009},
4251         note = {Bkc65Times Cited:0Cited References Count:13},
4252         pages = {205-210352},
4253         abstract = {The computer game use in education has been growing as a learning facilitator. What is it? educational environment allows teachers to be co-author of an online game based on cards which uses a common sense knowledge base. It also allows teachers to choose language according to their students{\textquoteright} culture and needs providing them with suitable language. The environment also allows researchers to collect common sense knowledge. Every user interaction in each editor{\textquoteright}s module and player{\textquoteright}s module generates a new common sense statement which is stored into Brazilian Open Mind Common Sense (OMCS-BR) project knowledge base. A study case was conducted with teachers and students from two different Brazilian public schools. Results demonstrate there is a large potential of the use of this environment in real classes and the methodology to collect common sense statements naturally through a web game.},
4254         keywords = {common sense, culture sensitive learning, educational games, Pedagogical issues, sexual education},
4255         url = {<Go to ISI>://000267757200037},
4256         author = {Ferreira, A. M. and Pereira, E. N. and Anacleto, J. C. and Carelli, I. M. and Silva, M. A. R. and Dias, A. L.}
4257 }
4258 @article {4240,
4259         title = {Design and Architecture of Sidh - a Cave Based Firefighter Training Game},
4260         journal = {Design and Use of Serious Games},
4261         volume = {37},
4262         year = {2009},
4263         note = {Bjb44Times Cited:0Cited References Count:20Intelligent Systems, Control, and Automation: Science and Engineering},
4264         pages = {19-31206},
4265         abstract = {This paper presents the architecture of a game-based training simulator environment developed in collaboration with the Swedish Rescue Services Agency (SRSA). The learning objectives for the game relates to training of firefighters for Breathing Apparatus Entry, and in particular to develop systematic search strategies. The hardware and software system is based on off-the-shelf computer components in combination with tailor made units. The game has been developed as a Half-Life 2 mod - extended to be played in a cave using 5 standard gaming PCs in a local area network. The game environment is a cave where the player is surrounded by four 80" screens giving a 360 degree view of a virtual world. Each screen is projecting a fixed-angle view of the virtual world and the player{\textquoteright}s orientation in the virtual world corresponds to her orientation in the real world. A novel interaction model has been developed for the game in order for it to be played in the cave. The player navigates and performs game actions using course body movements which are captured through a set of sensors.},
4266         url = {<Go to ISI>://000264525500002},
4267         author = {Lebram, M. and Backlund, P. and Engstrom, H. and Johannesson, M.}
4268 }
4269 @article {4269,
4270         title = {Design and Evaluation of a Computer Game to Promote a Healthy Diet for Young Adults},
4271         journal = {Health Communication},
4272         volume = {24},
4273         number = {2},
4274         year = {2009},
4275         note = {417SSTimes Cited:0Cited References Count:51},
4276         pages = {115-127},
4277         abstract = {This article reports the development and evaluation of a computer game (RightWay Cafe) as a special medium to promote a healthy diet for young adults. Structural features of computer games, such as interactive tailoring, role playing, the element of fun, and narrative, were operationalized in the RightWay Cafe game to afford behavior rehearsal in a safe and entertaining way. Theories such as the health belief model, social cognitive theory, and theory of reasoned action guided the content design of the game to influence mediators of behavior change, including self-efficacy, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, and behavior change intention. A randomized controlled evaluation study with pretest, posttest, and follow-up design demonstrated that this game was effective in teaching nutrition and weight management knowledge and increasing people{\textquoteright}s self-efficacy and perceived benefits of healthy eating, as well as their intention to be on a healthy diet. Limited long-term effects were also found: participants in the game-playing group had greater self-efficacy than participants in the control group after 1 month. This study validates the computer game-based approach to health promotion for young adults. Limitations and implications are also discussed.},
4278         keywords = {Adolescents, consumption, education, fat, Fruit, knowledge, nutrition intervention, Predictors, Self-efficacy, vegetable intake},
4279         isbn = {1041-0236},
4280         url = {<Go to ISI>://000264099000003},
4281         author = {Peng, W.}
4282 }
4283 @article {4264,
4284         title = {Design of Interactive Emotional Sound Edutainment System},
4285         journal = {Human-Computer Interaction, Pt Iv},
4286         volume = {5613},
4287         year = {2009},
4288         note = {Bkr83Times Cited:0Cited References Count:9Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
4289         pages = {368-377781},
4290         abstract = {This paper introduces an emotional sound edutainment system for children to learn basic musical composition called as musical education sound interactive game (MESIG) employing a new type of user interface. Developed interactive game interface provides children to enjoy the game, so that they learn how to compose musical notes with touching the tangible objectives instead of using ordinary input devices. This way on experiencing and playing the computer games has been evolved to use the body and hands{\textquoteright} movement so as to interact with the game in virtual environment, which brings out interest for the children and their learning capability becomes more effectively improved. This system introduced in this paper requires a single camera and carries out skin color model tracking function to detect hand gesture as input device for playing the game. This computer vision technique based on image processing makes possible to operate an expressive interactive musical education system. To exploit the effectiveness, evaluation and analysis works are accomplished upon the realization of sound edutainment game.},
4291         keywords = {computer vision, Edutainment, interactive games, skin color model},
4292         isbn = {0302-9743},
4293         url = {<Go to ISI>://000269034700041},
4294         author = {Park, M. and Kim, K.}
4295 }
4296 @article {4283,
4297         title = {Design of Videogames in Special Education},
4298         journal = {New Trends on Human-Computer Interaction: Research, Development, New Tools and Methods},
4299         year = {2009},
4300         note = {Bjd44Times Cited:0Cited References Count:14},
4301         pages = {43-51161},
4302         abstract = {The use of new technological and learning methods that help to improve the learning process has resulted in the inclusion of the video games as active elements in the classrooms. Videogames are ideal learning tools since they provide training skills, promote independence and increase and improve students{\textquoteright} concentration and attention. For special education students with learning difficulties, it is very important to adapt the game to each student{\textquoteright}s cognitive level and skills. New game technologies have helped to create alternative strategies to increase cognitive skills in the field of Special Education. This chapter describes our experience in video games design and in new forms of human-computer interaction addressed to develop didactic games for children with communication problems such as autism, dysphasia, ictus or some types of cerebral paralysis.},
4303         url = {<Go to ISI>://000265013400005},
4304         author = {Sanchez, J. L. G. and Cabrera, M. J. and Gutierrez, F. L. and Zea, N. P. and Paderewski, P.}
4305 }
4306 @article {4265,
4307         title = {Designing BOTs with BDI Agents},
4308         journal = {Proceedings of the 2009 International Symposium on Collaborative Technologies and Systems},
4309         year = {2009},
4310         note = {Bls38Times Cited:0Cited References Count:17},
4311         pages = {180-186575},
4312         abstract = {In modern computer games, {\textquoteright}bots{\textquoteright} - Intelligent realistic agents play a prominent role in success of a game in market. Typically, bots are modeled using finite-state machine and then programmed via simple conditional statements which are hard-coded in bots logic. Since these bots have become quite predictable to an experienced games player, she might lose her interest in game. We present a model of bots using BDI agents, which will show more human-like behavior, more believable and will provide more realistic feel to the game. These bots will use the inputs from actual game players to specify her Beliefs, Desires, and Intentions while game playing.},
4313         keywords = {agents, bdi, Bots, collaboration, Games},
4314         url = {<Go to ISI>://000270937300024},
4315         author = {Patel, P. and Hexmoor, H.}
4316 }
4317 @article {4256,
4318         title = {Designing Serious Games for Computer Assisted Language Learning - a Framework for Development and Analysis},
4319         journal = {Design and Use of Serious Games},
4320         volume = {37},
4321         year = {2009},
4322         note = {Bjb44Times Cited:0Cited References Count:35Intelligent Systems, Control, and Automation: Science and Engineering},
4323         pages = {69-82206},
4324         abstract = {In the paper we shall argue for the potential of serious games for teaching and learning languages online. The paper builds on data from a research project, Serious Games on a Global Market Place (2007-2010), in which an online game-based platform for teaching and learning English (www.Mingoville.com) has been studied in the context of teaching and learning English in Danish primary schools. The initial research process - which was based on an analysis of the platform as well as interviews with platform developers - suggested that one of the challenges of developing a design for serious games in language education consists of renegotiating the serious games genre to balance drill-based exercises with contextualised simulations that involve fruitful thinking, real language interaction and student engagement. One hypothesis of the project is, following the initial research and drawing on previous research in the field, that the process of designing serious games for CALL may significantly benefit from involving children{\textquoteright}s own experiences with using languages (primarily English) online for gaming and interacting. This to some extent involves transcending the dichotomy of {\textquoteright}serious{\textquoteright} and {\textquoteright}pleasurable{\textquoteright} learning found in the discourse on learning with games inside and outside schools.},
4325         url = {<Go to ISI>://000264525500005},
4326         author = {Meyer, B. and Sorensen, B. H.}
4327 }
4328 @article {4220,
4329         title = {Developing the 3D Adventure Game-Based Assessment System with Wii Remote Interaction},
4330         journal = {Advances in Web Based Learning - ICWL 2009},
4331         volume = {5686},
4332         year = {2009},
4333         note = {Blc72Times Cited:0Cited References Count:5Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
4334         pages = {192-195478},
4335         abstract = {The advanced 3D graphic and computer technologies could provide advanced 3D virtual environment in order to let users have the immersion experiences in that environment. Also, as human interaction technologies, it could be helpful for providing more different and suitable interaction styles when facing some particula0072 interaction situations. The related works pointed out that the game elements could improve learners{\textquoteright} motivation during learning. In this paper, we proposed the 3D Adventure Game-Based Assessment System could not only attract learners to take their assessment activities, but also help instructors to design and manage the related assessment content easily.},
4336         keywords = {3d virtual environment, game interaction, GBL, wii remote},
4337         isbn = {0302-9743},
4338         url = {<Go to ISI>://000269930300024},
4339         author = {Huang, K. M. and Chen, J. H. and Shen, C. Y. and Chao, L. R. and Shih, T. K.}
4340 }
4341 @article {4242,
4342         title = {Development and Validation of a Game Addiction Scale for Adolescents},
4343         journal = {Media Psychology},
4344         volume = {12},
4345         number = {1},
4346         year = {2009},
4347         note = {415IGTimes Cited:0Cited References Count:71},
4348         pages = {77-95},
4349         abstract = {The aim of this study was to develop and validate a scale to measure computer and videogame addiction. Inspired by earlier theories and research on game addiction, we created 21 items to measure seven underlying criteria (i.e., salience, tolerance, mood modification, relapse, withdrawal, conflict, and problems). The dimensional structure of the scale was investigated in two independent samples of adolescent gamers (N = 352 and N = 369). In both samples, a second-order factor model described our data best. The 21-item scale, as well as a shortened 7-item version, showed high reliabilities. Furthermore, both versions showed good concurrent validity across samples, as indicated by the consistent correlations with usage, loneliness, life satisfaction, social competence, and aggression.},
4350         keywords = {Aggressive-Behavior, children, Computer games, online games, Personality, Physiological Arousal, Problematic Internet Use, taiwanese adolescents, Validity, Video Games},
4351         isbn = {1521-3269},
4352         url = {<Go to ISI>://000263926900004},
4353         author = {Lemmens, J. S. and Valkenburg,P M and Peter, J.}
4354 }
4355 @article {4236,
4356         title = {Diabetes City: How Urban Game Design Strategies Can Help Diabetics},
4357         journal = {Electronic Healthcare},
4358         volume = {1},
4359         year = {2009},
4360         note = {Bld31Times Cited:0Cited References Count:5Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering},
4361         pages = {200-204222},
4362         abstract = {Computer Games are about to leave their "electronic shells" and enter the city. So-called Serious Pervasive Games (SPGs) [1] allow for hybrid simultaneously physical and virtual - experiences, applying technologies of ubiquitous computing, communication and "intelligent" interfaces. They begin to focus on non-entertaining purposes. The following article a) presents game design strategies as a missing link between pervasive computing, Ambient Intelligence and user{\textquoteright}s everyday life. Therefore it spurs a discussion how Pervasive Healthcare focusing on the therapy and prevention of chronic diseases can benefit from urban game design strategies. b) Moreover the article presents the development and work in progress of "DiabetesCity" - an educational game prototype for young diabetics.},
4363         keywords = {diabetes care, medical documentation, pervasive healthcare, serious games, ubiquitous \& pervasive computing, urban design},
4364         isbn = {1867-8211},
4365         url = {<Go to ISI>://000269961200028},
4366         author = {Knoll, M.}
4367 }
4368 @article {4245,
4369         title = {Do Improve Typing Skill But No Significant Difference between Drill-Based and Game-Based Typing Software},
4370         journal = {Learning by Playing},
4371         volume = {5670},
4372         year = {2009},
4373         note = {Blc82Times Cited:0Cited References Count:0Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
4374         pages = {149-149579},
4375         keywords = {Computer-Assisted Instruction, drill-based typing software, game-based typing software, typing speed},
4376         isbn = {0302-9743},
4377         url = {<Go to ISI>://000269934000019},
4378         author = {Lin, C. H. and Liu, E. Z. F.}
4379 }
4380 @article {4311,
4381         title = {Does culture affect evaluation expressions? A cross-cultural analysis of Chinese and American computer game reviews},
4382         journal = {European Journal of Marketing},
4383         volume = {43},
4384         number = {5-6},
4385         year = {2009},
4386         note = {464NSTimes Cited:0Cited References Count:60},
4387         pages = {686-707},
4388         abstract = {Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to look at product reviews from a cross-cultural perspective. Product reviews are potentially an influential form of marketing communication, as well as a predictor of sales performance. With Hofstede{\textquoteright}s typology as a backdrop, the basic proposition of this study is that collectivistic cultural values place more emphasis on giving face to others, even in impersonal social environments, resulting in them giving more positive product reviews than their individualistic counterparts.Design/methodology/approach - The paper uses content analysis of Chinese and American computer game reviews to test the hypotheses.Findings - The results showed that Chinese reviews use fewer negative comments and give higher final ratings for the same set of products than their American counterparts. In addition, Chinese reviews showed a lower consistency between their evaluative comments and their final ratings. Also confirmed is a common belief that final ratings are a summary of the evaluative comments of the review-texts.Research limitations/implications - Future research is invited.Practical implications - Theoretically, the study refines the understanding of differences between individualistic and collectivistic cultures. Practically, it is suggested that if consumers{\textquoteright} cultural values are reflected in product reviews, international marketers should weigh and balance possible cultural bias when they decode evaluations of their products from reviews published in other countries{\textquoteright} media.Originality/value - Product reviews are a rich but ignored resource with high marketing value. It is hoped that the study can stimulate both marketing researchers and practitioners to make better use of product reviews to further understand marketing phenomena and make better marketing decisions.},
4389         keywords = {Behavior, Cognition, collectivism, communication, communication technologies, computer software, consequences, cross-cultural studies, culture, dimensions, film-critics, function evaluation, Information, values},
4390         isbn = {0309-0566},
4391         url = {<Go to ISI>://000267512400008},
4392         author = {Tsang, A. S. L. and Prendergast, G.}
4393 }
4394 @article {4246,
4395         title = {Dynamic Difficulty Adjustment in Computer Games Through Real-Time Anxiety-Based Affective Feedback},
4396         journal = {International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction},
4397         volume = {25},
4398         number = {6},
4399         year = {2009},
4400         note = {533BYTimes Cited:0Cited References Count:21},
4401         pages = {506-529},
4402         abstract = {A number of studies in recent years have investigated the dynamic difficulty adjustment (DDA) mechanism in computer games to automatically tailor gaming experience to individual player{\textquoteright}s characteristics. Although most of these existing works focus on game adaptation based on player{\textquoteright}s performance, affective state experienced by the players could play a key role in gaming experience and may provide a useful indicator for a DDA mechanism. In this article, an affect-based DDA was designed and implemented for computer games. In this DDA mechanism, a player{\textquoteright}s physiological signals were analyzed to infer his or her probable anxiety level, which was chosen as the target affective state, and the game difficulty level was automatically adjusted in real time as a function of the player{\textquoteright}s affective state. Peripheral physiological signals were measured through wearable biofeedback sensors and several physiological indices were explored to determine their correlations with anxiety. An experimental study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the affect-based DDA on game play by comparing it with a performance-based DDA. This is the first time, that is known, that the impact of a real-time affect-based DDA has been demonstrated experimentally.},
4403         keywords = {emotion, RECOGNITION, signals, spectral-analysis, System},
4404         isbn = {1044-7318},
4405         url = {<Go to ISI>://000272798300002},
4406         author = {Liu, C. C. and Agrawal, P. and Sarkar, N. and Chen, S. O.}
4407 }
4408 @article {4193,
4409         title = {Effect of Computer-Based Video Games on Children: An Experimental Study},
4410         journal = {Educational Technology \& Society},
4411         volume = {12},
4412         number = {2},
4413         year = {2009},
4414         note = {438BFTimes Cited:0Cited References Count:16},
4415         pages = {1-10},
4416         abstract = {This experimental study investigated whether computer-based video games facilitate children{\textquoteright}s cognitive learning. In comparison to traditional computer-assisted instruction (CAI), this study explored the impact of the varied types of instructional delivery strategies on children{\textquoteright}s learning achievement. One major research null hypothesis was tested: there are no statistically significant differences in students{\textquoteright} achievement when they receive two different instructional treatments: (1) traditional CAI; and (2) a computer-based video game. One hundred and eight third-graders from a middle/high socio-economic standard school district in Taiwan participated in the study. Results indicate that computer-based video game playing not only improves participants{\textquoteright} fact/recall processes (F = 5.288, p < .05), but also promotes problem-solving skills by recognizing multiple solutions for problems (F = 5.656, p < .05).},
4417         keywords = {cognitive processes, educational technology, game learning, play theory},
4418         isbn = {1436-4522},
4419         url = {<Go to ISI>://000265530200001},
4420         author = {Chuang, T. Y. and Chen, W. F.}
4421 }
4422 @article {4293,
4423         title = {The Effect of Console/Computer Game Play on Sleepiness and Sleep Hygiene},
4424         journal = {Sleep},
4425         volume = {32},
4426         year = {2009},
4427         note = {Suppl. S438FT1271Times Cited:0Cited References Count:0},
4428         pages = {A415-A415},
4429         isbn = {0161-8105},
4430         url = {<Go to ISI>://000265542001617},
4431         author = {Woolems, A. G. and Peszka, J. J. and Mastin, D. F.}
4432 }
4433 @article {4250,
4434         title = {The effect of product placement in computer games on brand attitude and recall},
4435         journal = {International Journal of Advertising},
4436         volume = {28},
4437         number = {3},
4438         year = {2009},
4439         note = {467IHTimes Cited:2Cited References Count:37},
4440         pages = {423-438},
4441         abstract = {Media fragmentation and proliferation, in concert with declining television advertising efficacy, has engendered interest in developing more effective ways to reach consumers - particularly non-users of a brand. This Study explores the effect of active product placement in computer games on both brand attitude (A(brand)) and recall. Findings suggest that exposure to a particular brand in a computer game can increase A(brand) among consumers whose pre-existing attitude towards the brand in question is fairly low. We conclude that product placement within computer games is an effective means of fostering high spontaneous brand recall and even of influencing consumers less positively predisposed towards a brand (analogous to non-users).These findings have promising managerial implications for firms looking to grow their customer base through acquisition and conversion.},
4442         isbn = {0265-0487},
4443         url = {<Go to ISI>://000267731500002},
4444         author = {Mackay, T. and Ewing, M. and Newton, F. and Windisch, L.}
4445 }
4446 @article {4191,
4447         title = {The Effects of Type of Interactivity in Experiential Game-Based Learning},
4448         journal = {Learning by Playing},
4449         volume = {5670},
4450         year = {2009},
4451         note = {Blc82Times Cited:0Cited References Count:24Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
4452         pages = {273-282579},
4453         abstract = {The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of type of inter-activity, prior knowledge and gender on learners{\textquoteright} performance in learning computer programming skills through an experiential game-based learning activity. One hundred and forty six junior high school students participated in the experimental activity. Participants{\textquoteright} levels of prior-knowledge (high vs. low) were identified according to previous computer course performance. The interactions of type-of-interactivity-prior-knowledge and type-of-interactivity-gender were significant on participants{\textquoteright} performance. The analysis revealed that (a) for the gender effect, the male group outperformed the female group while receiving the challenge-interactivity game-play activity, but while receiving the mixed-interactivity game-play activity, the male group and the female group performed equally; (b) similarly, for the prior-knowledge effect, the high prior-knowledge group outperformed the low prior-knowledge group while receiving the challenge-interactivity game-play activity, but while receiving the mixed-interactivity game-play activity, the high prior-knowledge group and the low prior-knowledge group performed equally. The mixed-interactivity game-play was found to compensate for females{\textquoteright} gender disadvantage and insufficient prior-knowledge.},
4454         keywords = {e-learning, game-based learning, Instructional design, Interactivity},
4455         isbn = {0302-9743},
4456         url = {<Go to ISI>://000269934000033},
4457         author = {Chen, M. P. and Wang, L. C.}
4458 }
4459 @article {4233,
4460         title = {Emergent Design: Serendipity in Digital Educational Games},
4461         journal = {Virtual and Mixed Reality, Proceedings},
4462         volume = {5622},
4463         year = {2009},
4464         note = {Blm41Times Cited:0Cited References Count:18Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
4465         pages = {206-215649},
4466         abstract = {Using computer games for educational purposes is it fascinating idea that is getting increasingly popular amongst educators, researchers, and developers. From it technical as well as psycho-pedagogical viewpoint, today{\textquoteright}s educational games are at an early stage. Most products cannot compete with non-educational, commercial games and not with conventional educational software. Research must address fundamental challenges such as methods for convincing learning-game design or individualization of gaming experiences. An important key factor is development costs. To enter the market Successfully requires reducing development costs significantly, however, without reducing gaining or learning quality. In this paper we introduce an approach of using existing methods for educational adaptation and personalization together with ideas of emergent game design.},
4467         keywords = {adaptation, digital educational games, emergent game design, game-based learning, Interactive Storytelling, personalization},
4468         isbn = {0302-9743},
4469         url = {<Go to ISI>://000270531200024},
4470         author = {Kickmeier-Rust, M. D. and Albert, D.}
4471 }
4472 @article {4288,
4473         title = {Emotional Processes in Computer Games},
4474         journal = {Opportunities and Challenges for Next-Generation Applied Intelligence},
4475         volume = {214},
4476         year = {2009},
4477         note = {Bkc59Times Cited:0Cited References Count:6Studies in Computational Intelligence},
4478         pages = {193-198343},
4479         abstract = {Expressing emotions in computer games has become a popular focus for game research and development. Many research projects and papers emerged in the fields of game studies, psychology and HCI and others attempting to understand games and emotions. In this work, we present an emotional model that explains the emotional decision-making processes. The model is designed to explore people{\textquoteright}s behavior in certain circumstances, while under specified emotional states. Special attention was given to the thought process and actions displayed in the hypothetical scenarios. Also, we developed an experimental game program for the evaluation of our emotional decision making model.},
4480         isbn = {1860-949X},
4481         url = {<Go to ISI>://000267755700030},
4482         author = {Shihab, K. and Chalabi, N.}
4483 }
4484 @article {4282,
4485         title = {Emotionally Adapted Games - An Example of a First Person Shooter},
4486         journal = {Human-Computer Interaction, Pt Iv},
4487         volume = {5613},
4488         year = {2009},
4489         note = {Bkr83Times Cited:0Cited References Count:15Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
4490         pages = {406-415781},
4491         abstract = {This paper discusses a specific customization technology Psychological Customization - which enables the customization of information presented on a computer-based system in real-time and its application to manipulating emotions when playing computer games. The possibilities of customizing different elements of games to manipulate emotions are presented and a definition of emotionally adaptive games is given. A psychophysiologically adaptive game is discussed as an example of emotionally adapted games.},
4492         keywords = {adaptive systems, customization, emotion, emotionally adapted games, Games, psychological customization, psychological effects, psychophysiological measurement},
4493         isbn = {0302-9743},
4494         url = {<Go to ISI>://000269034700045},
4495         author = {Saari, T. and Turpeinen, M. and Kuikkaniemi, K. and Kosunen, I. and Ravaja, N.}
4496 }
4497 @article {4273,
4498         title = {Entertaining Education - Using Games-Based and Service-Oriented Learning to Improve STEM Education},
4499         journal = {Learning by Playing},
4500         volume = {5670},
4501         year = {2009},
4502         note = {Blc82Times Cited:0Cited References Count:0Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
4503         pages = {292-292579},
4504         abstract = {This paper addresses the development of a computer game design and development curriculum at the authors{\textquoteright} institution. The basis for curriculum decisions, as well as comparison to the other institutions{\textquoteright} curricula is covered. In situating the curriculum within the current degree programs, games-based versions of existing courses are also being offered. The experience of the authors with the initial offering of a games-based introductory programming course is also explained, along with the initial assessment of results from the experience. Our experience of using games-based learning in an introductory laboratory is presented. Finally, we demonstrate how games-based learning can be extended beyond the classroom as we work to promote science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) with local elementary schools; our current project develops an ocean ecosystem exploration game that teaches oceanography and ecological sustainability.},
4505         keywords = {curriculum, development, games-based, k12, learning, motivation, programming, stem, sustainability},
4506         isbn = {0302-9743},
4507         url = {<Go to ISI>://000269934000036},
4508         author = {Preston, J. and Morrison, B.}
4509 }
4510 @article {4299,
4511         title = {Entertainment Game to Support Interaction between Teachers and Students},
4512         journal = {Entertainment Computing - ICEC 2009},
4513         volume = {5709},
4514         year = {2009},
4515         note = {Bly60Times Cited:0Cited References Count:11Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
4516         pages = {228-233341},
4517         abstract = {A narrative game is described here which main goal is to support childrens{\textquoteright} free expression and socialization considering their cultural background. This game can be used at school, in which students can develop a story together under the teacher{\textquoteright}s supervision. The idea is to support teachers to create characters and scenarios according to the students{\textquoteright} cultural context, expressed in their common sense knowledge, and consequently enabling them to get engaged on developing the story collaboratively. Also, teacher has the common sense{\textquoteright}s support to conduct the story according to the facts are being narrated, to stimuli the students{\textquoteright} communion. This cultural sensitive RPG-like environment intends to promote a closer contact between teacher and students and among students giving them a more contextualized computer tool to be stimulated to freely express their thoughts, desires and to support them to cooperative work with teachers what is desirable for their intellectual and cognitive development.},
4518         keywords = {collaboration, common sense, Context, education, Educational game, narrative game, storyteller},
4519         isbn = {0302-9743},
4520         url = {<Go to ISI>://000271451400025},
4521         author = {Silva, M. A. R. and Anacleto, J. C.}
4522 }
4523 @article {4205,
4524         title = {eNVyMyCar: A Multiplayer Car Racing Game for Teaching Computer Graphics},
4525         journal = {Computer Graphics Forum},
4526         volume = {28},
4527         number = {8},
4528         year = {2009},
4529         note = {530DOTimes Cited:0Cited References Count:7},
4530         pages = {2025-2032},
4531         abstract = {The development of a computer game is widely used as a way of conveying concepts regarding Computer Science. There are several reasons for this: it stimulates creativity, it provides an immediate sense of achievement (when the code works), it typically covers all the aspects of an introductory course, and it is easy to find ideas just by looking around and finding stimulation from one{\textquoteright}s environment and from fellow students. In this paper we present eNVyMyCar, a framework for the collaborative/competitive development of a computer game, and report the experience of its use in two Computer Graphics courses held in 2007. We developed a multiplayer car racing game where the student{\textquoteright}s task is just to implement the rendering of the scene, while all the other aspects, communication and synchronization are implemented in the framework and are transparent to the developer. The innovative feature of our framework is that all on-line users can see the views produced by their fellow students. This motivates students to improve their work by comparing it with other students and picking up ideas from them. It also gives students an opportunity to show off to their classmates.},
4532         keywords = {teaching in context learning computer graphics},
4533         isbn = {0167-7055},
4534         url = {<Go to ISI>://000272569400001},
4535         author = {Ganovelli, F. and Corsini, M.}
4536 }
4537 @article {4316,
4538         title = {ePet: A Physical Game Based on Wireless Sensor Networks},
4539         journal = {International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks},
4540         volume = {5},
4541         number = {1},
4542         year = {2009},
4543         note = {431ZRTimes Cited:0Cited References Count:0},
4544         pages = {68-68},
4545         abstract = {This paper describes ePet, a novel multi-player physical game based on the WSN (Wireless Sensor Network). ePet shifts the traditional virtual pet games to the real world, featuring with the popular RPG (Role-Playing Game) elements. The game, capitalizing on the wireless communication, mobile computing, and sensing ability, can be played both indoors and outdoors, and thus gives players a new exciting gaming experience that profits by the blend of real and virtual game elements. The physical game acquires physical interactions among players, which can bring exciting and novel features to the game and more importantly, avoids some problems caused by traditional computer games such as health problems. The WSN is a promising technology for developing physical games. Although there is already some research and applications of WSN based physical games, the major advantages of the WSN (e.g. wireless communication, mobile computing, and sensing ability) are not fully cultivated in these gaming applications. ePet, which takes good advantages of both the WSN and traditional computer games, simulates a pet both indoors and outdoors. The pet has two life modes: Peaceful Life Mode (PLM) and Aggressive Life Mode (ALM). In the PLM, ePet simulates the physiological activities of a real pet such as hunger and easily getting flu when it is cold in the real world. Moreover, the pet can date with other pets to increase its physiological values. In the ALM, the pet is a character of an RPG controlled by the player and the pet can have a fight with other pets, from which the pet gains experience for level up. This ALM is similar to the computer RPG games but relatively novel in WSN based games. All of the above features are enabled by the WSN technology. For the two life modes, a friend-making protocol and an RPG battle protocol are designed respectively. The architecture design and implementation of ePet are described in detailed. Unlike traditional WSN based games, ePet does not need a centralized base station to organize the network. To implement a self-adaptive wireless sensor network in which each node has a similar functionality, and solve the network conflict problems in the WSN communications, a multi-hop communication routing protocol is designed for ePet. Furthermore, a PC application was developed as the game interface, from which players can check out the ePet{\textquoteright}s properties and interact with ePet. It makes ePet more attractive than traditional WSN based games without losing WSN{\textquoteright}s advantages.},
4546         isbn = {1550-1329},
4547         url = {<Go to ISI>://000265103800064},
4548         author = {Tan, W. H. and Li, W. J. and Zheng, Y. Z. and Zhou, X. C.}
4549 }
4550 @article {4196,
4551         title = {Evaluating Adaptive Feedback in an Educational Computer Game},
4552         journal = {Intelligent Virtual Agents, Proceedings},
4553         volume = {5773},
4554         year = {2009},
4555         note = {Blm67Times Cited:0Cited References Count:23Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence},
4556         pages = {146-158571},
4557         abstract = {In this paper, we present a study to evaluate the impact of adaptive feedback on the effectiveness of a pedagogical agent for an educational computer game. We compare a version of the game with no agent, and two versions with agents that differ only in the accuracy of the student model used to guide the agent{\textquoteright}s interventions. We found no difference in student learning across the three conditions, and we report an analysis to understand the reasons of these results.},
4558         keywords = {educational games, evaluation, student modeling},
4559         isbn = {0302-9743},
4560         url = {<Go to ISI>://000270543400017},
4561         author = {Conati, C. and Manske, M.}
4562 }
4563 @article {4227,
4564         title = {Evaluation of an Immersive Learning Programme to Support Triage Training In-game Feedback and its effect on Learning Transfer},
4565         journal = {Proceedings of the Ieee Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications},
4566         year = {2009},
4567         note = {Blz15Times Cited:0Cited References Count:19},
4568         pages = {117-122234},
4569         abstract = {This paper describes the evaluation of a computer game to support triage training. Triage is a process for decision-making that prioritises mass casualties in terms of treatment. The main aim of the research was to test the hypothesis that participants using the game for practice would perform better in terms of the accuracy in applying the triage protocol than a group that practised triage with a table-top exercise. The method of giving in-game formative feedback to the learner was modified within the trial programme and that provided the opportunity to investigate whether changing the complexity and timing of feedback affected learning transfer through performance measured in a realistic assessment activity. The results showed that the participants who practised using the game were significantly more accurate for certain measures of performance in applying the triage protocol. The participants that received a modified in-game feedback that reduced complexity and the delay in giving feedback were also significantly more accurate for certain measures of performance in triaging the casualties. These findings will require further experimentation to determine which attributes of the in-game feedback have the greatest impact on the learning of the triage protocol for the given learner group.},
4570         keywords = {evaluation, feedback, learning transfer, Media, serious games},
4571         url = {<Go to ISI>://000271485600015},
4572         author = {Jarvis, S. and de Freitas, S.}
4573 }
4574 @article {4297,
4575         title = {Evolving Strategies for Non-player Characters in Unsteady Environments},
4576         journal = {Applications of Evolutionary Computing, Proceedings},
4577         volume = {5484},
4578         year = {2009},
4579         note = {Bjh22Times Cited:0Cited References Count:10Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
4580         pages = {313-322831},
4581         abstract = {Modern computer games place different and more diverse demands on the behavior of non-player characters in comparison to computers playing classical board games like chess. Especially the necessity for a long-term strategy conflicts often with game situations that are unsteady, i.e. many non-deterministic factors might change the possible actions. As a consequence, a computer player is needed who might take into account the danger or the chance of his actions. This work examines whether it is possible to train such a player by evolutionary algorithms. For the sake of controllable game situations, the board game Kalah is turned into an unsteady version and used to examine the problem.},
4582         isbn = {0302-9743},
4583         url = {<Go to ISI>://000265786800035},
4584         author = {Weicker, K. and Weicker, N.}
4585 }
4586 @article {4172,
4587         title = {Experiments with Online Reinforcement Learning in Real-Time Strategy Games},
4588         journal = {Applied Artificial Intelligence},
4589         volume = {23},
4590         number = {9},
4591         year = {2009},
4592         note = {515YTTimes Cited:0Cited References Count:13},
4593         pages = {855-871},
4594         abstract = {Real-time strategy (RTS) games provide a challenging platform to implement online reinforcement learning (RL) techniques in a real application. Computer, as one game player, monitors opponents{\textquoteright} (human or other computers) strategies and then updates its own policy using RL methods. In this article, we first examine the suitability of applying the online RL in various computer games. Reinforcement learning application depends on both RL complexity and the game features. We then propose a multi-layer framework for implementing online RL in an RTS game. The framework significantly reduces RL computational complexity by decomposing the state space in a hierarchical manner. We implement an RTS gameTank Generaland perform a thorough test on the proposed framework. We consider three typical profiles of RTS game players and compare two basic RL techniques applied in the game. The results show the effectiveness of our proposed framework and shed light on relevant issues in using online RL in RTS games.},
4595         isbn = {0883-9514},
4596         url = {<Go to ISI>://000271509500004},
4597         author = {Andersen, K. T. and Zeng, Y. F. and Christensen, D. D. and Tran, D.}
4598 }
4599 @article {4218,
4600         title = {Exploring the Elements and Design Criteria of Massively-Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Game (MMORPG) Interfaces},
4601         journal = {Human-Computer Interaction, Pt Iv},
4602         volume = {5613},
4603         year = {2009},
4604         note = {Bkr83Times Cited:0Cited References Count:12Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
4605         pages = {325-334781},
4606         abstract = {A great many people play online games and sales of online games are considerable, but research has further shown that a major reason behind the failure of games in the market is poor user interface design or usability, highlighting even more the importance of these issues in games design. This research uses surveys and focus groups to explore the factors influencing the usability and interface design of online games. First the definition and different types of game are discussed, and then the composition and features of online game interfaces analyzed. Second, a review is made of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) research literature relating to design criteria for game interfaces. Finally, in discussion with experts, this study isolates the design criteria that should be emphasized when designing each key element of an online game interface.},
4607         keywords = {elements of game interfaces, Interface design, massively-multiplayer online role-playing games (mmorpg)},
4608         isbn = {0302-9743},
4609         url = {<Go to ISI>://000269034700036},
4610         author = {Hsu, C. C. and Chen, E. C. H.}
4611 }
4612 @article {4222,
4613         title = {From Fingers to Embodiment: A Study on the Relations of the Usability, Dependability of the Embodied Interactive Video Games and the Elders{\textquoteright} Flow Experience},
4614         journal = {Learning by Playing},
4615         volume = {5670},
4616         year = {2009},
4617         note = {Blc82Times Cited:0Cited References Count:36Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
4618         pages = {464-472579},
4619         abstract = {The elders feel better and healthier when participating in activities and recognizing their ability to move and creating something. Implementing technology can benefit their lives and improve social interaction. This study develops the embodied interactive video games (EIVG) relying on embodied interactions, which are free from the fine motor skills like pointing, grasping etc. Four research objectives include (1) To evaluate the usability of the EIVG; (2) To evaluate the dependability of the EIVG; (3) To understand the flow experiences of the elders during game play; (4) To explore the relations between the usability, dependability, and the elders{\textquoteright} flow experiences. The results were discussed in three aspects. In terms of the usability and dependability of the game system, the elders were satisfied with the EIVG games due to the familiarity of the content and the ease of interaction. In terms of the flow experiences, the challenge of the games played an important role to the elders with high SES. In terms of the relations between usability, dependability, and flow experience, the usability and dependability were identified as critical factors for the elders to use computer technology due to the cognitive ageing.},
4620         keywords = {Age, Cognition, Computer, dependability, embodied interactive video game, flow experience, usability},
4621         isbn = {0302-9743},
4622         url = {<Go to ISI>://000269934000055},
4623         author = {Hwang, M. Y. and Hong,J C and Jong, J. T. and Lee, C. K. and Chang, H. Y.}
4624 }
4625 @article {4170,
4626         title = {GaDeVi Game Development Integrating Tracking and Visualization Devices into Virtools},
4627         journal = {GRAPP 2009: Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Computer Graphics Theory and Applications},
4628         year = {2009},
4629         note = {Bjt60Times Cited:0Cited References Count:10},
4630         pages = {313-321414},
4631         abstract = {Computer and console games are increasingly using non-computer conventional input/output devices. This work{\textquoteright}s main goal was to create an interactive 3D application with Virtools, a development tool that appeals to the player dexterity and astuteness through the use of several immersive, non-computer conventional devices like magnetic trackers, data gloves and VR glasses. The present paper describes the integration of interaction and visualization devices into Virtools as well as the development of two games using the VR environment. To finalize the assessment of the performance measurements and user tests is given.},
4632         keywords = {computer game, Game engine, immersion, immersive devices, Interactivity, virtual reality},
4633         url = {<Go to ISI>://000267137900044},
4634         author = {Aguiar, R. and Pereira, J. M. and Braz, J.}
4635 }
4636 @article {4309,
4637         title = {Gamers against All Odds},
4638         journal = {Learning by Playing},
4639         volume = {5670},
4640         year = {2009},
4641         note = {Blc82Times Cited:0Cited References Count:20Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
4642         pages = {1-12579},
4643         abstract = {The goal of the project presented in this paper is to enable motor rehabilitation to stroke patients in their home environment and to utilise game enjoyment to achieve frequent training. Stroke patients have an average age above 70 years, which implies that they typically do not belong to a gaming generation. In addition, these patients suffer from motor, and many times cognitive impairments, which make traditional games extremely difficult to use. Nearly all work in this area has been conducted in a clinic environment where it is possible to overcome some of these difficulties by letting professionals assist and guide patients.In this paper, we present the challenges faced, the system itself and the result from a study where five patients were equipped with a game console in their homes for five weeks. The focus of this paper is on analysing the gaming behaviour of patients, which includes the amount of time they spent, the type of games they selected and their comments on the gaming experience. The conclusion from this analysis is that their behaviour resembles that of gamers. They spent significant voluntary time, and it has been possible for patients, with no prior experience of computer games, to enjoy gaming in their homes where they had no professional assistance.},
4644         keywords = {games as motivation, games for elderly, serious games, virtual stroke rehabilitation},
4645         isbn = {0302-9743},
4646         url = {<Go to ISI>://000269934000001},
4647         author = {Taylor, A. S. A. and Backlund, P. and Engstrom, H. and Johannesson, M. and Lebram, M.}
4648 }
4649 @article {4294,
4650         title = {Gamers{\textquoteright} Implicit Knowledge on the Psychological Influence of Game-Playing},
4651         journal = {Online Communities and Social Computing, Proceedings},
4652         volume = {5621},
4653         year = {2009},
4654         note = {Bku94Times Cited:0Cited References Count:13Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
4655         pages = {632-640731},
4656         abstract = {The paper presents the players{\textquoteright} implicit views on psychological aspects of a supposable influence of computer/online/video-games on human beings. And online survey with 74 Likert-type questions were given to adults and older adolescents (16+). The collected replies (N=437) were grouped into an eight-factor model. The key implicit representations include the participants{\textquoteright} belief that gaming: (1) leads to positive self-development, (2) affects the players{\textquoteright} somatics, i.e. causes tiredness and stresses while gaming and in an after-game period, (3) brings pleasing feelings while gaming, (4) stimulates cognitive processes, and (5) supports players{\textquoteright} relaxation and gives pleasure.},
4657         keywords = {adult players, Computer games, implicit knowledge, online study, Psychology},
4658         isbn = {0302-9743},
4659         url = {<Go to ISI>://000269304600068},
4660         author = {Voiskounsky, A. E. and Mitina, O. V. and Avetisova, A. A.}
4661 }
4662 @article {4228,
4663         title = {Hanse 1380-A Learning Game for the German Maritime Museum},
4664         journal = {Learning in the Synergy of Multiple Disciplines, Proceedings},
4665         volume = {5794},
4666         year = {2009},
4667         note = {Bmj45Times Cited:0Cited References Count:7Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
4668         pages = {794-799813},
4669         abstract = {In an one, year lasting project at the University of Applied Sciences in Bremerhaven a digital learning game for the German Maritime Museum in Bremerhaven was developed. It is targeted to school pupils ill the age between 10 and 14 and should explain the importance of the cog for trading activities between Hause cities in the 14th century. More detailed learning objectives were defined through a Survey with history teachers from Bremen. The historical research was done in cooperation with the museum. Another key-interest was the design and building of all easy-to-use and attractive computer terminal including a special control-interface for the game. The resulting game is evaluated in an user-test with 29 school pupil. It shows that the game makes fun and is easy to understand. Approx. 50\% of the pupils achieved all learning objectives.},
4670         isbn = {0302-9743},
4671         url = {<Go to ISI>://000272585900086},
4672         author = {Jenner, W. and de Araujo, L. M.}
4673 }
4674 @article {4291,
4675         title = {Head Tracking in First-Person Games: Interaction Using a Web-Camera},
4676         journal = {Human-Computer Interaction - Interact 2009, Pt I},
4677         volume = {5726},
4678         year = {2009},
4679         note = {Part IBlr80Times Cited:0Cited References Count:13Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
4680         pages = {342-355928},
4681         abstract = {Recent advances in face-tracking technology have made it possible to recognize head movements using a commodity web-camera. This development has created exciting possibilities for enhancing player enjoyment during computer game play. In order to ascertain the real-world potential for head gestural input to First Person Shooter games, we have developed seven diverse interaction techniques and integrated these with a modern games engine. Evaluation of the techniques was carried out with four focus groups made up of expert games developers and experienced end-users. One of the techniques was further refined and subjected to a follow-up comparison test with promising results. A set of guidelines for the future development of head interaction techniques for computer games has been derived from the studies. All of the techniques have been built upon freely available software and open-sourced to encourage further research in this area.},
4682         keywords = {computer game, face tracking, first person shooter, Game engine, head tracking, input and interaction technology},
4683         isbn = {0302-9743},
4684         url = {<Go to ISI>://000270899000038},
4685         author = {Sko, T. and Gardner, H. J.}
4686 }
4687 @article {4290,
4688         title = {iiBOARD Development of a Low-Cost Interactive Whiteboard using the Wiimote Controller},
4689         journal = {Grapp 2009: Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Computer Graphics Theory and Applications},
4690         year = {2009},
4691         note = {Bjt60Times Cited:0Cited References Count:18},
4692         pages = {337-344414},
4693         abstract = {Interactive whiteboards are gaining importance in our society, both at a business level and, especially, at an educational level. However, the products offered by the major manufacturers have a major barrier to their acquisition: very high prices. There is an urgent need to use new technologies in order to provide solutions that present the same performance levels than typical interactive whiteboards, but with a significantly reduced cost. Throughout this paper the steps taken for the development of an innovative low-cost interactive whiteboard are described. The proposed system is based on the Wii Remote command of the Nintendo Wii video-game console. This command, although very inexpensive has an infrared camera, and supports Bluetooth communication. The system control is based on a wireless device, based on infrared emitters, which supports most of the mouse events. A complete whiteboard application was also developed using Borland Delphi for Windows. This application may be used with either one or two Wiimotes and has a very simple and efficient calibration method. The application also includes viewing capabilities of some of the Wiimote characteristics, as well as a flexible Notebook to increase its range of possible uses. The results obtained through a survey conducted to a small set of whiteboard users were very positive indicators about the acceptance of the inexpensive solution proposed.},
4694         keywords = {human-computer interface, infrared camera, interactive whiteboard, wii console, wiimote},
4695         url = {<Go to ISI>://000267137900047},
4696         author = {Silva, M. and Reis, L. P. and Sousa, A. and Faria, B. M. and Costa, A. P.}
4697 }
4698 @article {4243,
4699         title = {Image Smoothing Based on Game of Life},
4700         journal = {Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Advanced Computer Theory and Engineering (Icacte 2009), Vols 1 and 2},
4701         year = {2009},
4702         note = {Blz36Times Cited:0Cited References Count:10},
4703         pages = {531-5361995},
4704         abstract = {We do to curb noise and improve image quality, you must first pre-processing of images, that is, smooth images. The purpose of image smoothing is to improve the image of the visual effects and improve image clarity in order to become more conducive to the computer image processing and analysis of various characteristics. We use a classic cellular automata "Game of Life," conducted a study about image smoothing based on game of life to image that a cell for each pixel, using a radius of I neighbors of Moore type. We transform the image of the different rules, the use of two-dimensional cellular automaton model area of the smoothed image. We experimentally demonstrate that the smoothing method with the median filter to the normalized mean square error and peak signal to noise ratio comparison method revealed that the more obvious advantages.},
4705         keywords = {cellular automata, game of life, image smoothing},
4706         url = {<Go to ISI>://000271545700064},
4707         author = {Li,K and Tian, S. L. and Geng, L. J. and Zhang, X.}
4708 }
4709 @article {4257,
4710         title = {Improving the Believability of Non-Player Characters in Simulations},
4711         journal = {Artificial General Intelligence Proceedings},
4712         volume = {8},
4713         year = {2009},
4714         note = {Bjc45Times Cited:0Cited References Count:8Advances in Intelligent Systems Research},
4715         pages = {210-211224},
4716         abstract = {In recent years the video game industry has experienced rapid expansion developing virtual environments that accurately mimic a real-world setting. However, the industry almost entirely relies on finite state machines for deploying computer-controlled characters within these environments. This has resulted in simulated inhabitants that lack the same degree of believability as their surroundings. As part of this research a simulation was developed using Java in which an agent was placed. In a survey students were asked to rank the believability of different artificial intelligence techniques employed by the simulation. The genetic algorithm developed for this simulation provided for an agent whose decisions were more believable than the decisions generated by a finite state machine or random selection process.},
4717         isbn = {1951-6851},
4718         url = {<Go to ISI>://000264744600040},
4719         author = {Miles, J. D. and Tashakkori, R.}
4720 }
4721 @article {4216,
4722         title = {Incremental Learning Algorithm for Online Action Game System},
4723         journal = {Entertainment Computing - ICEC 2009},
4724         volume = {5709},
4725         year = {2009},
4726         note = {Bly60Times Cited:0Cited References Count:0Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
4727         pages = {319-322341},
4728         abstract = {One of the limitations of computer opponents in action games is that the character AI is constructed in advance, and players may become bored quickly. We have built an online action game system in which a non-player character (NPC) can incrementally learn sequences of action and combinations. NPCs can adopt different fighting strategies for fighting with different players.},
4729         keywords = {action game, imitation learning, non-player character},
4730         isbn = {0302-9743},
4731         url = {<Go to ISI>://000271451400051},
4732         author = {Hoshino, J. and Mori,H}
4733 }
4734 @article {4188,
4735         title = {An Intelligent Tutoring System of Chinese Chess},
4736         journal = {Next-Generation Applied Intelligence, Proceedings},
4737         volume = {5579},
4738         year = {2009},
4739         note = {Bld63Times Cited:0Cited References Count:9Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence},
4740         pages = {350-359839},
4741         abstract = {Computer Chinese chess is an application of artificial intelligence. The playing strength of many Chinese chess programs is at the level of human masters or grandmasters. However, it is not easy for a human player to learn Chinese chess skills from these strong programs because their outputs are no more than moves and score values. It is necessary for a student to understand why he or she loses the game and to receive feedback after practice.In this paper, we propose an intelligent tutoring system for learning Chinese chess. The system interacts with students by playing games with them and gives comments and suggestions to them during a game without any human intervention. After some iterations of practice, our system reports their learning achievements by analyzing their game records.},
4742         keywords = {computer chinese chess, intelligent tutoring system},
4743         isbn = {0302-9743},
4744         url = {<Go to ISI>://000269972300036},
4745         author = {Chen, B. N. and Chen, J. Y. and Chen, J. C. and Hsu, T. S. and Liu, P. F. and Hsu, S. C.}
4746 }
4747 @article {4281,
4748         title = {Intercultural Competence Game That Fosters Metacognitive Agility and Reflection},
4749         journal = {Online Communities and Social Computing, Proceedings},
4750         volume = {5621},
4751         year = {2009},
4752         note = {Bku94Times Cited:0Cited References Count:10Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
4753         pages = {603-612731},
4754         abstract = {In this paper we describe the development of a multi-player computer game created to train the intercultural competence and metacognitive agility (self-awareness and self-regulated learning) of United States Army Special Forces team leaders. We describe a unique design that features a novel role for real-time, in-game peer performance assessment and feedback to encourage user reflection and self-explanation. We also discuss how the multiplayer game is successfully used in Special Forces intercultural communication education and offer user feedback results from a study conducted with 51 Special Forces officers.},
4755         keywords = {in-game performance assessment, intercultural competence, metacognitive agility, peer learning, Reflection, serious game},
4756         isbn = {0302-9743},
4757         url = {<Go to ISI>://000269304600065},
4758         author = {Raybourn, E. M.}
4759 }
4760 @article {4351,
4761         title = {Investigating the Mediating Role of Perceived Playfulness in the Acceptance of Hedonic Information Systems},
4762         journal = {Proceedings of the 13th Wseas International Conference on Systems},
4763         year = {2009},
4764         note = {Bmf43Times Cited:0Cited References Count:31Mathematics and Computers in Science and Engineering},
4765         pages = {322-327622},
4766         abstract = {With the proliferation of hedonic information systems, understanding users{\textquoteright} acceptance of hedonic information systems has become a new topic for practitioners and academics. While perceived playfulness or perceived enjoyment has been found to have a significant influence on the behavioral intention to use hedonic information systems, little research has been conducted to Investigate empirically the antecedents of perceived playfulness and the mediating role that perceived playfulness has in user acceptance of hedonic information systems. Thus, the main purpose of this study is to explore the mediating role of perceived playfulness in the psychological process of user acceptance of hedonic online game systems. Based on previous literature, two individual difference variables (i.e., computer self-efficacy and computer anxiety) and three system characteristics variables (i.e., challenge, feedback, and speed) were proposed as potential antecedents of perceived playfulness in the context of massive multiplayer online games. The results indicate that perceived playfulness plays a partial mediating role in the relationship of system characteristics and individual differences to behavioral intention. Both challenge and computer self-efficacy were found to have a significant influence on behavioral intention via perceived playfulness, with computer self-efficacy also having a direct influence on behavioral intention. Computer anxiety, however, was only found to have a direct influence on behavioral intention. Also, neither feedback nor speed was found to have a significant effect on perceived playfulness. The results of this study provide several important implications for research and practices of hedonic information systems/online game design and promotion.},
4767         keywords = {hedonic information systems, individual differences, Models, motivation, Online game, perceived playfulness, system characteristics, TAM, Technology, usage, user acceptance},
4768         url = {<Go to ISI>://000272165400045},
4769         author = {Wang, Y. S. and Wang, H. Y. and Lin, H. H.}
4770 }
4771 @article {4285,
4772         title = {An Investigation of Visual Attention in FPS Computer Gameplay},
4773         journal = {Proceedings of the Ieee Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications},
4774         year = {2009},
4775         note = {Blz15Times Cited:0Cited References Count:14},
4776         pages = {68-75234},
4777         abstract = {Cognitive science provides a useful approach to studying computer gameplay, especially from the perspective of determining the cognitive skills that players learn during play. Computer games are highly visual medium and game interaction involves continuous visual cognition. A system integrating an eyetracker with a 3D computer game engine has been developed to provide real time gaze object logging, a fast and convenient way of collecting gaze object data for analysis. This system has been used to test three hypotheses concerning visual attention in close combat tactics as simulated by a first-person shooter (FPS) computer game. Firstly, the cuing effect of the player{\textquoteright}s gun graphic on visual attention was tested, but no evidence was found to support this. Data supported the second hypothesis, that a player attends to the target opponent while shooting at them, in most cases, while in a small percentage of cases this is achieved in peripheral vision. Finally, in most cases, a player targets the nearest opponent. These results provide a baseline for further investigations in which the stimulus game design may be modified to provide more detailed models of the visual cognitive processes involved in gameplay. These models document the learning outcomes of game interaction and provide a basis for improvements, such as the optimization of combat survival tactics.},
4778         keywords = {decision-making, eye-tracking, gameplay, Visual attention},
4779         url = {<Go to ISI>://000271485600009},
4780         author = {Sennersten, C. C. and Lindley, C. A.}
4781 }
4782 @article {4211,
4783         title = {It{\textquoteright}s Talk, But Not as We Know It: Using VoIP to Communicate in War Games},
4784         journal = {Proceedings of the Ieee Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications},
4785         year = {2009},
4786         note = {Blz15Times Cited:0Cited References Count:12},
4787         pages = {133-140234},
4788         abstract = {Recently, computer games producers have integrated Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) into distributed multiplayer games, allowing gamers playing at a distance to talk to each other. What effect does this have on gameplay? A longitudinal study of a multiplayer team game is presented. Our analysis looks at how the players (all adults) used VoIP to resource their interaction with each other in the virtual game world. We found that VoIP represents talk in ways that differ both to face-to-face communication and to text-mediated communications. VoIP audio representations interact with, and mediate, the graphical materials of the game world in distinctive and unusual ways which can generate problems to be overcome for players. But they also provide clear benefits for learning and coordination, which are found neither in face-to-face or text communication. We conclude by considering the implications of these problems and benefits for design.},
4789         keywords = {computer-mediated communication, Human-computer interaction, Multiplayer games, user study, Virtual Environments, voip},
4790         url = {<Go to ISI>://000271485600017},
4791         author = {Halloran, J.}
4792 }
4793 @article {4307,
4794         title = {Learning from Video Game: A Study of Video Game Play on Problem-Solving},
4795         journal = {Advanced Data Mining and Applications, Proceedings},
4796         volume = {5678},
4797         year = {2009},
4798         note = {Bln72Times Cited:0Cited References Count:13Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
4799         pages = {772-779807},
4800         abstract = {This research was intended to explore the influence of video game experience on problem representation, efficiency of strategies, meta cognition, and quality of mental models during, solving the problems that encounter in a new game. This experiment asked all the participants to keep thinking aloud during the 20-minite process of playing, and their verbal report was analyzed to study the problem solving. The results indicate a significant influence of computer games on game players{\textquoteright} performance in an unfamiliar game. The most frequently referred comment is direct strategy, next are game rules and cues, monitoring and game progress. Expert players performed better than novice players on problem representation, efficiency of strategies, and meta cognition.},
4801         keywords = {boys, expert players, Girls, novice players, problem solving, Skills, video game play},
4802         isbn = {0302-9743},
4803         url = {<Go to ISI>://000270597500078},
4804         author = {Zhang, X. M. and Shen, Z. J. and Luo, X. and Su, C. H. and Wang, J. Q.}
4805 }
4806 @article {4303,
4807         title = {Little Big Difference: Gender Aspects and Gender-Based Adaptation in Educational Games},
4808         journal = {Learning by Playing},
4809         volume = {5670},
4810         year = {2009},
4811         note = {Blc82Times Cited:0Cited References Count:44Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
4812         pages = {150-161579},
4813         abstract = {Computer games are tremendously successful and this is why the potential of using this medium for educational purposes is increasingly recognized and researched. However, as new learning technologies need to be appropriate for all students and ensure equal learning opportunities, it is important to take into account evidences on gender differences in the context of computer games. This paper reviews relevant research results on gender aspects. Aiming for the realization of gender-based adaptation in digital educational games, a model incorporating research evidences on gender aspects is elaborated and implications for adaptation are derived. Adaptation principles and game design are illustrated by means of the 80Days project.},
4814         keywords = {adaptation, Educational game, game design, game-based learning, gender difference, Performance, PLAY, Sensation seeking, Sex, Video},
4815         isbn = {0302-9743},
4816         url = {<Go to ISI>://000269934000020},
4817         author = {Steiner, C. M. and Kickmeier-Rust, M. D. and Albert, D.}
4818 }
4819 @article {4177,
4820         title = {Logistic Game: learning by doing and knowledge-sharing},
4821         journal = {Production Planning \& Control},
4822         volume = {20},
4823         number = {8},
4824         year = {2009},
4825         note = {524IYTimes Cited:0Cited References Count:31},
4826         pages = {724-736},
4827         abstract = {The aim of this article is to define a new simulation game in operation management called Logistic Game. The main objectives are to introduce a new simulation game approach in solving the different correlated subsystems based on {\textquoteright}visual interactive learning{\textquoteright} and to verify its positive effects on the learning process with respect to the usual simulation games. The game is based on an inside plant virtual supply chain simulation and copes with the educational challenges of teaching Industrial Logistics in a new, effective way. By applying a visual interactive simulation package, the game creates a virtual dynamic scenario directly visible by participants, with an improvement of experimentation and conceptualisation phases, and offers several logistic decisions and their strategic links from a holistic point of view. The challenge goes beyond a pure theoretical setting and students learn strategies and gain experience directly by operating in a virtual supply chain and sharing knowledge. The Logistic Game has been used to train more then 300 students since December 2006 in three different Italian workshops and has been designed to encourage the employment selection process by the companies involved.},
4828         keywords = {business, chains, computer game, education, learning effect, logistic, management simulation, operation management, operations management, simulation game, visual interactive simulation},
4829         isbn = {0953-7287},
4830         url = {<Go to ISI>://000272138200006},
4831         author = {Battini, D. and Faccio, M. and Persona, A. and Sgarbossa, F.}
4832 }
4833 @article {4239,
4834         title = {Making the Case for Mobile Game Development},
4835         journal = {Iticse 2009: Proceeding of the 2009 Acm Sigse Annual Conference on Innovation and Technology in Computer Science Education},
4836         year = {2009},
4837         note = {Bkt74Times Cited:0Cited References Count:0},
4838         pages = {401-401406},
4839         abstract = {The term "mobile culture" reflects a phenomenal role that mobile devices play in our everyday lives. Accordingly, in the eyes of many current students, computing technology is associated with their mobile phones and gadgets instead of larger desktops that are commonly used in the academic environment. Most of them carry mobile phones with them at all times, and being able to develop and immediately run an application on their phone may offer an experience that is as practical and as close to the real world as it gets. By using mobile computing and, in particular, mobile game development, it may be possible to make course material more relevant to students; this also may show a stronger connection to real-world applications and technology that surround our students.To better understand the role of mobile culture and mobile phones in the life of contemporary students, we surveyed a group of 251 undergraduates, which included 117 females and 134 mates, between 18 and 25 years of age. 100\% of respondents said that they have a mobile phone. 49\% of males and 47\% of females said that they regularly play mobile games; on average they did that on 3.3 days each week. Students were asked to name three different places where they are most likely to play a mobile game. Answers included being at home (41\%) with nothing else to do, in class (39\%) during a lecture or another boring activity, in some form of transport (16\%), at the airport or on a plane, at work (15\%) and apparently not working, while waiting (14\%) for an appointment (e.g. at a doctor{\textquoteright}s office), at school (9\%) between classes, and others. We also asked to name three games that students play most frequently on their mobile phones. Out of 72 games that were mentioned, Tertis, Pacman and Solitaire were the three most popular, while over 40 other games were named only once. There was an approximately equal ratio between males and females who play the top three games. All of the top ten mobile games played by our respondents belong to the class of casual games. Such games are typically played in short bursts of time; their rules are simple, and unlike many desktop or console games, they do not require any major time commitment or any special skills. Most notably, many studies indicate that the demographics of mobile gamers are split equally between the two sexes.Compared to traditional computer games, introduction of mobile game development into Computer Science curricula received relatively little attention. There are very few reports about leveraging the appeal and relative simplicity of mobile game development to increase student interest in pursuing a degree in computing. Compared to desktop or console game development, mobile games are significantly less complex due to their simplified gameplay, smaller scale, simpler graphics, and other factors. In many ways, it may be easier to adopt mobile game development in the Computer Science curriculum than traditional game development while offering additional motivational benefits for students.Traditional game development has become a popular motivational tool; however, it is most effective for students who have already advanced down the course pipeline. In contrast, a playable mobile game could be successfully developed even in an introductory Computer Science course and thus provide a satisfying result to students eager to see tangible outcomes of their projects. Mobile computing can give students a sense of instant gratification - they can quickly compile a working graphical application and play the resulting game on their own mobile device and proudly show it off to their friends.Mobile game development is well positioned to address the challenges of its adoption to the curriculum. Because of a relative simplicity and a smaller scale, a playable mobile game can be developed within reasonable time by many CS students even with limited programming skills. Challenges of developing user interfaces for mobile devices can be a good topic for an in-depth discussion in a human-computer interactions course; overcoming connectivity and security issues could provide a good study framework in a computer networks course; while mobile-specific development issues are a good topic for a software engineering course. Mobile games can help broaden the horizons and motivate many students in introductory computing courses by exposing them to a variety of advanced topics early in the curriculum.As our survey shows, whether we like it or not, students do play games on their mobile phones and mobile gaming is here to stay. It is up to us, however, to use this situation for the benefit of Computer Science education and turn mobile gaming from a disruptive technology into a motivational tool.},
4840         keywords = {curriculum, mobile culture, mobile games, motivation},
4841         url = {<Go to ISI>://000269212200136},
4842         author = {Kurkovsky, S.}
4843 }
4844 @article {4343,
4845         title = {Matchmaker: Interpersonal Touch in Gaming},
4846         journal = {Learning by Playing},
4847         volume = {5670},
4848         year = {2009},
4849         note = {Blc82Times Cited:0Cited References Count:10Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
4850         pages = {13-24579},
4851         abstract = {Acts of interpersonal touch - a touch shared between two people are used by couples to communicate in a simple and emotionally intimate way. In this paper, we argue that the intimacy afforded by acts of interpersonal touch can be used in computer entertainment to support enjoyable and engaging activities for couples. To support this notion, we have developed Matchmaker; a two-player, cooperative tabletop video game based on themes of love and romance. Matchmaker{\textquoteright}s gameplay is directly controlled by a set of collaborative tabletop interaction techniques, as well as by acts of interpersonal touch between its players. In this paper we present a detailed description of Matchmaker{\textquoteright}s design and the results of an exploratory user suggesting that Matchmaker is enjoyable to play and that its use of interpersonal touch contributes to players{\textquoteright} enjoyment.},
4852         keywords = {Games, gaming, matchmaker, tabletop, touch},
4853         isbn = {0302-9743},
4854         url = {<Go to ISI>://000269934000002},
4855         author = {Watts, C. and Sharlin, E. and Woytiuk, P.}
4856 }
4857 @article {4280,
4858         title = {Measuring Player Immersion in the Computer Game Narrative},
4859         journal = {International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction},
4860         volume = {25},
4861         number = {2},
4862         year = {2009},
4863         note = {414NVTimes Cited:0Cited References Count:72},
4864         pages = {107-133},
4865         abstract = {In order to measure player immersion in the computer game narrative, this study explores and analyzes factors of the computer game narrative that influence players who are immersed in the game story world. Originally a questionnaire consisting of six dimensions-Curiosity, Concentration, Challenge, Control, Comprehension, and Empathy-was proposed. To evaluate the questionnaire, two surveys were conducted on the Internet, and data were collected from 734 respondents. After exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis, the dimensions were modified to Curiosity, Concentration, Challenge and Skills, Control, Comprehension, Empathy, and Familiarity.},
4866         keywords = {design, environments, flow experience},
4867         isbn = {1044-7318},
4868         url = {<Go to ISI>://000263872300001},
4869         author = {Qin, H. and Rau, P. L. P. and Salvendy, G.}
4870 }
4871 @article {4301,
4872         title = {Measuring the Effect of Gaming Experience on Virtual Environment Navigation Tasks},
4873         journal = {3DUI : IEEE Symposium on 3D User Interfaces 2009, Proceedings},
4874         year = {2009},
4875         note = {Bjg97Times Cited:0Cited References Count:30},
4876         pages = {3-10159},
4877         abstract = {Virtual environments are synthetic 3D worlds typically viewed from a first-person point of view with many potential applications within areas such as visualisation, entertainment and training simulators. To effectively develop and utilise virtual environments, user-centric evaluations are commonly performed. Anecdotal evidence suggests that factors such as prior experience with computer games may affect the results of such evaluations.This paper examines the effects of previous computer gaming experience, user perceived gaming ability and actual gaming performance on navigation tasks in a virtual environment. Two computer games and a virtual environment were developed to elicit performance metrics for use within a user study. Results indicated that perceived gaming skill and progress in a First-Person-Shooter (FPS) game were the most consistent metrics showing significant correlations with performance in time-based navigation tasks. There was also strong evidence that these relations were significantly intensified by the inclusion of participants who play FPS games. In addition, it was found that increased gaming experience decreased spatial perception performance.},
4878         keywords = {Computer games, evaluation, Gender, navigation tasks, Performance, spatial orientation, User experience, Virtual Environments},
4879         url = {<Go to ISI>://000265740800001},
4880         author = {Smith, S. R. and Du{\textquoteright}Mont, S.}
4881 }
4882 @article {4212,
4883         title = {A Multimodal Board Game System Interface Using Finger Input for Visually Impaired Computer Users},
4884         journal = {Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction: Addressing Diversity, Pt I, Proceedings},
4885         volume = {5614},
4886         year = {2009},
4887         note = {Part IBlr59Times Cited:0Cited References Count:6Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
4888         pages = {68-77689},
4889         abstract = {In this paper, we developed a new board game system oil a PC that feels like a real board game. The main improvements of this system are the tactile guide, the finger input interface, and an output method using vibrating stimuli. These improvements allow players to grasp the layout better than previous systems. We evaluate the system using the Othello game. As the result, we see that visually impaired persons can play the Othello game.},
4890         keywords = {auditory display, speech guide, tactile guide, vibrating stimulus, visually impaired person},
4891         isbn = {0302-9743},
4892         url = {<Go to ISI>://000270884800008},
4893         author = {Hamaguchi, Y. and Nagasaka, D. and Tamesue, T. and Itoh, K. and Shimizu, M. and Sugimoto, M. and Hashimoto, M. and Kayama, M.}
4894 }
4895 @article {4238,
4896         title = {The Multi-modal Rock-Paper-Scissors Game},
4897         journal = {Intelligent Virtual Agents, Proceedings},
4898         volume = {5773},
4899         year = {2009},
4900         note = {Blm67Times Cited:0Cited References Count:2Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence},
4901         pages = {564-565571},
4902         abstract = {The multi-modal rock-paper-scissors game is an interactive computer game where the opponent of the human player is a virtual agent appearing on the computer screen. The game is similar to the game between humans, the communication takes place by the tools of image and sound processing.},
4903         keywords = {multi-modal human-computer interfaces, virtual agents},
4904         isbn = {0302-9743},
4905         url = {<Go to ISI>://000270543400092},
4906         author = {Kovacs, G. and Makara, C. and Fazekas, A.}
4907 }
4908 @article {4237,
4909         title = {Multi-modal System Architecture for Serious Gaming},
4910         journal = {Artificial Intelligence Applications and Innovations Iii},
4911         year = {2009},
4912         note = {Bjg92Times Cited:0Cited References Count:10International Federation for Information Processing},
4913         pages = {441-447540},
4914         abstract = {Human-computer interaction (HCl). especially in the games domain, targets to mimic as much as possible the natural human-to-human interaction, which is multimodal, involving speech, vision. haptic, etc. Furthermore, the domain of serious games, aiming to value-added games, makes use of additional inputs, such as biosensors, motion tracking equipment, etc. In this context, game development has become complex, expensive and burdened with a long development cycle. This creates barriers to independent game developers and inhibits the introduction of innovative games, or new game genres. In this paper the PlayMancer platform is introduced, a work in progress aiming to overcome such barriers by augmenting existing 3D game engines with innovative modes, of interaction. Playmancer integrates open source existing systems, such as a game engine and a spoken dialog management system, extended by newly implemented components, supporting innovative interaction modalities. such as emotion recognition from audio data, motion tracking, etc, and advanced configuration tools.},
4915         isbn = {1571-5736},
4916         url = {<Go to ISI>://000265736800050},
4917         author = {Kocsis, O. and Ganchev, T. and Mporas, I. and Papadopoulos, G. and Fakotakis, N.}
4918 }
4919 @article {4279,
4920         title = {Multiplayer Interface for a Computer-Augmented Learning Game},
4921         journal = {Design and Use of Serious Games},
4922         volume = {37},
4923         year = {2009},
4924         note = {Bjb44Times Cited:0Cited References Count:34Intelligent Systems, Control, and Automation: Science and Engineering},
4925         pages = {155-167206},
4926         abstract = {The purpose of this article is to introduce an advanced user interface concept for collaborative simulation game. The user interface design was performed by a constructive proceeding. The functionality and the physical elements of a traditional board game and the calculation performance of a computer simulation model were combined in the new multiplayer interface concept. The operations of players are mediated to the computer through the game board elements, not through the standard input devices of the computer. The key usability targets of the user interface have been also identified. Based on very early findings the developed multiplayer interface seems to support the usability targets in terms of naturalness and collaboration. The conventional arrangement with the digital multiplayer simulation games is the user interface, where each player has their own keyboard and visual display. This study introduces new possibility for game designers to integrate a traditional board game concept and a computer simulation model to enhance collaboration and learning in gaming.},
4927         keywords = {design, product development process, success},
4928         url = {<Go to ISI>://000264525500011},
4929         author = {Putkonen, A. and Forsten, M.}
4930 }
4931 @article {4185,
4932         title = {Networking Middleware and Online-Deployment Mechanisms for Java-Based Games},
4933         journal = {Transactions on Edutainment II},
4934         volume = {5660},
4935         year = {2009},
4936         note = {Bll20Times Cited:0Cited References Count:12Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
4937         pages = {19-32313},
4938         abstract = {Currently, web-based online gaming applications are predominately utilising Adobe Flash or Java Applets as their core technologies. These games are often casual, two-dimensional games and do not utilise the specialist graphics hardware which has proliferated across modern PCs and Consoles. Multiuser online game play in these titles is often either non-existent or extremely limited. Computer games applications which grace the current generation of consoles and personal computers are designed to utilise the increasingly impressive hardware power at their disposal. However, these are commonly distributed using a physical medium or deployed through Custom, proprietary networking mechanisms and rely upon platform-specific networking APIs to facilitate multi-user online game play. In order to unify the concepts of these disparate styles of gaming, this paper presents two interconnected systems which are implemented using Java Web Start and JXTA P2P technologies, providing a platform-independent framework capable of deploying hardware accelerated cross-platform, cross-browser online-enabled Java games, as part of the Homura Project.},
4939         keywords = {deployment, distributed systems, homura, Java, java monkey engine, java web start, jme, jxta, nethomura, P2P games, peer to peer networking, web technologies},
4940         isbn = {0302-9743},
4941         url = {<Go to ISI>://000270434800002},
4942         author = {Carter, C. and El Rhalibi, A. and Merabti, M. and Price, M.}
4943 }
4944 @article {4284,
4945         title = {New Interaction Concepts by Using the Wii Remote},
4946         journal = {Human-Computer Interaction, Pt Ii},
4947         volume = {5611},
4948         year = {2009},
4949         note = {Part IIBkr19Times Cited:0Cited References Count:23Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
4950         pages = {261-270912},
4951         abstract = {The interaction concept of the video game console Nintendo Wii has created a furor in the interface design community due to its intuitive interface: the Wii Remote. At the Institute of Ergonomics (IAD) of the Darmstadt University of Technology, several projects investigated the potential of interaction concepts with the Wii Remote, especially in nongaming contexts. In a first Study an interactive whiteboard according to [1] was recreated, modified and evaluated. In this case, the Wii Remote is not the human-machine-interface but the sensor that detects an infrared emitting (IR) pencil. A Survey with 15 Subjects was conducted in which different IR pencils were evaluated. In a second Study the potential of a gesture based human-computer interaction with the help of the Wii-Remote according to [2] Was evaluated by using a multimedia software application. In a Survey with 30 Subjects, the Wii gesture interaction was compared to a standard remote control.},
4952         keywords = {gesture based interaction, gesture recognition, hidden markov-models, interactive whiteboard, wii, wii remote},
4953         isbn = {0302-9743},
4954         url = {<Go to ISI>://000268998000029},
4955         author = {Schreiber, M. and von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, M. and Bruder, R.}
4956 }
4957 @article {4304,
4958         title = {O{\textquoteright}Game, Can You Feel My Frustration?: Improving User{\textquoteright}s Gaming Experience via StressCam},
4959         journal = {CHI2009: Proceedings of the 27th Annual CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Vols 1-4},
4960         year = {2009},
4961         note = {Bjg76Times Cited:0Cited References Count:26},
4962         pages = {2195-22042390},
4963         abstract = {One of the major challenges of video game design is to have appropriate difficulty levels for users in order to maximize the entertainment value of the game. Game players may lose interests if a game is either too easy or too difficult. This paper presents a novel methodology to improve user{\textquoteright}s experience in computer games by automatically adjusting the level of the game difficulty. The difficulty level is computed from measurements of the facial physiology of the players at a distance. The measurements are based on the assumption that the players{\textquoteright} performance during. the game-playing session alters blood flow in the supraorbital region, which is an indirect measurement of increased mental activities. This alters heat dissipation, which can be monitored in a contact-free manner through a thermal imaging-based stress monitoring and analysis system, known as StressCam.In this work, we investigated on two primary objectives: (1) the feasibility of utilizing the facial physiology in automatically adjusting the difficulty level of the game and (2) the capability of the automatic difficulty level adjustment in improving game players{\textquoteright} experience. We employed and extended a XNA video game for this study, and performed an in-depth, comparative usability evaluation on it. Our results show that the automatic difficulty adjustable system successfully maintains game players{\textquoteright} interests and substantially outperforms traditional fixed-difficulty mode games. Although a number of issues of this preliminary study remain to be investigated further, this research opens a new direction that utilizes non-contact stress measurements for monitoring and further enhancing a variety of user-centric, interactive entertainment activities.},
4964         keywords = {Adjustment, aggressive affect, Behavior, Cognition, game difficulty, Human-computer interaction, stress monitoring, thermal imaging, Video Games, Violent Video Games},
4965         url = {<Go to ISI>://000265679301121},
4966         author = {Yun, C. and Shastri, D. and Pavlidis, I. and Deng, Z. G.}
4967 }
4968 @article {4197,
4969         title = {An Online Survey System on Computer Game Enjoyment and Personality},
4970         journal = {Human-Computer Interaction, Pt IV},
4971         volume = {5613},
4972         year = {2009},
4973         note = {Bkr83Times Cited:0Cited References Count:30Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
4974         pages = {304-314781},
4975         abstract = {This paper discusses the development of an online survey instrument to measure the game enjoyment and player characteristics like age, gender and personality traits. A research framework of game play is proposed based on a review of prior research on computer came enjoyment, game characteristics, personality theories, effects of computer game play, and technology acceptance model. The proposed framework suggests that an appropriate fit between characteristics of the player and gaming technology will result in greater enjoyment while social influence may moderate effects of the fit. The survey will allow the researcher to establish the fit profiles between player characteristics and game play.},
4976         keywords = {Behavior, Computer games, Enjoyment, entertainment, Game play, Personality, PLAY, Violent Video Games},
4977         isbn = {0302-9743},
4978         url = {<Go to ISI>://000269034700034},
4979         author = {Fang, X. W. and Chan, S. and Nair, C.}
4980 }
4981 @article {4215,
4982         title = {Playfulness-based design in educational games: a perspective on an evolutionary contest game},
4983         journal = {Interactive Learning Environments},
4984         volume = {17},
4985         number = {1},
4986         year = {2009},
4987         note = {418GWTimes Cited:0Cited References Count:81},
4988         pages = {15-35},
4989         abstract = {Playfulness steering is an emerging approach in educational game design and play. The integration of arithmetical computation, game strategy, and teamwork into one game allows players to interactively steer the playfulness and enhance learning. In this paper an evolutionary contest game was designed and implemented to examine the influencial factors. Using action research, focus groups and hermeneutic methods, this study suggest that the playfulness design of an evolutionary game is influenced by the degree of uncertainty and flexibility in decision-making, the level of challenge, equal conditions for fair play, opportunities to compete/cooperate, and the level of interactivity.},
4990         keywords = {competition, computer interactions, educational games, evolutionary contest game, flow, Information, intrinsic motivation, Mechanisms, model, Performance, playfulness-based design, strategic decision-making, Uncertainty},
4991         isbn = {1049-4820},
4992         url = {<Go to ISI>://000264137700002},
4993         author = {Hong,J C and Hwang, M. Y. and Lu, C H and Cheng, C. L. and Lee, Y. C. and Lin, C. L.}
4994 }
4995 @article {4249,
4996         title = {Playing with All Senses: Human-Computer Interface Devices for Games},
4997         journal = {Advances in Computers, Vol 77},
4998         volume = {77},
4999         year = {2009},
5000         note = {Bjy98Times Cited:0Cited References Count:66Advances in Computers},
5001         pages = {79-115},
5002         abstract = {For a long time, computer games were limited to input and output devices such as mouse, joystick, typewriter keyboard, and TV screen. This has changed dramatically with the advent of inexpensive and versatile sensors, actuators, and visual and acoustic Output devices. Modem games employ a wide variety of interface technology, which is bound to broaden even further. This creates a new task for game designers. They have to choose the right option, possibly combining several technologies to let one technology compensate for the deficiencies of the other or to achieve more immersion through new modes of interaction. To facilitate this endeavor, this chapter gives an overview on current and upcoming human-computer interface technologies, describes their inner workings, highlights applications in commercial games and game research, and points out promising new directions.},
5003         keywords = {communication channel, location},
5004         isbn = {0065-2458},
5005         url = {<Go to ISI>://000267475900003},
5006         author = {Loviscach, J.}
5007 }
5008 @article {4184,
5009         title = {Play-Personas: Behaviours and Belief Systems in User-Centred Game Design},
5010         journal = {Human-Computer Interaction - Interact 2009, Pt Ii, Proceedings},
5011         volume = {5727},
5012         year = {2009},
5013         note = {Blh79Times Cited:0Cited References Count:31Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
5014         pages = {510-523992},
5015         abstract = {Game designers attempt to ignite affective, emotional responses from players via engineering game designs to incite definite user experiences. Theories of emotion state that definite emotional responses are individual, and caused by the individual interaction sequence or history. Engendering desired emotions in the audience of traditional audiovisual media is a considerable challenge; however it is potentially even more difficult to achieve the same goal for the audience of interactive entertainment, because a substantial degree of control rests in the hand of the end user rather than the designer. This paper presents a possible solution to the challenge of integrating the user in the design of interactive entertainment such as computer games by employing the "persona" framework introduced by Alan Cooper. This approach is already in use in interaction design. The method can be improved by complementing the traditional narrative description of personas with quantitative, data-oriented models of predicted patterns of user behaviour for a specific computer game Additionally, persona constructs can be applied both as design-oriented metaphors during the development of games, and as analytical lenses to existing games, e.g. for evaluation of patterns of player behaviour.},
5016         keywords = {emotion, game design, play persona, user centered design, user experience design},
5017         isbn = {0302-9743},
5018         url = {<Go to ISI>://000270204900055},
5019         author = {Canossa, A. and Drachen, A.}
5020 }
5021 @article {4190,
5022         title = {Relationship between Motivation and Satisfaction of Online Computer Games: Evidence from Adolescent Players Using Wireless Service in Taiwan},
5023         journal = {Advances in Information Security and Assurance},
5024         volume = {5576},
5025         year = {2009},
5026         note = {Bkr75Times Cited:0Cited References Count:26Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
5027         pages = {543-552841},
5028         abstract = {This study provides insight into the relationship between leisure motivation and leisure satisfaction with wireless service among teenage online gamers. A systematic sampling produced 134 usable questionnaires for the final data analysis. Findings revealed that teenagers playing online games with wireless service for intellectual motivations report educational leisure satisfaction. With wireless service, online game players with social motivations report educational, social and relaxation leisure satisfaction. Players with stimulus-avoidance motivation report greater psychological, educational, relaxation, physiological and aesthetic leisure satisfaction. Finally, this work discusses implications for leisure practice and further research.},
5029         keywords = {adolescent, leisure motivation, leisure satisfaction, measuring leisure motivation, online computer game, recreation, role-playing games},
5030         isbn = {0302-9743},
5031         url = {<Go to ISI>://000269024500055},
5032         author = {Chen, L. S. L. and Wang, M. C. H. and Lee, Y. H.}
5033 }
5034 @article {4255,
5035         title = {Relationship Learning Software: Design and Assessment},
5036         journal = {Human-Computer Interaction, Pt Iii},
5037         volume = {5612},
5038         year = {2009},
5039         note = {Bkr82Times Cited:0Cited References Count:16Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
5040         pages = {631-640818},
5041         abstract = {Interface designers have been studying how to construct graphical user interfaces (GUIs) for a number of years, however adults are often the main focus of these studies. Children constitute a unique user group, making it necessary to design software specifically for them. For this study, several interface design frameworks were combined to synthesize a framework for designing educational software for children. Two types of learning, relationships and categories, are the focus of the present study because of their importance in early-child learning as well as standardized testing. For this study the educational game Melo{\textquoteright}s World was created as an experimental platform. The experiments assessed the performance differences found when including or excluding subsets of interface design features, specifically aesthetic and behavioral features. Software that contains aesthetic, but lack behavioral features, was found to have the greatest positive impact on a child{\textquoteright}s learning of thematic relationships.},
5042         keywords = {educational technology, human computer interaction, interactive systems design, User interface design},
5043         isbn = {0302-9743},
5044         url = {<Go to ISI>://000269034000069},
5045         author = {McMullen, K. A. and Wakefield, G. H.}
5046 }
5047 @article {4198,
5048         title = {Sensation Seeking, Self Forgetfulness, and Computer Game Enjoyment},
5049         journal = {Human Interface and the Management of Information: Information and Interaction, Pt Ii},
5050         volume = {5618},
5051         year = {2009},
5052         note = {Bmb84Times Cited:0Cited References Count:25Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
5053         pages = {632-641877},
5054         abstract = {This paper investigates the relationship between enjoyment of computer game play and two personality traits (sensation seeking and self-forgetfulness). Hypotheses were proposed based on a review of computer game enjoyment, game characteristics, personality theories, and effects of computer game play. A survey is conducted in two US universities. Results and implications are discussed.},
5055         keywords = {Behavior, computer game, Enjoyment, model, Personality, self forgetfulness, Sensation seeking, Violent Video Games},
5056         isbn = {0302-9743},
5057         url = {<Go to ISI>://000271799300069},
5058         author = {Fang, X. W. and Zhao, F.}
5059 }
5060 @article {4244,
5061         title = {Situational Effects on the Usage Intention of Mobile Games},
5062         journal = {Designing E-Business Systems},
5063         volume = {22},
5064         year = {2009},
5065         note = {Bkk39Times Cited:0Cited References Count:23Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing},
5066         pages = {51-59213},
5067         abstract = {As value-added services oil mobile devices are developing rapidly, text messaging, multi-media messaging, music. video, games, GPS navigation, RFID, and mobile TV are all accessible from a single device. Mobile,allies that combine mobile communication With computer games are all emerging industry. The purpose of this research is to explore What situation factors may at feet the intention to play mobile game. We propose a research model to fit the nature of mobile games and Conducted an online survey to examine the effect of situational factors. The model integrates constructs in TAM and TRA. The findings are as follows. First, Subjective norm affects a user{\textquoteright}s intention ill using mobile games when a user has no other task,. Second, perceived playfulness affects a user{\textquoteright}s intention to use mobile games when the user has another task.},
5068         keywords = {Behavior, commerce, mobile games, payments, situation influences, systems, Technology, Technology Acceptance Model, theory of reasoned action, user acceptance},
5069         isbn = {1865-1348},
5070         url = {<Go to ISI>://000268378000005},
5071         author = {Liang, T. P. and Yeh, Y. H.}
5072 }
5073 @article {4259,
5074         title = {Student Attitudes towards Using Culturally-Oriented Educational Games to Improve Programming Proficiency: An Exploratory Study},
5075         journal = {Learning by Playing},
5076         volume = {5670},
5077         year = {2009},
5078         note = {Blc82Times Cited:0Cited References Count:16Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
5079         pages = {196-207579},
5080         abstract = {This exploratory study investigates student attitudes towards culturally-oriented educational games for practicing computer programming, where the mainstream culture appeals to all of the students irrespective of their cultural background. We show that a shared appreciation of culture along the lines of humour promotes positive student attitude towards culturally-aware game based learning which in turn is useful for developing proficiency in specific programming skills such as error detection and correction. Details of the exploratory study undertaken using culturally-oriented educational game prototypes are described, along with the results of the study.},
5081         isbn = {0302-9743},
5082         url = {<Go to ISI>://000269934000026},
5083         author = {Mohammed, P. and Mohan, P.}
5084 }
5085 @article {4208,
5086         title = {Terra Nova 2.0-The New World of MMORPGs},
5087         journal = {Critical Studies in Media Communication},
5088         volume = {26},
5089         number = {2},
5090         year = {2009},
5091         note = {500PITimes Cited:0Cited References Count:88},
5092         pages = {104-127},
5093         abstract = {The dominant metaphor used to describe and situate MMORPGs, or massively multiplayer online role playing games (e.g. Ultima Online, EverQuest, World of Warcraft, Second Life, etc.), has been "new world{\textquoteright}{\textquoteright} and "new frontier.{\textquoteright}{\textquoteright} By deploying this powerful imagery, game developers, players, the popular media, and academic researchers draw explicit connections between the technology of MMORPGs and the European encounter with the Americas and the western expansion of the United States. Although providing a compelling and often recognizable explanation of the innovations and opportunities of this new technology, the use of this terminology comes with a considerable price, one that had been demonstrated and examined by scholars of the Internet, cyberspace, and virtual reality over a decade ago. This essay explores the impact and significance of the terms "new world{\textquoteright}{\textquoteright} and "frontier{\textquoteright}{\textquoteright} as they have been deployed to explain and describe MMORPGs.},
5094         keywords = {Computer games, cultural studies, ethics, Information technology, New media},
5095         isbn = {1529-5036},
5096         url = {<Go to ISI>://000270315200002},
5097         author = {Gunkel, D. J. and Gunkel, A. H.}
5098 }
5099 @article {4252,
5100         title = {Three Approaches Towards Teaching Game Production},
5101         journal = {Design and Use of Serious Games},
5102         volume = {37},
5103         year = {2009},
5104         note = {Bjb44Times Cited:0Cited References Count:7Intelligent Systems, Control, and Automation: Science and Engineering},
5105         pages = {3-18206},
5106         abstract = {Teaching game production benefits computer science and engineering students, because game applications are usually complex interactive real-time systems, which are non-trivial to implement. Moreover, game production has a multi-disciplinary nature, because - in addition to software development - a game production process can include areas such as commercialization issues, game design, graphics design and implementation, sound engineering, level design, and story design. This kind of project environment teaches the development team to work and communicate efficiently. Having organized a variety of game production project courses in the Department of Information Technology in the University of Turku the students have implemented complete computer games or game proto-types. Our focus has been on teaching game related algorithms, software technologies and software engineering aspects of game production. We have used three different teaching approaches to organize the courses: (1) the traditional home assignment model where the students take full responsibility of organizing the production, (2) research seminars where the teachers act as direct customers for the production, and (3) intensive courses where the teachers participate in the production as coaches and mentors. In this presentation, we describe the three different teaching approaches, present them as formal process models, and compare them to commercial game production processes. Additionally, we consider the multi-disciplinary nature of game production and discuss how the issue can be taken into consideration in a study environment where the students are mainly technology oriented.},
5107         url = {<Go to ISI>://000264525500001},
5108         author = {Makila, T. and Hakonen,H and Smed,J and Best, A.}
5109 }
5110 @article {4241,
5111         title = {Understanding the behavioural intention to play online games An extension of the theory of planned behaviour},
5112         journal = {Online Information Review},
5113         volume = {33},
5114         number = {5},
5115         year = {2009},
5116         note = {521LFTimes Cited:0Cited References Count:50},
5117         pages = {849-872},
5118         abstract = {Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether flow experience, perceived enjoyment, and interaction affect people{\textquoteright}s behavioural intention to play online games and whether gender, age and prior experience have moderating effects on online game acceptance.Design/methodology/approach - This study extends the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) with flow experience, perceived enjoyment, and interaction to propose a theoretical model to explain and predict people{\textquoteright}s behavioural intention to play online games. This model is examined through an empirical study involving 458 participants using structural equation modelling techniques. In addition, a competing model based on the technology acceptance model (TAM) is proposed to evaluate whether TPB is more suitable than TAM to explain the use of online games. The two action-theoretical models are compared in terms of their predictive power and their practical utility.Findings - Although both models explain the players{\textquoteright} intention to play online games very well, the extended TPB model provides a better fit and explanatory power. Notably, this study finds that flow experience is a more important factor than perceived enjoyment in influencing customer acceptance of online games. Further analysis reveals that gender is a key moderator of online game acceptance. Practical implications - Online game developers need to search for flow experience building strategies that might assist in engaging players. This study suggests that game developers should consider focusing more on establishing the interactions between players (social interaction) and online games (human-computer interaction) in their marketing strategies.Originality/value - This study is significant for two reasons. First, it synthesises the theory of planned behaviour with psychological and interaction factors and, second, it presents a blueprint for an entertainment-oriented technology acceptance model.},
5119         keywords = {adoption, behaviour, communities, competing theories, Computers, flow experience, intrinsic motivation, service, social interaction, TAM, Technology Acceptance Model, user acceptance, Video Games},
5120         isbn = {1468-4527},
5121         url = {<Go to ISI>://000271922200001},
5122         author = {Lee, M. C.}
5123 }
5124 @article {4187,
5125         title = {Using Computer-Assisted Test to Harmlessly Improve the Efficiency of Heterogeneous Grouping in Collaborative Learning},
5126         journal = {International Conference on Advanced Computer Control : Icacc 2009 - Proceedings},
5127         year = {2009},
5128         note = {Bjd20Times Cited:0Cited References Count:7},
5129         pages = {129-133802},
5130         abstract = {Collaborative learning can bring many benefits when groups of students work together in writing, projects, or other activities. However there are disadvantages of collaborative learning. One of the disadvantages is that the time spent on learning a topic could be unbelievable. To improve the efficiency of a collaborative learning activity, this study used computer-assisted test for the heterogeneous grouping stage. Unfortunately, any test may increase students{\textquoteright} learning anxiety. Therefore, the study aims to find out how to improve efficiency of collaborative learning activities in a classroom without losing the expected objectives. First, the Team-Game-Tournament (TGT) collaborative learning strategy was selected to complement the computer-assisted test. Then, we can use a questionnaire to show that there is no significant increase on learning anxiety after using computer-assisted testing. It? other words, additional testing in collaborative learning is harmless to students{\textquoteright} learning anxiety. Finally, the time spent on learning a topic of experimental group was compared with control group to demonstrate the improvement of efficiency. The most interesting part of this study is showing computer-assisted test as a useful tool for computer-supported collaborative learning.},
5131         keywords = {Anxiety, collaborative learning, computer-assisted test, computer-supported collaborative learning, learning anxiety},
5132         url = {<Go to ISI>://000264878000024},
5133         author = {Chang, C. K. and Lee, C. S.}
5134 }
5135 @article {4171,
5136         title = {Using Game Creation for Teaching Computer Programming to High School Students and Teachers},
5137         journal = {Iticse 2009: Proceeding of the 2009 Acm Sigse Annual Conference on Innovation and Technology in Computer Science Education},
5138         year = {2009},
5139         note = {Bkt74Times Cited:0Cited References Count:7},
5140         pages = {104-108406},
5141         abstract = {In this paper we describe a two-week residential summer game camp for rising 9(th) and 10(th) grade students and a four-week high school teacher professional development course. We present survey results that indicate our approach results in increased computer programming knowledge and self-confidence for both students and teachers. Our project aims to use a holistic game creation approach to increase student interest in computer science by directly teaching to students in a summer camp, instructing the teachers during a 4-week professional development course, and finally by supporting teachers as they use our curriculum in their high schools.},
5142         keywords = {Games, high school teacher professional development, introductory programming},
5143         url = {<Go to ISI>://000269212200025},
5144         author = {Al-Bow, M. and Austin, D. and Edgington, J. and Fajardo, R. and Fishburn, J. and Lara, C. and Leutenegger, S. and Meyer, S.}
5145 }
5146 @article {4195,
5147         title = {Video Game-Based Education in Mechanical Engineering: A Look at Student Engagement},
5148         journal = {International Journal of Engineering Education},
5149         volume = {25},
5150         number = {2},
5151         year = {2009},
5152         note = {Sp. Iss. SI495DGTimes Cited:1Cited References Count:47},
5153         pages = {308-317},
5154         abstract = {One of the core courses in the undergraduate mechanical engineering curriculum has been completely redesigned. lit the new numerical methods course, all assignments and learning experiences are built around a video/computer game. Students are given the task of writing computer programs to race a simulated car around a track. In doing so, students learn and implement numerical methods content. The paper describes a preliminary study to measure student engagement. Results show that students {\textquoteright}playing{\textquoteright} the video game in their homework are significantly more engaged than when working oil homework in other engineering courses.},
5155         keywords = {environments, mechanical engineering, numerical methods, serious game, simulation, student engagement, Video Game},
5156         isbn = {0949-149X},
5157         url = {<Go to ISI>://000269869600013},
5158         author = {Coller, B. D. and Shernoff, D. J.}
5159 }
5160 @article {4305,
5161         title = {A Virtual Environment for Learning Aiport Emergency Management Protocols},
5162         journal = {Human-Computer Interaction, Pt III},
5163         volume = {5612},
5164         year = {2009},
5165         note = {Bkr82Times Cited:0Cited References Count:10Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
5166         pages = {228-235818},
5167         abstract = {This paper presents a virtual environment designed to enhance the learning of airport emergency management protocols. The learning is performed in an informal manner, with each learner playing a different role in a particular emergency simulation. Learners interact within the virtual environment, managing the available information and following the steps prescribed for each type of emergency in the Airport Emergency Plan of the Spanish Civil Defence Organization. The simulation can be run in different modes of difficulty, and can be used as a learning tool as well as an evaluation tool to measure the accuracy of the learner{\textquoteright}s actuation within the protocol. It can also support stand-alone training having some of the emergency roles played out by the computer. The virtual environment has been built using DimensioneX, an open source multi-player online game engine.},
5168         keywords = {emergency, Game engine, simulation, Virtual Environment},
5169         isbn = {0302-9743},
5170         url = {<Go to ISI>://000269034000025},
5171         author = {Zarraonandia, T. and Vargas, M. R. R. and Diaz, P. and Aedo, I.}
5172 }
5173 @article {4317,
5174         title = {Virtual Sport System for Optimum Exercising Based on a User Model},
5175         journal = {Learning by Playing},
5176         volume = {5670},
5177         year = {2009},
5178         note = {Blc82Times Cited:0Cited References Count:6Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
5179         pages = {283-290579},
5180         abstract = {It is said that improving movement habits is effective to solve the problem of obesity. In this paper, we describe a physically interactive computer game system that can control a game mode to let a user maintain an appropriate exercise load based on an estimation of the user{\textquoteright}s heart rate state. We propose a Bayesian network model that can estimate heart rate states. The model calculates probability distribution of a heart rate state using user{\textquoteright}s motion features. We also describe an experimental validation of the system.},
5181         keywords = {bayesian network, exercise load, heart rate state estimation, physically interactive computer game, user model},
5182         isbn = {0302-9743},
5183         url = {<Go to ISI>://000269934000034},
5184         author = {Tanaka,K and Kataoka, T. and Hasegawa, M.}
5185 }
5186 @article {4248,
5187         title = {The Web Marriage Game, the Gendered Self, and Chinese Modernity},
5188         journal = {Cultural Studies},
5189         volume = {23},
5190         number = {3},
5191         year = {2009},
5192         note = {453FDTimes Cited:0Cited References Count:61},
5193         pages = {381-403},
5194         abstract = {This paper examines the web-based virtual marriage game craze that emerged in the 1990s. These online interactive games may have opened up moments of liberation and formulated new ideologies of sexual relations. However, web-based marriages only ensure a male-dominated system and conform to dominant patriarchal standards - regardless of the number of females involved. Re-enacting the rules of marriage, the cyber game is ideologically directed against free unions, mobility, promiscuity, and parafamilial fluidity - all in order to stabilize individuals for reasons of social and political control; at the same time, it promotes the acquisition of skills needed by individual players in a free market, as if paralleling the drastic re-articulation of the economy. I understand the virtual game to be a safe haven for both China and the Chinese people to imagine that they can re-strengthen and re-virilize themselves in a rapidly changing world. They co-fabricate a depthless interface or a pure semblance of a looming powerful China ruled by a male-oriented system. Just as China dreams of achieving modernity through a consistent, dependable, controlled, and {\textquoteright}clean{\textquoteright} path, the virtual reality of the marriage game reveals a social imaginary in which contemporary Chinese people picture their social existence in an unstable transitional moment.},
5195         keywords = {attraction, Foucault, masculinity, modernity, online computer game, Self, web marriage},
5196         isbn = {0950-2386},
5197         url = {<Go to ISI>://000266594800003},
5198         author = {Lo, K. C.}
5199 }
5200 @article {4298,
5201         title = {Where Academics Meet the Real World: Difficulties Encountered When Conducting a Project for Designing a Game-Based Learning in a Company},
5202         journal = {Learning by Playing},
5203         volume = {5670},
5204         year = {2009},
5205         note = {Blc82Times Cited:0Cited References Count:18Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
5206         pages = {176-183579},
5207         abstract = {Educational games have been widely developed and tested by many researchers. Most of results show that the educational games are good to increase students{\textquoteright} learning motivations in formal learning. It seems quite workable, however, is it also true if we want to apply the concepts to business? Or, does it still have effects to on-job-training and orientation in business? This research focuses on the first question. The experience of trying to design and test a Game-Based Learning System, with a joy component, in a real corporation is challenging and risky. This paper shows how hard was to find a company willing to do this test, the negotiations involved, the legal issues and the extensive scrutiny imposed. Constant revisions and postponing, threatening of cancellation and misinformation about company resources needs continuous diplomacy and flexibility from researchers. Prejudice against computer games may play an important barrier and an unfair advantage towards traditional training deliveries.},
5208         keywords = {computer game, educational games, game-learning learning, joy, training},
5209         isbn = {0302-9743},
5210         url = {<Go to ISI>://000269934000024},
5211         author = {Werneck, E. and Chang, M.}
5212 }
5213 @article {4366,
5214         title = {Human-Computer Go Revolution 2008},
5215         journal = {ICGA Journal},
5216         volume = {31},
5217         number = {3},
5218         year = {2008},
5219         month = {Sep},
5220         pages = {179-185},
5221         abstract = {During the last three years, the level of Go programs has improved tremendously due to a new technique: Monte-Carlo Tree Search. In 2008, several Human-Computer Go events have been organized to assess the level of the new programs. MOGO (in some contests called MOGO TITAN) and CRAZYSTONE, the two pioneer Monte-Carlo Go Tree Search programs, managed to defeat professional players for the first time in history. MOGO won oil the M board, and MOGO TITAN oil the 19x19 board with a 9-stones handicap. A short time later. CRAZYSTONE set a new record by winning a game on a 19x19 board with an 8-stones handicap. In this report, we present the results of the most important human-computer matches that took place in 2008, in the USA, Japan, and Taiwan.},
5222         isbn = {1389-6911},
5223         url = {<Go to ISI>://000263788400008},
5224         author = {Chaslot, G. and Hoock, J. B. and Rimmel, A. and Teytaud, O. and Lee, C. S. and Wang, M. H. and Tsai, S. R. and Hsu, S. C.}
5225 }
5226 @proceedings {4529,
5227         title = {Sound and immersion in the first-person shooter: Mixed measurement of the player{\textquoteright}s sonic experience},
5228         journal = {Audio Mostly},
5229         year = {2008},
5230         month = {October 22},
5231         address = {Pite{\r a}, Sweden},
5232         abstract = {Player immersion is the holy grail of computer game designers particularly in environments such as those found in first-person shooters. However, little is understood about the processes of immersion and much is assumed. This is certainly the case with sound and its immersive potential. Some theoretical work explores this sonic relationship but little experimental data exist to either confirm or invalidate existing theories and assumptions.
5234 This paper summarizes and reports on the results of a preliminary psychophysiological experiment to measure human arousal and valence in the context of sound and immersion in first-person shooter computer games. It is conducted in the context of a larger set of psychophysiological investigations assessing the nature of the player experience and is the first in a series of systematic experiments investigating the player{\textquoteright}s relationship to sound in the genre. In addition to answering questionnaires, participants were required to play a bespoke Half-Life 2 level whilst being measured with electroencephalography, electrocardiography, electromyography, galvanic skin response and eye tracking equipment. We hypothesize that subjective responses correlated with objective measurements provide a more accurate assessment of the player{\textquoteright}s physical arousal and emotional valence and that changes in these factors may be mapped to subjective states of immersion in first-person shooter computer games.},
5235         keywords = {audio, immersion, Psychophysiology; Sonic user experience (UX); Entertainment; Emotion; Affective gaming; Action video games, sound},
5236         url = {http://digitalcommons.bolton.ac.uk/gcct_conferencepr/7},
5237         author = {Grimshaw, Mark and Lindley,Craig A and Nacke,Lennart}
5238 }
5239 @proceedings {4530,
5240         title = {Autopoiesis and sonic immersion: Modelling sound-based player relationships as a self-organizing system},
5241         journal = {Sixth Annual International Conference in Computer Game Design and Technology},
5242         year = {2008},
5243         month = {November 12},
5244         address = {Liverpool},
5245         abstract = {In previous work I have provided a conceptual framework for the design and analysis of sound in First-Person Shooter games and have suggested that the relationship between player and soundscape in such games can be modelled as an acoustic ecology. This paper develops these ideas further in the context of multiplayer First-Person Shooter games. I suggest that individual acoustic ecologies within the game combine to create a virtual acoustic ecology, of which no player is wholly aware, and that this virtual acoustic ecology may be modelled as an autopoietic (sonopoietic) system that, in part, explains and enhances player immersion in the game.},
5246         keywords = {autopoiesis, sound},
5247         url = {http://digitalcommons.bolton.ac.uk/gcct_conferencepr/1},
5248         author = {Grimshaw, Mark}
5249 }
5250 @article {4489,
5251         title = {Adoption of Mobile Games as Entertainment Technology : A Test of Extended Technology Acceptance Model},
5252         journal = {Information-an International Interdisciplinary Journal},
5253         volume = {11},
5254         number = {6},
5255         year = {2008},
5256         note = {417ASTimes Cited:0Cited References Count:42},
5257         month = {Nov},
5258         pages = {759-769},
5259         abstract = {Mobile games have emerged as the most innovative entertainment technology, adding new revenue streams, taking advantage of the potential of wireless consumer applications and service offerings. Mobile games, like any other types of computer game, offer a unique value for users in providing an exciting digital experience in virtual worlds. Players can become empowered through the development of new characters and strategies within games to achieve rewarding successes against the computers and other players. In this paper, we attempt to investigate the factors influencing the usage and acceptance of the mobile games in Korea, based on the extended version of the Technology Acceptance Model(TAM).Based on data collected from on-line survey, we show that perceived ease of use and perceived enjoyment motivates mobile game users to play mobile games, and that these two factors are empirically shown to determine perceived usefulness, implying that perceived ease of use and perceived enjoyment ate the direct and indirect determinant of intention to use. In addition, se (expressiveness and subjective norms have been showed to significantly and directly affect perceived usefulness. It was also confirmed that self-efficacy and operational quality of device are the antecedents of perceived ease of use. The contents of mobile games as well as perceived enjoyment was used as a determinant of perceived ease of use, and the statistical results confirm that they played a critical role in determining perceptions of enjoyment, and indirectly affecting perceived usefulness.},
5260         keywords = {determinants, ease, entertainment technology, Gender, Information technology, Internet, intrinsic motivation, Mobile game, perceived usefulness, technology acceptance model(tam), usage, user acceptance, world},
5261         isbn = {1343-4500},
5262         url = {<Go to ISI>://000264047400007},
5263         author = {Kim, M. R. and Kim, T. U. and Kim, J.}
5264 }
5265 @article {4365,
5266         title = {Do you believe in magic? Computer games in everyday life},
5267         journal = {European Journal of Cultural Studies},
5268         volume = {11},
5269         number = {2},
5270         year = {2008},
5271         month = {May},
5272         pages = {225-U114},
5273         abstract = {Huizinga{\textquoteright}s concept of a {\textquoteright}magic circle{\textquoteright} has been used to depict computer games and gaming activities as something separate from ordinary life. In this view, games are special (magical) and they only come to life within temporal and spatial borders that are enacted and performed by the participants. This article discusses the concept of a {\textquoteright}magic circle{\textquoteright} and finds that it lacks specificity. Attempts to use the concept of a magic circle create a number of anomalies that are problematic. This is not, as has been suggested earlier, primarily a matter of the genre of the game, or a discussion of what an appropriate definition of a {\textquoteright}game{\textquoteright} might be. Rather, in this study with hardcore gamers, playing computer games is a routine and mundane activity, making the boundary between play and non-play tenuous to say the least. This article presents an alternative theoretical framework which should be explored further.},
5274         keywords = {definitions of games, magic circle, place, PLAY, rhetorics, routine, Time},
5275         isbn = {1367-5494},
5276         url = {<Go to ISI>://000270196700009},
5277         author = {Pargman, D. and Jakobsson, P.}
5278 }
5279 @article {4368,
5280         title = {Safer sex through entertainment education: Realizing the entertainment education approach with a computer game about HIV/AIDS and condom use for female adolescents},
5281         journal = {International Journal of Psychology},
5282         volume = {43},
5283         number = {3-4},
5284         year = {2008},
5285         note = {Poster from XXIX International Congress of Psychology },
5286         month = {Jun-Aug},
5287         pages = {658-658},
5288         abstract = {Entertainment education is a strategy to educate people through entertainment. Research has shown that it can have positive effects on people{\textquoteright}s behavior, attitudes, knowledge, and interpersonal communication. It works with various media (products) such as radio, TV soap operas, street theatre, or comics. The question is whether this strategy also works for computer games. To test this, an entertainment education computer game about HIV/AIDS education was developed. The computer game led to a significant increase in knowledge about HIV/AIDS, but no increases in interest and communication could be observed. Possible explanations and suggestions for future research are discussed.},
5289         isbn = {0020-7594},
5290         url = {<Go to ISI>://000259264307693},
5291         author = {Thies-Brandner, Y.}
5292 }
5293 @article {4490,
5294         title = {Avatar motion control by natural body movement via camera},
5295         journal = {Neurocomputing},
5296         volume = {72},
5297         number = {1-3},
5298         year = {2008},
5299         month = {Dec},
5300         pages = {648-652},
5301         abstract = {With the popularity of cameras and rapid development of computer vision technology, vision-based HCI is attracting extensive interests. In this paper, we present a system for controlling avatars by natural body movement via a single web-camera. A pose database and a set of color markers are utilized to make ill-posed vision problem tractable for real game applications. Based on the proposed algorithms for indexing pose samples and estimating human pose, we build a prototype system that is responsive, easy to manipulate and runs automatically in real time. User study shows that the system is user-friendly and provides immersive experiences. },
5302         keywords = {game avatar control, interaction, monocular camera, pose estimation},
5303         isbn = {0925-2312},
5304         author = {Li, N. and Chen, C. and Wang, Q. and Song, M. L. and Tao, D. C. and Li, X. L.}
5305 }
5306 @article {4367,
5307         title = {Learning the Piece Values for Three Chess Variants},
5308         journal = {ICGA Journal},
5309         volume = {31},
5310         number = {4},
5311         year = {2008},
5312         month = {Dec},
5313         pages = {209-233},
5314         abstract = {A set of experiments for learning the values of chess pieces is described for the popular chess variants Crazyhouse Chess, Suicide Chess, and Atomic Chess. We follow an established methodology that relies on reinforcement learning from self-games. We attempt to learn piece values and the piece-square tables for three chess variants. The piece values arrived at, are quite different from those of standard chess, and in several ways surprising, but they generally outperform the values that have been previously used in the literature, and in the implementations of computer players for these games. The results also underline the practical importance of piece-square tables for tactical variants of the game.},
5315         keywords = {computer-chess, Game, temporal differences},
5316         isbn = {1389-6911},
5317         url = {<Go to ISI>://000268325500003},
5318         author = {Droste, S. and Furnkranz, J.}
5319 }
5320 @article {4356,
5321         title = {On virtual environments and agents in next-generation computer games},
5322         journal = {Knowledge Engineering Review},
5323         volume = {23},
5324         number = {4},
5325         year = {2008},
5326         note = {392OLTimes Cited:0Cited References Count:10},
5327         month = {Dec},
5328         pages = {389-397},
5329         abstract = {This paper holds the material presented at our keynote at the Intelligent Virtual Environments and Virtual Agents Conference. where We analyzed future trends in virtual agent and environment technologies. as applied to the Fields of videogames and interactive multimedia. we be-ill by Observing current tendencies in game development projects. both ill the market and ill the academia. outlining their respective strengths and weaknesses. We follow by describing the aspects of game development that will come to shape the next generation of games. and discuss the requirements for academic projects to achieve the level of quality required to be competitive in this field. In the rest of the paper we analyze the roles, importance. challenges, and research opportunities that a new generation of virtual characters and environments will bring to the world of interactive entertainment.},
5330         isbn = {0269-8889},
5331         url = {<Go to ISI>://000262311900005},
5332         author = {Torres, D.}
5333 }
5334 @article {4358,
5335         title = {Machine learning in digital games: a survey},
5336         journal = {Artificial Intelligence Review},
5337         volume = {29},
5338         number = {2},
5339         year = {2008},
5340         month = {Apr},
5341         pages = {123-161},
5342         abstract = {Artificial intelligence for digital games constitutes the implementation of a set of algorithms and techniques from both traditional and modern artificial intelligence in order to provide solutions to a range of game dependent problems. However, the majority of current approaches lead to predefined, static and predictable game agent responses, with no ability to adjust during game-play to the behaviour or playing style of the player. Machine learning techniques provide a way to improve the behavioural dynamics of computer controlled game agents by facilitating the automated generation and selection of behaviours, thus enhancing the capabilities of digital game artificial intelligence and providing the opportunity to create more engaging and entertaining game-play experiences. This paper provides a survey of the current state of academic machine learning research for digital game environments, with respect to the use of techniques from neural networks, evolutionary computation and reinforcement learning for game agent control.},
5343         keywords = {computational intelligence, Computer games, digital games, Game AI, injected genetic algorithms, machine learning, NETWORKS, Time},
5344         isbn = {0269-2821},
5345         url = {<Go to ISI>://000268949900002},
5346         author = {Galway, L. and Charles,D and Black,M}
5347 }
5348 @proceedings {3248,
5349         title = {My Momma Shoots Better Than You: Who is the Female Gamer?},
5350         journal = {The [player] conference},
5351         year = {2008},
5352         month = {26/08/2008},
5353         publisher = {IT University of Copenhagen},
5354         address = {IT University of Copenhagen, Denmark},
5355         abstract = {This paper is a component of a three-year empirical study of gaming moms undertaken with the aim to modulate the conventional constructions of gamer identities and examine the contested status of gaming in everyday life. It presents samples of mothers in gaming discourse {\textendash} from TV, Music-video, forums, and ads. Mothers have been largely invisible in popular gaming discourse or formulaically portrayed as unsympathetic to/ policing the gaming habits of other family members. Now, gaming companies increasingly target women and families, female gamers exceed 40 \% of players (US and Sweden), and console gaming is displacing TV-watching as the core living-room activity. The Boy-nerd-in-the-Bedroom is, at least statistically, being dispelled and complemented by the Girl-into-Gaming. Still, a tenacious nineteenth-century icon lingers: the Angel-in-the-House. Mothers today do more than bring Hot Pockets to gaming kids (South Park WoW-Episode) or serve as the implied inferior player populating taunts like {\textquotedblleft}My Momma shoots better than you{\textquotedblright} (Q3A). Mothers game too. The paper uses feminist critical theory (de Lauretis) to illustrate the situation of the female gamer as oscillating between the fixed sign of {\textquotedblleft}Woman{\textquotedblright} and the dynamic experiences of {\textquotedblleft}women{\textquotedblright}. It acknowledges and elucidates both the power and consequences of representation and personal experience in meaning-making processes, to which the growing cultural discourse and practice of gaming belong.},
5356         keywords = {discourse analysis, female gamers, feminist theory, gaming discourse, gaming moms, Gender, Mothers, popular culture, representation, Women},
5357         isbn = {978-87-7949-182-3},
5358         url = {http://gamingmoms.wordpress.com/publications/},
5359         author = {Enevold, Jessica and Hagstr{\"o}m, Charlotte},
5360         editor = {Mosberg, Sara and Leino, Olli}
5361 }
5362 @proceedings {4446,
5363         title = {Researching Players to Understand the Game},
5364         journal = {The [Player] Conference},
5365         year = {2008},
5366         month = {26/08/2008},
5367         pages = {197-219},
5368         publisher = {IT University of Copenhagen},
5369         address = {IT University of Copenhagen},
5370         abstract = {Since the advent of the study of games, scholars have emphasised the idea of games as subsets of the real world, as make-believe and as representational systems. Games have been understood as delimited from the real world by a physical and conceptual boundary that clearly defines what should be understood as part of the game. Players enter and leave the game at will, voluntarily accepting the rules of the game when entering the game subspace, and there is no doubt that players are fully capable of knowing when they cross this boundary, and when they should interpret a specific action as part of the game or not. This paper asks how researchers can investigate the player{\textquoteright}s comprehension of the relationship between a game and the world methodologically by the use of qualitative approaches. The motivation for the paper is a postdoctoral research project facing precisely these issues, and the paper serves as a work in progress for developing a qualitative research method for investigating player{\textquoteright}s understanding of system features, interface elements and what constitutes the game border in computer games. The paper will present the aims of the postdoctoral research project and shortly describe its hypotheses and theoretical points of departure before going on to discuss and suggest methods for investigating these hypotheses.},
5371         isbn = {978-87-7949-182-3},
5372         url = {https://bora.uib.no/bitstream/1956/3895/1/jorgensen-researching\%20players.pdf},
5373         author = {J{\o}rgensen, Kristine},
5374         editor = {Iversen, Sara Mosberg}
5375 }
5376 @conference {4437,
5377         title = {The struggle for immersion. Narrative re-framing in World of Warcraft.},
5378         booktitle = {Proceedings of the {player} conference},
5379         year = {2008},
5380         month = {26/08/2008},
5381         publisher = {Copenhagen: N{\o}rrebros Bogtryk ApS.},
5382         organization = {Copenhagen: N{\o}rrebros Bogtryk ApS.},
5383         address = {IT-University of Copenhagen, Denmark},
5384         keywords = {Computer games},
5385         author = {Linderoth, Jonas},
5386         editor = {Leino, O. and Calleja, G. and Mosberg Iversen, S.}
5387 }
5388 @proceedings {3234,
5389         title = {Boredom, Immersion, Flow - A pilot study investigating player experience},
5390         journal = {IADIS International Conference Gaming 2008: Design for engaging experience and social interaction},
5391         year = {2008},
5392         month = {25/07/2008},
5393         pages = {103-107},
5394         publisher = {IADIS Press},
5395         address = {Amsterdam, The Netherlands},
5396         abstract = {Designing and evaluating gameplay experience comes to life after measures for player experience have been found. This paper describes  a pilot  study measuring game experience with  a set of game stimuli especially designed  for different player experiences. Gameplay experience is measured using self-report questionnaires after each play session. Results of the questionnaires are then separately compared to design intentions and player evaluations. Our experiment shows that gameplay experience can be assessed with a high reliability for certain gameplay features.},
5397         keywords = {Affect, Aggression, bas, bis, boredom, challenge, design, epq, Experience, flow, fuga, game design, gameplay, geq, Half-Life 2, immersion, level design, metrics, Personality, PLAY, quantitative study, reliability, self-report measures, tension, ux},
5398         isbn = {978-972-8924-64-5},
5399         url = {http://gamescience.bth.se/download/16/},
5400         author = {Nacke,Lennart and Lindley,Craig A},
5401         editor = {Eleonore ten Thij}
5402 }
5403 @conference {4447,
5404         title = {The Intuitive and Integrated Interface: Computer Games and Computer Literacy},
5405         booktitle = {Digicult symposium: Television and the Digital Public Sphere,},
5406         year = {2008},
5407         month = {22/10/2008},
5408         address = {Universit{\'e} de Pantheon-Assas (Paris II)},
5409         keywords = {Computer games, digital literacy, gameworld, interface, usability},
5410         url = {https://bora.uib.no/bitstream/1956/3896/3/KJorgensen-digicult.pdf},
5411         author = {J{\o}rgensen, Kristine}
5412 }
5413 @article {,
5414         title = {A Conceptual Framework for the Analysis of First-Person Shooter Audio and its Potential Use for Game Engines},
5415         journal = {International Journal of Computer Games Technology},
5416         volume = {2008},
5417         year = {2008},
5418         month = {2008},
5419         abstract = {We introduce and describe a new conceptual framework for the design and analysis of audio for immersive first-person shooter games, and discuss its potential implications for the development of the audio component of game engines. The framework was created in order to illustrate and acknowledge the direct role of in-game audio in shaping player-player interactions and in creating a sense of immersion in the game world. Furthermore, it is argued that the relationship between player and sound is best conceptualized theoretically as an acoustic ecology. Current game engines are capable of game world spatiality through acoustic shading, but the ideas presented here provide a framework to explore other immersive possibilities for game audio through real-time synthesis.},
5420         keywords = {audio, First-Person-Shooter, immersion},
5421         issn = {1687-7047},
5422         doi = {10.1155/2008/720280},
5423         url = {http://www.hindawi.com/GetArticle.aspx?doi=10.1155/2008/720280},
5424         author = {Grimshaw, Mark and Schott, Gareth}
5425 }
5426 @proceedings {3235,
5427         title = {Log who{\textquoteright}s playing: psychophysiological game analysis made easy through event logging},
5428         journal = {Second International Conference on Fun and Games 2008},
5429         volume = {5294/2008},
5430         year = {2008},
5431         note = {http://gamescience.bth.se/download/31/, http://tinyurl.com/64v6tv},
5432         month = {20/10/2008},
5433         pages = {150-157},
5434         publisher = {Springer Berlin / Heidelberg},
5435         address = {Eindhoven, The Netherlands},
5436         abstract = {Modern psychophysiological game research faces the problem that for understanding the computer game experience, it needs to analyze game events with high temporal resolution and within the game context. This is the only way to achieve greater understanding of gameplay and the player experience with the use of psychophysiological instrumentation. This paper presents a solution to recording in-game events with the frequency and accuracy of psychophysiological recording systems, by sending out event byte codes through a parallel port to the psychophysiological signal acquisition hardware. Thus, psychophysiological data can immediately be correlated with in-game data. By employing this system for psychophysiological game experiments, researchers will be able to analyze gameplay in greater detail in future studies.},
5437         keywords = {analysis, biometrics, design, Events, Experience, gameplay, Half-Life 2, instrumentation, interactive, level design, logging, metrics, physiological, PLAY, psychophysiology, software, techniques, usability, ux},
5438         isbn = {978-3-540-88321-0},
5439         issn = {0302-9743 (1611-3349)},
5440         doi = {10.1007/978-3-540-88322-7},
5441         url = {http://www.springerlink.com/content/f3560134p7017541/},
5442         author = {Nacke,Lennart and Lindley,Craig A and Stellmach, Sophie},
5443         editor = {Panos Markopoulos, Boris de Ruyter, Wijnand IJsselsteijn, Duncan Rowland}
5444 }
5445 @article {3239,
5446         title = {A Procrustean Probe},
5447         journal = {Game Studies},
5448         volume = {8},
5449         year = {2008},
5450         month = {12/2008},
5451         abstract = {The brigand Procrustes dispatched his victims by stretching or trimming their bodies in order that they be made to fit his bed. Considered as a scientific theory, McLuhan{\textquoteright}s four "laws of media" risk violating communications research in a dangerously Procrustean manner. Conceived as an exploratory probe, however, this "tetrad" can provide illuminating insights into the social and psychological effects of individual technologies. Applied to digital games, the tetrad reveals the particular ways in which this distinctive cultural form enhances diverse modes of play, obsolesces traditional television viewing, retrieves lost means of participation, and reverses into pervasive and persistent play. The tetrad helps, in short, to situate digital gameplay within the broader technological and cultural environment of which it is a part.},
5452         keywords = {enhance, extranoematic, McLuhan, obsolesce, Participation, persistent, pervasive, PLAY, Procrustes, Remediation, retrieve, reverse, Television, tetrad, Theseus},
5453         issn = {1604-7982},
5454         url = {http://gamestudies.org/0802/articles/tyler},
5455         author = {Tyler, Tom}
5456 }
5457 @article {3223,
5458         title = {Assassin{\textquoteright}s Creed: A Multi-Cultural Read},
5459         journal = {Loading...},
5460         volume = {1},
5461         year = {2008},
5462         month = {11/2008},
5463         abstract = {Video game playing is becoming a predominant part of popular culture. Games, like Assassin{\textquoteright}s Creed (Ubisoft, released 2007), The Sims (Maxis, released 2000), Guitar Hero (RedOctane, released 2005), and World of War Craft (Bilizzard, released 2004), have attracted many players from different cultures and age groups. In this paper, we propose that the experience of playing a video game, like Assassin{\textquoteright}s Creed, is a personal experience shaped through one{\textquoteright}s emotional values, expectations, knowledge, and attitudes as influenced by culture. To validate this claim, we provide an analysis of the experience of playing Assassins{\textquoteright} Creed from the perspectives of this paper{\textquoteright}s four co-authors, who represent two different cultural viewpoints: Middle-Eastern and Western, as well as different intellectual disciplinary backgrounds, including architecture, theatre, and computer science. To someone from the Middle-East, for example, the game aroused many nostalgic feelings through its simulated Middle-Eastern cities, the use of Arabic words, accents and gestures, and the detailed Middle-Eastern architectural design. While such small details meant much when viewed through a Middle-Eastern eye, their values were different when viewed through a Western eye. From a Western perspective, the game play experience was heightened through the beautiful architectural detail and the use of the environment layout as a function of gameplay, such as the use of rooftops for platforming, fast movement and flying-like actions, and stealth. Thus, apparently the way the game was experienced was very different when viewed through people with different cultural backgrounds. In this paper, we aim to show this claim through thorough analysis of the game as experienced by the co{\textlnot}authors.},
5464         url = {http://journals.sfu.ca/loading/index.php/loading/article/view/51},
5465         author = {El Nasr, Magy and Al-Saati, Maha and Niedenthal,Simon and Milam, David}
5466 }
5467 @article {3221,
5468         title = {Authoring the Global Self: Identity, Expression and Role-playing in Virtual Communities},
5469         journal = {Loading...},
5470         volume = {1},
5471         year = {2008},
5472         month = {11/2008},
5473         abstract = {We examine Traveler, a social-based 3D online virtual community with over ten years of continuous community use as a case study. Traveler is a client-server application allowing real-time synchronous communication between individuals over the Internet. The Traveler client interface presents the user with a shared user created virtual 3D world, in which participants are represented by avatars. The primary mode of communication is through multi-point, full duplex voice, managed by the server. This paper reports on the initial design goals of the developers in the mid 1990s to emulate natural social paradigms, and then more recently, reports on how the online community uses distance attended multi-point voice and opened end 3D space construction to express themselves both on a personal level and collaborative level to facilitate a tight socially based community.},
5474         url = {http://journals.sfu.ca/loading/index.php/loading/article/view/40},
5475         author = {DiPaola,Steve and Turner, Jeremy}
5476 }
5477 @article {3219,
5478         title = {The Creative and Reflexive Realms of Gamaturgy},
5479         journal = {Loading...},
5480         volume = {1},
5481         year = {2008},
5482         month = {11/2008},
5483         abstract = {This article introduces the synergy between theatre, games, and social activism that I have coined {\textquotedblleft}Gamaturgy.{\textquotedblright} Gamaturgy, in both the creative and reflexive realms, as I describe them, is derived from theatrical dramaturgy and provides new ideas for creating and critically analyzing serious videogames, especially social issue games. First, I sketch out the formative dramaturgical influences from Augusto Boal{\textquoteright}s Forum Theatre, Paulo Friere{\textquoteright}s transitive pedagogy, and Victor Turner{\textquoteright}s concepts of the liminoid and social justice. I then expand this unique way of play-making into the realm of creative gamaturgy as a way of creating experiential interactions and constructing meanings in the design and creation of serious videogames. As for the aim of finding a new form of thematic analysis for videogames, I use my original case study The Pipeline Pinball Energy Thrill Ride Game to demonstrate a method of recovering meanings from games through the implementation of reflexive gamaturgy.},
5484         url = {http://journals.sfu.ca/loading/index.php/loading/article/view/50},
5485         author = {Shyba, Lori}
5486 }
5487 @article {3222,
5488         title = {Language-GAME-Players: Articulating the pleasures of {\textquoteleft}violent{\textquoteright} game texts},
5489         journal = {Loading...},
5490         volume = {1},
5491         year = {2008},
5492         month = {11/2008},
5493         abstract = {Young peoples{\textquoteright} voices are often considered irrelevant or unreliable when it comes to assessing the influence and impact of their engagement with screen-mediated depictions of violence. Research emanating from the laboratories of Psychology has continued to propagate the {\textquoteleft}effects{\textquoteright} debate by seeking to substantiate the harmful impact of videogames on individuals that are considered to lack the knowledge and strategies to make sense of them. Paradoxically, this stance is presented within a research paradigm that has failed to demonstrate any understanding of the properties of the particular games or the medium it denigrates, broader awareness of the social dimensions of play or the productivity inherent in the practices of its surrounding cultures. The project discussed, draws together what have essentially remained separate lines of inquiry, through applying the critical and analytical scrutiny of Game Studies to achieve a more contextual understanding of young peoples{\textquoteright} experiences with and around games. The primary aim is to assess the nature of violent content within videogames via the experiences and articulations of young people themselves, using a combination of methods to give them a voice that is all too often absent in its one-way debate.},
5494         url = {http://journals.sfu.ca/loading/index.php/loading/article/view/41},
5495         author = {Schott, Gareth}
5496 }
5497 @article {4511,
5498         title = {A Model for Gender-Inclusivity in Games},
5499         year = {2008},
5500         month = {11/2008},
5501         institution = {University of Southampton},
5502         type = {Progress Report - 9th Month},
5503         address = {Southampton},
5504         abstract = {This report describes the theoretical framework based on previous work and the results draw attention to existing issues in gender and games. One of the problems found in current studies is the tendency of games to be on either extreme end of the design styles. Many popular games are designed for the male players in mind and deter female players due to somewhat excessive masculine design e.g. violence and hyper-sexualized characters. Although there are some efforts in designing games for the female market, these custom-made games were too feminized e.g. wedding theme; shopping; and in pink colour, which consequently exclude the male players. Designing a gender-neutral game is important to ensure that both genders are learning as well as the other. The proposed study aims to design a model for gender-inclusivity in games. It will be based on a critical analysis of current game design models and finding principles that represent the composition of a game design model. Based on this, gender-inclusive elements will be incorporated and a new model will be proposed. The model will help determine whether a game is gender-specific, which contains extreme elements of either gender, or gender-inclusive, contains elements that might appeal to both male and female players. The model will be implemented through a series of game experiments and the results will used to improve the model, consequently contribute to the game design theory.},
5505         keywords = {computer game, Design Model, Framework, game design, Game Framework, Gender Inclusivity, Video Game},
5506         issn = {1 },
5507         url = {http://eprints.ecs.soton.ac.uk/21568/},
5508         author = {Roziana Ibrahim}
5509 }
5510 @article {3227,
5511         title = {Periscopic Play: Re-positioning "the Field" in MMO Research},
5512         journal = {Loading...},
5513         volume = {1},
5514         year = {2008},
5515         month = {11/2008},
5516         abstract = {Ethnographic research on massively multiplayer online games (MMO{\textquoteright}s) has begun to chart how these games impact {\textquotedblleft}real world{\textquotedblright} identities, practices and institutions. Far less attention has been paid in this emergent field, however, to the ways these games are always already situated in the everyday lives of those that play them {\textendash} and how participants{\textquoteright} embodied subjectivities are therefore {\textquotedblleft}in play{\textquotedblright}. This paper argues that recent MMO scholarship, in re-invoking a tired and unproductive dichotomy between the {\textquotedblleft}real{\textquotedblright} and the {\textquotedblleft}virtual{\textquotedblright}, not only neglects the material and discursive contexts in which games are played, but also renders invisible the play-based participant observation of researchers themselves. I look to cyber-feminist theory, as well as certain strands of feminist ethnography, to call attention to how this kind of {\textquotedblleft}periscopic play{\textquotedblright} significantly skews our understandings of MMO{\textquoteright}s.},
5517         url = {http://journals.sfu.ca/loading/index.php/loading/article/view/43},
5518         author = {Taylor, Nick}
5519 }
5520 @article {3225,
5521         title = {Play and the Private},
5522         journal = {Loading...},
5523         volume = {1},
5524         year = {2008},
5525         month = {11/2008},
5526         abstract = {Over the past half a century or more, historical, anthropological and philosophical examinations of the concept of play have remained largely situated in the arena of ontological discussion. In these previous interrogations of play, the notion of play has been assumed a priori, been defined stipulatively in relation to larger frameworks of games, or discarded altogether.
5528 This work adopts Wittgenstein{\textquoteright}s Private Language argument as a lever to unpack the usefulness in looking at play from an epistemological perspective: paying special attention to linguistic cues, ostensive relationships and associated activities around those things players call {\textquoteleft}play{\textquoteright} within specific, behavioral, situational and linguistic contexts. This paper explores how unraveling the term {\textquoteleft}play{\textquoteright} in this way can potentially afford us a new perspective on play as an epistemologically dynamic phenomenon.},
5529         keywords = {design, epistemology, grinding, Language, PLAY},
5530         url = {http://journals.sfu.ca/loading/index.php/loading/article/view/52},
5531         author = {Bojin,Nis}
5532 }
5533 @article {3224,
5534         title = {The Relationship Between Perceptions of Video Game Flow and Structure},
5535         journal = {Loading...},
5536         volume = {1},
5537         year = {2008},
5538         month = {11/2008},
5539         abstract = {The point of this inquiry is to ask are there preferred structural characteristics of games that are more or less likely to be associated with the experience of psychological flow during gaming? It was found that high game players, as defined by a variety of variables, reported significantly more flow and various structural preferences than low game players when controlling for sex and motion sickness. However, game flow and structure were largely unrelated to each other with one exception. A low preference for thinking type puzzle situations in games was negatively associated with the experience of flow while playing. Other structural variables showed no association to flow suggesting that most structural characteristics of video game play are not in and of themselves associated with experiences of flow in gaming.},
5540         url = {http://journals.sfu.ca/loading/index.php/loading/article/view/39},
5541         author = {Gackenbach, Jayne}
5542 }
5543 @article {3220,
5544         title = {The Significance of Jeep Tag: On Player-Imposed Rules in Video Games},
5545         journal = {Loading...},
5546         volume = {1},
5547         year = {2008},
5548         month = {11/2008},
5549         abstract = {´╗┐Based on research into gamer communities, it is apparently relatively common for players to impose additional or alternative rules on video games, in order to refine or expand gameplay and to create new gaming experiences. This paper considers the implications of this phenomenon, dubbed "expansive gameplay," in context of video game studies. How does the existence of expansive gameplay help us to situate video games in relation to traditional games? To what extent is this phenomenon indicative of the broader ways in which players engage with video games? By theorizing expansive gameplay as demonstrative of the nature of video games and gamer culture, this paper endeavours to open further discussion about the relationship between players and the rule-based systems which constitute video games.},
5550         url = {http://journals.sfu.ca/loading/index.php/loading/article/view/44},
5551         author = {Parker, Felan}
5552 }
5553 @article {3226,
5554         title = {Stepping into the Subjunctive World of the Fiction in Game, Film and Novel},
5555         journal = {Loading...},
5556         volume = {1},
5557         year = {2008},
5558         month = {11/2008},
5559         abstract = {This article reports on how users step into the world of a fiction in a digital game (Shadow of the Colossus), a movie (Run Lola Run) and a novel (Monster by Walter Dean Myers). Moving into the make-believe involves invoking the subjunctive mode of wishing, hoping, expecting, fearing, etc. This article explores how this step into a fictional occurs in in the early stages of encountering stories in different media, drawing on work with twelve undergraduate interpreters of all three fictions.},
5560         url = {http://journals.sfu.ca/loading/index.php/loading/article/view/46},
5561         author = {Mackey, Margaret}
5562 }
5563 @article {4434,
5564         title = {Forms of learning in collaborative video game play},
5565         journal = {Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning},
5566         volume = {3},
5567         year = {2008},
5568         month = {09/2008},
5569         chapter = {97},
5570         abstract = {Extensive literature has shown that games provide engaging, dynamic, and authentic learning contexts. An understanding of how learning takes place while gaming can inform the design of effective educational games and aid their integration into contemporary classrooms. This study used inductive methods to provide a detailed description of the use of video games for learning in a school setting. Results demonstrate that learning occurred across multiple levels and multiple granularities, and can be triggered by particular cues in the game or social environment. Characteristics of the most frequently occurring instances of learning are discussed. Results of this study suggest great potential for the use of games in education for learning, and can inform future game design. },
5571         keywords = {Affordances, collaboration, Game play, learning, learning types, Video Games},
5572         author = {Sharritt, Matthew J}
5573 }
5574 @article {3218,
5575         title = {Teens, Video Games, and Civics},
5576         year = {2008},
5577         month = {09/2008},
5578         pages = {76},
5579         institution = {Pew Internet \& American Life Project},
5580         address = {Washington, DC},
5581         abstract = {This Pew Internet Project report is based on the findings of a national representative random digit dial telephone survey conducted by Princeton Survey Research Associates between November 1, 2007, and February 5, 2008, among a sample of 1102 teens ages 12-17 and a parent or guardian. For results based on the total sample, one can say with 95\% confidence that the error attributable to sampling and other random effects is +/- 3\%. For results based teens who game (n=1064), the margin of sampling error is +/- 3\%. 
5584 Video games provide a diverse set of experiences and related activities and are part of the lives of almost all teens in America. To date, most video game research has focused on how games impact academic and social outcomes (particularly aggression). There has also been some exploration of the relationship between games and civic outcomes, but as of yet there has been no large-scale quantitative research. This survey provides the first nationally representative study of teen video game play and of teen video gaming and civic engagement. The survey looks at which teens are playing games, the games and equipment they are using, the social context of their play, and the role of parents and parental monitoring. Though arguments have been made about the civic potential of video gaming, this is the first large-scale study to examine the relationship between specific gaming experiences and teens{\textquoteright} civic activities and commitments.},
5585         keywords = {teens, Video Games},
5586         url = {http://www.pewinternet.org/PPF/r/263/report_display.asp},
5587         author = {Lenhart, A. and Kahne, J. and Middaugh, E and Macgill, A. R. and Evans, C. and Vitak, J.}
5588 }
5589 @article {3229,
5590         title = {Thinking out of the box (and back in the plane). Concepts of space and spatial representation in two classic adventure games.},
5591         journal = {Eludamos. Journal for Computer Game Culture},
5592         volume = {2},
5593         year = {2008},
5594         month = {09/2008},
5595         pages = {215-239},
5596         abstract = {In this article we examine location, space and spatial representation in two classic adventure games belonging to the same game series: Gabriel Knight Sins of the Fathers, a one screen at a time point-and-click adventure and Gabriel Knight Blood of the Sacred Blood of the Damned, a 3D game. Our aim was to see if the changes in the audiovisual representation of the gamespace in the 3D game would affect gameplay or whether gameplay and representation are independent entities, as some researches have proposed. What we found was that location and space are experienced differently in the 3D game. Furthermore we found that players of the game series had to learn a new visual grammar to bring the 3D game to a successful end. We will therefore propose that gameplay and the representation of gamespace are linked; perhaps even to such an extent that some types of games benefit from a particular audiovisual representation.},
5597         keywords = {adventure game, gabriel knight, space},
5598         issn = {1866-6124},
5599         url = {http://www.eludamos.org/index.php/eludamos/article/view/50},
5600         author = {Connie Veugen and Qu{\'e}rette, Felipe}
5601 }
5602 @proceedings {3238,
5603         title = {Towards a Novel Paradigm for Educational Games: The Augmented Learning Environment of "Europe 2045"},
5604         journal = {12th International MindTrek Conference: Entertainment and Media in the Ubiquitous Era},
5605         year = {2008},
5606         month = {06/10/2008},
5607         pages = {34-38},
5608         address = {Tampere},
5609         abstract = {This paper introduces the concept of an augmented learning environment into the field of game-based learning. An augmented learning environment (ALE) combines principles of on-line multi-player computer games with social, role-playing games in order to facilitate the development of key skills and transfer of knowledge. Fundamental features of ALE are discussed through the educational game paradigm, Europe 2045, which has been developed and successfully implemented in a number of secondary schools in the Czech Republic during 2008. On a more general level this paper aims to establish a theoretical and case-study-based methodological framework for game researchers and designers, involved in similar future projects, which capitalizes on the notion of ALE.},
5610         keywords = {educational games, game-based learning, learning, multi-player games, role-playing games, serious games},
5611         isbn = {978-1-60558-197-2},
5612         url = {http://uisk.jinonice.cuni.cz/sisler/publications/ACM_MindTrek_Europe_2045.pdf},
5613         author = {Sisler, Vit and Brom, Cyril and Slavik, Radovan},
5614         editor = {Lugmayr, A. and M{\"a}yr{\"a}, F. and Franssila, H. and Lietsala, K.}
5615 }
5616 @article {3203,
5617         title = {Digital Arabs: Representation in Video Games},
5618         journal = {European Journal of Cultural Studies},
5619         volume = {11},
5620         year = {2008},
5621         month = {05/2008},
5622         pages = {203-220},
5623         abstract = {This article presents the ways in which Muslims and Arabs are represented and represent themselves in video games. First, it analyses how various genres of European and American video games have constructed the Arab or Muslim Other. Within these games, it demonstrates how the diverse ethnic and religious identities of the Islamic world have been flattened out and reconstructed into a series of social typologies operating within a broader framework of terrorism and hostility. It then  contrasts these broader trends in western digital representation with selected video games produced in the Arab world, whose authors have knowingly subverted and  refashioned these stereotypes in two unique and quite different fashions. In conclusion, it considers the significance of western attempts to transcend  simplified patterns of representation that have dominated the video game industry by offering what are known as {\textquoteright}serious{\textquoteright} games.},
5624         keywords = {Arabs, Islamic games, Muslims, racial stereotypes, representation, serious games, Video Games},
5625         issn = {1460-3551 },
5626         doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1367549407088333},
5627         url = {http://www.digitalislam.eu/article.do?articleId=1704},
5628         author = {Sisler, Vit}
5629 }
5630 @mastersthesis {4433,
5631         title = {Students{\textquoteright} Use of Social and Cognitive Affordances in Video Game Play within Educational Contexts: Implications for Learning. },
5632         volume = {Ph.D.},
5633         year = {2008},
5634         month = {05/2008},
5635         pages = {1055},
5636         school = {University of Hawaii at Manoa},
5637         type = {Dissertation},
5638         address = {Honolulu},
5639         abstract = {Extensive literature has shown that games can provide an engaging, dynamic, and authentic learning context.  Many of the studies on the use of games in education indicate that games can support teaching standards and outcomes; however, they do not describe actual uses of video games for learning.  Through the analysis of affordances employed by student gamers, an understanding of how learning takes place can inform the design of effective educational games and aid their integration into contemporary classrooms.  Informed by ethnomethodology, this study used methods of grounded theory provided a detailed description of the use of video games for learning in educational contexts.
5641 Results demonstrate that learning occurs across multiple levels:  the mastery of the computer interface, followed by the mastery of the game interface and upon which students can achieve advanced strategy aimed at goal achievement.  Learning also occurs across multiple granularities:  occurring either in short episodes, sequences of episodes, or trends.  Learning can be triggered by multiple cues, such as failure, game visualizations or specific representations, as well as by peers or teachers in the social environment.  
5643 Students used affordances provided by the game interface and learning environment, specifically:  the visual representations of games afford particular actions; the persistent display of historical context as well as present and future potentials motivates learning; specific cues can grab attention, helping to focus efforts on new or underutilized game tasks; consistent and well organized visualizations encourage learning; and information presented in a plurality of channels is most effective for learning.
5645 The use of social peers in collaborative learning had several effects on the learning process:  peers disclosed information to achieve shared meaning of objects{\textquoteright} purposes, and negotiated to collaboratively choose game strategies.  Peer teams served cooperative roles as information sources and competitively as a performance gauge.
5647 Implications for students, educators, and game designers are offered to better play, implement, and design games for learning.  A brief comparison of findings with existing theory discusses similarities among collaborative learning and activity theory, and suggests opportunities for future work.  Overall, findings indicate a great potential for the use of games in education for learning.},
5648         keywords = {Affordances, cognitive, Educational Contexts, high school, Learning games, PLAY, Social, Students, Video Game},
5649         author = {Sharritt, Matthew J}
5650 }
5651 @article {,
5652         title = {{\textquoteleft}{\textquoteleft}It{\textquoteright}s in the Game{\textquoteright}: sport fans, film and digital gaming{\textquoteright}},
5653         journal = {Sport in Society},
5654         volume = {11},
5655         year = {2008},
5656         month = {03/2008},
5657         pages = {130-145},
5658         abstract = {This essay compares the relative successes of sport-related films and sport-related digital games. Where sport-related films are relatively infrequent and even more rarely successful when compared with other genres of film, sport-related games are a popular and successful genre of digital gaming. In order to understand this discrepancy, and in particular, sport fans{\textquoteright} relationship with both film and games, this essays draws on the concept of {\textquoteright}narrative{\textquoteright} and, specifically, Ricoeur{\textquoteright}s {\textquoteright}narrative identity{\textquoteright}. Specifically, this essay suggests that sport teams/clubs are to some degree polysemic texts, which allow supporters to construct their own individual narratives around them. However, it is suggested that sport-related films, which tend to offer only limited narratives, are unlikely to fit with fans{\textquoteright} own narrative identities, whereas digital games, with their more fluid narratives, are more easily located within fans{\textquoteright} relationships and narratives with the teams/clubs they support. },
5659         keywords = {digital games, film, football, narrative, Sport},
5660         doi = {10.1080/17430430701823380},
5661         url = {http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~content=a789782126~db=all~order=page},
5662         author = {Crawford, Garry}
5663 }
5664 @conference {3244,
5665         title = {Flow and immersion in first-person shooters: measuring the player{\textquoteright}s gameplay experience},
5666         booktitle = {Future Play {\textquoteright}08: Proceedings of the 2008 Conference on Future Play},
5667         series = {Future Play},
5668         year = {2008},
5669         month = {03 /11/2008},
5670         pages = {81--88},
5671         publisher = {ACM},
5672         organization = {ACM},
5673         address = {Toronto, Canada},
5674         abstract = {Researching experiential phenomena is a challenging undertaking, given the sheer variety of experiences that are described by gamers and missing a formal taxonomy: flow, immersion, boredom, excitement, challenge, and fun. These informal terms require scientific explanation, which amounts to providing measurable criteria for different experiential states. This paper reports the results of an experimental psychophysiological study investigating different traits of gameplay experience using subjective and objective measures. Participants played three Half-Life 2 game modifications while being measured with electroencephalography, electrocardiography, electromyography, galvanic skin response and eye tracking equipment. In addition, questionnaire responses were collected after each play session. A level designed for combat-oriented flow experience demonstrated measurable high-arousal positive affect emotions. The positive correlation between subjective and objective indicators of gameplay experience shows the great potential of the method presented here for providing real-time emotional profiles of gameplay that may be correlated with self-reported subjective descriptions.},
5675         keywords = {Biofeedback, biometric, emg, flow, Game, gamemetrics, gameplay, Games, geq, gsr, immersion, PLAY, playability, psychophysiology, usability},
5676         isbn = {978-1-60558-218-4 },
5677         doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1496984.1496998},
5678         url = {http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1496984.1496998},
5679         author = {Nacke,Lennart and Lindley,Craig A},
5680         editor = {Kapralos,Bill and Katchabaw, Mike and Rajnovich,Jay}
5681 }
5682 @article {3211,
5683         title = {Innovation NOT Opposition: The Logic of Distinction of Independent Games},
5684         journal = {Eludamos. Journal for Computer Game Culture},
5685         volume = {2},
5686         year = {2008},
5687         month = {02/2008},
5688         pages = {5-10},
5689         keywords = {Alternative Games, Game Aesthetics, Game Politics, Independent Games, Indie Games, Innovation},
5690         url = {http://www.eludamos.org/index.php/eludamos/article/view/38/66},
5691         author = {Andreas Jahn-Sudmann}
5692 }
5693 @article {3247,
5694         title = {10 Key Principles for Designing Video Games for Foreign Language Learning},
5695         year = {2008},
5696         url = {http://knol.google.com/k/ravi-purushotma/10-key-principles-for-designing-video/27mkxqba7b13d/2},
5697         author = {Purushotma, Ravi and Thorne, Steven and Wheatley, Julian}
5698 }
5699 @article {Bioulac:2008hy,
5700         title = {Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and video games: A comparative study of hyperactive and control children},
5701         journal = {European Psychiatry},
5702         volume = {23},
5703         number = {2},
5704         year = {2008},
5705         pages = {134-141},
5706         type = {article},
5707         address = {Centre Hospitalier Charles Perrens, Service universitaire de psychiatrie de l{\textquoteright}enfant et de l{\textquoteright}adolescent, 121, rue de la Be?chade, 33076 Bordeaux cedex, France},
5708         abstract = {Introduction: This study describes and compares the behavior of hyperactive and control children playing video games. Subjects and methods: The sample consisted of 29 ADHD children and 21 controls aged between 6 and 16 years playing video games. We used the Child Behavior Checklist and the Problem Videogame Playing scale (PVP scale). This instrument gives objective measures of problem use, which can be considered as an indication of addictive videogame playing. We designed a questionnaire for the parents, eliciting qualitative information about their child{\textquoteright}s videogame playing. There were no significant differences concerning frequency or duration of play between ADHD children and controls but differences were observed on the PVP scale. None of the controls scored above four whereas 10 hyperactive children answered affirmatively to five or more questions. These children presented a greater intensity of the disorder than the other ADHD children. Conclusion: While no differences concerning video game use were found, ADHD children exhibited more problems associated with videogame playing. It seems that a subgroup of ADHD children could be vulnerable to developing dependence upon video games. \copyright2007 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.},
5709         keywords = {Addiction, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, children, Video Game},
5710         author = {Bioulac, S. and Arfi, L. and Bouvard, M. P.}
5711 }
5712 @article {4445,
5713         title = {Audio and Gameplay: An Analysis of PvP Battlegrounds in World of Warcraft},
5714         journal = {Game Studies},
5715         volume = {08},
5716         year = {2008},
5717         abstract = {This article addresses how audio works as support for gameplay while remaining true to the perceived reality of the game world in World of Warcraft{\textquoteright}s PvP Battlegrounds. The argument is that the interpretation of game audio is highly contextual, and that the player must understand the specific situation as a whole in order to understand what a specific auditory signal indicates.},
5718         keywords = {game audio, gameplay, PvP, situation-oriented approach, World of Warcraft},
5719         issn = {1604-7982},
5720         url = {http://gamestudies.org/0802/articles/jorgensen},
5721         author = {J{\o}rgensen, Kristine}
5722 }
5723 @conference {Saito:2008hk,
5724         title = {Brain activity comparison of different-genre video game players},
5725         booktitle = {Second International Conference on Innovative Computing, Information and Control, ICICIC 2007},
5726         year = {2008},
5727         type = {inproceedings},
5728         address = {Research Centre for Advanced Technologies, Tokyo Denki University, Japan},
5729         abstract = {Brain areas activated by three different-genre video games, Othello, Tetris and Space Invader, were compared in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study. The responses of blood oxygenation level-dependent fMRI contrasts while playing games or viewing pseudo-visual stimuli similar to the video games were measured with a 1.5 Tesla scanner in 10 right-handed healthy participants performing experiments and analysed using statistical parametric mapping. Increased activity in the prefrontal cortex, the premotor cortex, the parietal cortex and the visual association cortex was specifically associated with playing the three video games. Othello and Tetris, which require logical thinking, activated broader areas of the prefrontal cortex, and Space Invader and Tetris, which require real-time reaction, activated broader areas of the premotor and parietal cortex. These results indicate that the areas of brain activation while playing different-genre video games depended on the combination of required skills for each game. \copyright2007 IEEE.},
5730         author = {Saito, K. and Mukawa, N. and Saito, M.}
5731 }
5732 @article {Holsapple:2008ll,
5733         title = {Building effective online game websites with knowledge-based trust},
5734         journal = {Information Systems Frontiers},
5735         volume = {10},
5736         number = {1},
5737         year = {2008},
5738         pages = {47-60},
5739         type = {article},
5740         address = {425B C.M. Gatton College of Business and Economics, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-0034, United States},
5741         abstract = {Knowledge-based trust is trust that is grounded in knowledge about another party developed through repeated interaction. Knowledge-based trust is especially important for online business environments where there are repeated transactions between fixed pairs of consumers and merchants. Building on previous studies of trust, this paper examines the proposition that players{\textquoteright} knowledge about website characteristics (i.e., security and interface design) and about website outputs (i.e., online game quality and service quality) has an effect on the development of trust in the context of online game websites. The impact of trust on building an effective online game website is also investigated. A conceptual model of knowledge-based trust is tested with questionnaire responses of 253 online game players. Overall, the results indicate that all of these four classes of knowledge engender trust and that trust helps develop effective online game websites. \copyright2007 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.},
5742         keywords = {e-Commerce, Interface design, Knowledge-based trust, online games, Quality, security},
5743         author = {Holsapple, C. W. and Wu, J.}
5744 }
5745 @article {Borusiak:2008px,
5746         title = {Cardiovascular effects in adolescents while they are playing video games: A potential health risk factor?},
5747         journal = {Psychophysiology},
5748         volume = {45},
5749         number = {2},
5750         year = {2008},
5751         pages = {327-332},
5752         type = {article},
5753         abstract = {We analyzed heart rate (HR), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), oxygen consumption, and carbon dioxide production in 17 male adolescents during a racing simulation video game (VG) and compared to resting state (RS) and exercise testing (ET) measures. We were able to demonstrate a significant (p<.005) increase from RS to VG concerning HR (+13.1 bpm), SBP (+20.8 mmHg), and DBP (+12.1 mmHg) with SBP and DBP elevations exceeding 2 SD in all children and 14/17 children, respectively. The energy consumption during VG (max 1.71 kcal/min) was unaltered compared to RS and significantly lower compared to ET even at the starting strain of 25 W (1.94 kcal/min). Hemodynamic parameters tested demonstrated lower HR, unchanged SBP, and higher DBP during the VG compared with ET. Comparing all measured parameters it can be said that the relation of blood pressure and energy consumption during VG might not be favorable. Copyright \copyright2007 Society for Psychophysiological Research.},
5754         keywords = {Adolescents, Cardiovascular response, children, Energy consumption, Ergometer, heart rate, Obesity, Video Game},
5755         author = {Borusiak, P. and Bouikidis, A. and Liersch, R. and Russell, J. B.}
5756 }
5757 @article {Brydon:2008xs,
5758         title = {Classification trees and decision-analytic feedforward control: a case study from the video game industry},
5759         journal = {Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery},
5760         year = {2008},
5761         pages = {1-26},
5762         type = {article},
5763         address = {Faculty of Business Administration, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, V5A 1S6, Canada},
5764         abstract = {The objective of this paper is to use a challenging real-world problem to illustrate how a probabilistic predictive model can provide the foundation for decision-analytic feedforward control. Commercial data mining software and sales data from a market research firm are used to create a predictive model of market success in the video game industry. A procedure is then described for transforming the classification trees into a decision-analytic model that can be solved to produce a value-maximizing game development policy. The video game example shows how the compact predictive models created by data mining algorithms can help to make decision-analytic feedforward control feasible, even for large, complex problems. However, the example also highlights the bounds placed on the practicality of the approach due to combinatorial explosions in the number of contingencies that have to be modeled. We show, for example, how the "option value" of sequels creates complexity that is effectively impossible to address using conventional decision analysis tools. \copyright2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.},
5765         keywords = {data mining, Decision tree analysis, Probability estimation trees, Real options, Video game development},
5766         author = {Brydon, M. and Gemino, A.}
5767 }
5768 @article {4426,
5769         title = {Close Reading Oblivion: Character Believability and Intelligent Personalization in Games},
5770         journal = {Loading - The Journal of the Canadian Games Studies Association},
5771         volume = {3},
5772         number = {3},
5773         year = {2008},
5774         abstract = {This paper investigates issues of character believability and intelligent personalization through a reading of the Elder Scrolls: Oblivion. Oblivion{\textquoteright}s opening sequence simultaneously trains players in the function of the game, and allows them to customize their character class through the choices and actions they take.
5775 Oblivion makes an ambitious attempt at intelligent personalization in the character creation process. Its strategy is to track early gameplay decisions and {\textquotedblleft}stereotype{\textquotedblright} players into one of 21 possible classes. This approach has two advantages over a less adaptive system. First, it supports the illusion of the game world as a real world by embedding the process of character creation within a narrativised game-play context. Second, the intelligent recommendation system responds to the player{\textquoteright}s desire to believe that the game {\textquotedblleft}knows{\textquotedblright} something about her personality. This leads the players to conceptualize the system as an entity with autonomous, humanlike knowledge.
5776 Through the analysis of multiple replayings of the opening sequence, this paper considers ways in which Oblivion both succeeds and fails at mapping player behaviour to appropriate class assignments. The paper documents places where the dialogue between player and game breaks down, and argues for alternative techniques to customize the play experience within the desires of the player.},
5777         keywords = {adaptive systems, believable characters, close reading, game design, interactive narrative},
5778         url = {http://journals.sfu.ca/loading/index.php/loading/article/view/42},
5779         author = {Tanenbaum, Joshua and Bizzocchi,Jim}
5780 }
5781 @book {4382,
5782         title = {Coming of Age in Second Life An Anthropologist Explores the Virtually Human},
5783         year = {2008},
5784         pages = {336},
5785         publisher = {Princeton University Press},
5786         organization = {Princeton University Press},
5787         abstract = {Millions of people around the world today spend portions of their lives in online virtual worlds. Second Life is one of the largest of these virtual worlds. The residents of Second Life create communities, buy property and build homes, go to concerts, meet in bars, attend weddings and religious services, buy and sell virtual goods and services, find friendship, fall in love--the possibilities are endless, and all encountered through a computer screen. Coming of Age in Second Life is the first book of anthropology to examine this thriving alternate universe.
5789 Tom Boellstorff conducted more than two years of fieldwork in Second Life, living among and observing its residents in exactly the same way anthropologists traditionally have done to learn about cultures and social groups in the so-called real world. He conducted his research as the avatar "Tom Bukowski," and applied the rigorous methods of anthropology to study many facets of this new frontier of human life, including issues of gender, race, sex, money, conflict and antisocial behavior, the construction of place and time, and the interplay of self and group.
5791 Coming of Age in Second Life shows how virtual worlds can change ideas about identity and society. Bringing anthropology into territory never before studied, this book demonstrates that in some ways humans have always been virtual, and that virtual worlds in all their rich complexity build upon a human capacity for culture that is as old as humanity itself.},
5792         issn = {0691135282},
5793         author = {Boellstorff, Tom}
5794 }
5795 @article {3204,
5796         title = {Comparison of MVPA while playing DDR and EyeToy},
5797         journal = {Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport},
5798         volume = {79},
5799         year = {2008},
5800         pages = {A-17},
5801         abstract = {he USDHHS recommends that children accumulate at least 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) each day. Regular physical activity is believed to be an important component for reducing the levels of obesity. One way to increase physical activity levels that is gaining popularity is interactive video games (exergames).  This is evidenced by its use in school districts throughout the US and also in middle schools throughout the state of West Virginia.   Two of the more popular exergames are Dance Dance Revolution (DDR) by Konami, Inc. and EyeToy Play by Sony, Inc.  DDR is a dance simulation game which requires the player to step (lower-body) on a motion sensing dance pad; whereas, EyeToy is a game that requires the use of the arms (upper-body) to play the games. At this time, there is little evidence to suggest one game is more effective than the other for accumulating MVPA.  The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in time spent in MVPA while playing DDR and EyeToy. Design: Participants in this study were 12 children (ages 9-18) from a local YMCA that were invited to play both DDR and EyeToy while wearing a heart rate monitor. Seven of the children were girls; five were boys. Each child was permitted to play each game on different days for up to 45 minutes.  Results: An analysis of gender difference of each game revealed no significant difference (p = .455); therefore, the data was collapsed.  Overall, participants spent more time in MVPA while playing DDR when compared to EyeToy, 80.84\% to 53.45\% respectively. This difference was found to be significant (p =.039) using a Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test.   For this study, it appears that playing DDR was more effective than EyeToy for accumulating MVPA.  It is important to note that both exergames were played at MVPA for at least half of the time (>= 20 mins), and all participants played the entire 45 minutes except one. These findings suggest that these two exergames could be healthy alternatives to other physical activities for accumulating the recommended 60 minutes of MVPA.},
5802         keywords = {active gaming, DDR, Exercise, exergame, EyeToy, fitness, MVPA, physical activity},
5803         author = {Yang, S.P. and Foley, J.T.}
5804 }
5805 @article {Robertson:2008gn,
5806         title = {Computer game design: Opportunities for successful learning},
5807         journal = {Computers and Education},
5808         volume = {50},
5809         number = {2},
5810         year = {2008},
5811         pages = {559-578},
5812         type = {article},
5813         address = {School of Computing and Mathematical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Earl Mountbatten Building, Riccarton Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, United Kingdom},
5814         abstract = {Developing children as successful learners is a key aim of A Curriculum for Excellence in Scotland. This paper presents qualitative results from an eight week exploratory field study in which a class of ten year olds made their own computer games. The analysis focuses on the development of aspects of successful learning as identified in the curriculum: enthusiasm and motivation for learning, determination to reach high standards of achievement, independent and group learning, and linking and applying learning in new situations. As teachers have an important role in facilitating and supporting learners as they use technology, the paper concludes with a discussion of implications for classroom practice. \copyright2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.},
5815         keywords = {Classroom practice, game based learning, game design, Successful learning},
5816         url = {http://judyrobertson.typepad.com/judy_robertson/files/RobertsonHowellsComputersEducationInPress.doc},
5817         author = {Robertson,J and Howells, C.}
5818 }
5819 @book {3210,
5820         title = {Computer Games as a Sociocultural Phenomenon. Games Without Frontiers - War Without Tears.},
5821         year = {2008},
5822         pages = {229},
5823         publisher = {Palgrave Macmillan},
5824         organization = {Palgrave Macmillan},
5825         address = {Basingstoke; New York},
5826         abstract = {In the course of their increasing sociocultural importance, the academic interest in computer games has been growing considerably in the last years. This profound anthology comprehensibly introduces latest approaches in the central fields of game studies and provides an extensive survey of the contemporary game culture. Internationally renowned media and literature scholars, social scientists, game designers, and artists explore the cultural potential of computer games and present new concepts of researching sociocultural, industrial, and aesthetic aspects of digital entertainment.
5827 },
5828         keywords = {Cultural Identities, ethics, Game Aesthetics, game design, Ideology, Morality, politics, Violence, War},
5829         isbn = {978-0-230-54544-1},
5830         issn = {0230545440},
5831         url = {http://www.palgrave-usa.com/catalog/product.aspx?isbn=0230545440},
5832         author = {Andreas Jahn-Sudmann and Stockmann, Ralf}
5833 }
5834 @article {3267,
5835         title = { The Consumption of Counterfeit Goods: {\textquoteleft}Here be Pirates?{\textquoteright} },
5836         journal = {Sociology},
5837         volume = {42},
5838         year = {2008},
5839         pages = {1146{\textendash}1164},
5840         abstract = {Social science, policy and popular discourse around counterfeiting regularly position consumers of counterfeit goods as part of a technological elite or motivated by anti-capitalist or anti-corporate positions. In order to explore this construction and highlight its associated limitations, this paper presents quantitative data collected through postal and web-based questionnaires looking at the frequency, location and motivations for the purchase of counterfeit leisure items for consumers in the United Kingdom. The paper suggests the purchase and consumption of counterfeit goods is commonplace across a broader variety of age, gender and socio-economic status categories than often assumed. The study also highlights the value of viewing the consumption of counterfeit goods as social and situated, occurring within existing social networks and familiar locations, and as closely related to other consumption practices.},
5841         keywords = {Consumers, counterfeit goods, Intellectual property, leisure goods, Software Piracy},
5842         url = {http://digiplay.info/files/CoC.pdf},
5843         author = {Rutter, Jason and Bryce, Jo}
5844 }
5845 @article {Jon-Hobbs:2008tc,
5846         title = {Cracking the walnut: Using a computer game to impact cognition, emotion, and behavior of highly aggressive fifth grade students},
5847         journal = {Computers in Human Behavior},
5848         volume = {24},
5849         number = {2},
5850         year = {2008},
5851         pages = {421-438},
5852         type = {article},
5853         address = {Department of Educational and Counseling Psychology, University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, NY 12222, United States},
5854         abstract = {Three fifth grade highly aggressive students participated in a study examining effects of an aggression intervention game. Using single-subject multiple baseline research design, the effect of the game was measured across three domains: attribution of peer intent (cognitive), emotional response (affective) and behavior response (behavioral). The results indicate that, while there were observable individual differences, the game had an immediate impact on attribution of peer behavior across all participants, had a less predictable impact on reported behavioral reactions, and had no discernable impact on reported emotional response. Theoretical and practical implications of the study are discussed. \copyright2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.},
5855         author = {Jon Hobbs, L. and Yan, Z.}
5856 }
5857 @inbook {3215,
5858         title = {Designing an Educational Game: Case Study of {\textquoteright}Europe 2045{\textquoteright}},
5859         booktitle = {Transactions on Edutainment I},
5860         year = {2008},
5861         pages = {1-16},
5862         publisher = {Springer},
5863         organization = {Springer},
5864         address = {Berlin / Heidelberg},
5865         abstract = {This paper presents a theoretical framework, which has been adopted in designing an on-line multi-player strategy game Europe 2045. Europe 2045 is an educational tool for high school social science courses, aimed at familiarizing students with political, economic, and social issues in contemporary Europe. Apart from learning facts, players develop a range of key skills: discussion ability, negotiation, teamwork, and group decision-making. The presented theoretical framework is based on a critical analysis of crucial issues, which seem to determine the success or failure of development and implementation of an educational game in the formal school environment. It demonstrates key approaches the authors of Europe 2045 have adopted in order to overcome already known problems related to game-based learning. On a general level this paper discusses issues related to formal fact learning in educational systems and the possible role of educational games in enhancing these systems.},
5866         keywords = {educational games, game design, game-based learning, Immersive Environments, serious games},
5867         isbn = {978-3-540-69737-4},
5868         issn = {0302-9743},
5869         doi = {10.1007/978-3-540-69744-2_1},
5870         url = {http://uisk.jinonice.cuni.cz/sisler/publications/SislerBromEdutainment2008.pdf},
5871         author = {Sisler, Vit and Brom, Cyril}
5872 }
5873 @book {4421,
5874         title = {Die Raummaschine {\textendash} Raum und Perspektive im Computerspiel},
5875         year = {2008},
5876         abstract = {Die wissenschaftliche Auseinandersetzung mit dem Gegenstand Computerspiel hat in den letzten Jahren einen regelrechten Boom erfahren. Aber es gibt kaum eine Publikation {\"u}ber die {\"A}sthetik von Computerspielbildern.
5878 Die Raummaschine bietet einen kunsthistorisch fundierten, breiten {\"U}berblick {\"u}ber die Darstellung von Raum im Computerspielbild.
5880 Die Bilder, die von aktuellen Computerspielen hervorgebracht werden, sind einer bildtraditionellen Linie zuzuordnen, die bis zur Entwicklung der Renaissanceperspektive im 15. Jahrhundert zur{\"u}ckreicht. Der Autor zeigt auf, wie sich die Darstellung r{\"a}umlicher Ph{\"a}nomene vom Quattrocento bis zum heutigen Tag entwickelt hat und sie in dreidimensionalen, virtuellen Welten m{\"u}ndet. Auch die verschiedenen Raumkonzepte, die Computerspielen zugrunde liegen, werden kategorisiert und eingehend diskutiert.
5882 Bilder heutiger Computerspiele sind digital, automatisch erzeugt, perspektivisch, dreidimensional, in Echtzeit berechnet, bewegt und interaktiv. Sie werden f{\"u}r den User zu drangvollen Welten und virtuellen R{\"a}umen, in die er sich hineinbegibt. Der subjektive Blick des Users in den Raum des Computerspiels wird vom Autor mit dem Begriff der arbitr{\"a}ren Perspektive bezeichnet. Diese neue Art des Blicks beschlie{\ss}t die Erkundung des Computerspiels als "Raummaschine".},
5883         keywords = {Art, Art History, Perspective, space},
5884         isbn = {3940317241},
5885         issn = {3940317241},
5886         author = {Schwingeler, Stephan}
5887 }
5888 @article {Schreiner:2008cx,
5889         title = {Digital games target social change},
5890         journal = {IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications},
5891         volume = {28},
5892         number = {1},
5893         year = {2008},
5894         pages = {12-17},
5895         type = {article},
5896         abstract = {The field of games aimed at social change is young and ripe with opportunity, and several recent announcements of corporate/public-sector partnerships to develop such games are further fueling hopes for its success. However, given the cost of creating a digital game which can creep past \$10 million in some cases and the as-yet-to-appear killer app, the possibilities remain dogged by challenges. \copyright2008 IEEE.},
5897         author = {Schreiner, K.}
5898 }
5899 @book {3206,
5900         title = {Dungeons and Desktops: The History of Computer Role-Playing Games},
5901         year = {2008},
5902         publisher = {A.K. Peters},
5903         organization = {A.K. Peters},
5904         address = {Wellesley, MA},
5905         issn = {1568814119},
5906         author = {Barton, Matt}
5907 }
5908 @article {Callele:2008ut,
5909         title = {Emotional requirements},
5910         journal = {IEEE Software},
5911         volume = {25},
5912         number = {1},
5913         year = {2008},
5914         pages = {43-45},
5915         type = {article},
5916         address = {University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada},
5917         abstract = {Imagine that you{\textquoteright}re a software developer working on a video game. One morning, your boss comes in and says, "Make sure the new game is fun or we{\textquoteright}re all out of a job! Our last game just got savaged by the reviewers!" Now, what can you as a developer do to help make this happen? Like a movie director instructing the technical crew on implementing nuanced set design, lighting, sound, and acting, a game development team must work together to implement the game designer{\textquoteright}s vision. We introduced emotional requirements to assist game developers with this task. Just as with functional requirements, emotional requirements have attributes that you must describe and model, and those attributes sometimes require careful balancing. \copyright2008 IEEE.},
5918         keywords = {Emotional requirements, game design, Requirements, Specification},
5919         author = {Callele, D. and Neufeld, E. and Schneider, K.}
5920 }
5921 @article {Cheung:2008nj,
5922         title = {FARMTASIA: an online game-based learning environment based on the VISOLE pedagogy},
5923         journal = {Virtual Reality},
5924         year = {2008},
5925         pages = {1-9},
5926         type = {article},
5927         address = {Centre for the Advancement of Information Technology in Education, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong},
5928         abstract = {Virtual interactive student-oriented learning environment (VISOLE) is a game-based constructivist pedagogical approach that encompasses the creation of an online interactive world modeled upon a set of interdisciplinary domains, in which students participate as "citizens" to take part cooperatively and competitively in shaping the development of the virtual world as a means to construct their knowledge and skills. FARMTASIA is the first online game designed using the VISOLE philosophy, encompassing the subject areas of biology, government, economics, technology, production system and natural environment. The "virtual world" deployed is a farming system covering the domains of cultivation, horticulture and pasturage, situated in a competitive economy governed by good public policies. The design and implementation of FARMTASIA pursue three vital principles. The first one is to make the game as realistic as possible so that students can learn in a near-real life environment; the second one is to inject motivational elements so that students can sustain to learn and acquire various knowledge and skills with the game; and the third one is to make easy for teachers to conduct various VISOLE facilitation tasks. According to our exploratory educational study, we show evidentially that positive perceptions and an advancement of subject-specific and interdisciplinary knowledge appeared among the students who participated in VISOLE learning with FARMTASIA. \copyright2008 Springer-Verlag London Limited.},
5929         keywords = {Educational game, Edutainment, Virtual learning environment, VISOLE},
5930         author = {Cheung, K. K. F. and Jong, M. S. Y. and Lee, F. L. and Lee, J. H. M. and Luk, E. T. H. and Shang, J. and Wong, M. K. H.}
5931 }
5932 @article {Gloor:2008pq,
5933         title = {Finding collaborative innovation networks through correlating performance with social network structure},
5934         journal = {International Journal of Production Research},
5935         volume = {46},
5936         number = {5},
5937         year = {2008},
5938         pages = {1357-1371},
5939         type = {article},
5940         address = {MIT Centre for Collective Intelligence, 3 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02138, United States},
5941         abstract = {This paper contributes to the ongoing stream of research correlating social network structure with individual and organizational performance. While teaching a course on optimizing online communication behaviour and social network analysis, we collected preliminary data on the relationship between dynamic social network structures and individual and team performance. Students from Helsinki University of Technology and University of Cologne, who had never met face to face, formed virtual interdisciplinary teams collaborating on a common task, the communication analysis of online communities. As part of their task, students correlated performance of the community they were analysing with social network structure. In this research, we compare social network structure and individual and team performance of participants in a multi-user online computer game with social network structure and performance among the student teams. While among computer gamers the number of communication links predicts performance, a balanced contribution index predicts performance of the student knowledge worker teams. We also give general recommendations for efficient virtual communication behaviour.},
5942         keywords = {Collaborative innovation networks, Contribution index, Performance measurement, Social network analysis, TeCFlow},
5943         url = {http://www.islp.uni-koeln.de/venus/Material/Gloor_Schoder.pdf},
5944         author = {Gloor, P. A. and Paasivaara, M. and Schoder, D. and Willems, P.}
5945 }
5946 @mastersthesis {3237,
5947         title = {Gaming 2.0 {\textendash} Computer Games and Cultural Production},
5948         year = {2008},
5949         note = {German},
5950         pages = {440},
5951         school = {University for Applied Arts Vienna},
5952         type = {PhD Thesis},
5953         address = {Vienna},
5954         abstract = {Gaming 2.0 {\textendash} Computer Games and Cultural Production
5956 Participation Analysis of Computer Gamers
5957 in a convergent Media Culture
5958 and taxonomy of ludic artefacts
5960 This text thesis aims to examine media products which are produced by computer game players. Players approach these games in a non-trivial way and are part of cooperative and intensive communication project-communities. Within these communities they generate ludic artefacts in form of videos, images and real objects, produced out of games and by playing. Beginning with a very general discussion of the term game, the thesis continues with examining concepts of the computer game, web participation and convergent media culture. Additionally, a series of case studies is collected and described. The examinations lead to a taxonomy of ludic artefacts, which is divided into six main groups. Each of them contains further six subcategories, which explain the motivations for the production of such pieces of art, as well as different ways of using the medium computer game.
5962 The proposal of this taxonomy of ludic artefacts aims to support the understanding of gamers who produce media artefacts, which transport and communicate the mental state and emotions of the gaming community. Convergent media culture, which incorporates participation of users and collective intelligence, enables a very special way of creativity. Thereby, the gamer is transformed into a prosumer and team player, who is able to articulate and express himself as an individual through these artefacts, travelling between the fields of popular culture and art. Therefore, the social type of the gamer is a co-creative representative of an avantgardistic gaming-, creation-, and networking-community, which uses the computer game as a platform and a creative programme.},
5963         url = {http://io-noi-aldo.sonance.net/gaming-2-0/Gaming_2_0_Thesis_lowres.pdf},
5964         author = {Tolino, Aldo}
5965 }
5966 @article {Hoeft:2008ps,
5967         title = {Gender differences in the mesocorticolimbic system during computer game-play},
5968         journal = {Journal of Psychiatric Research},
5969         volume = {42},
5970         number = {4},
5971         year = {2008},
5972         pages = {253-258},
5973         type = {article},
5974         address = {Center for Interdisciplinary Brain Sciences Research (CIBSR), Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, 401 Quarry Road, Stanford, CA 94305-5795, United States},
5975         abstract = {Little is known about the underlying neural processes of playing computer/video games, despite the high prevalence of its gaming behavior, especially in males. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging study contrasting a space-infringement game with a control task, males showed greater activation and functional connectivity compared to females in the mesocorticolimbic system. These findings may be attributable to higher motivational states in males, as well as gender differences in reward prediction, learning reward values and cognitive state during computer video games. These gender differences may help explain why males are more attracted to, and more likely to become "hooked" on video games than females. \copyright2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.},
5976         keywords = {amygdala, fmri, Game, Gender Differences, Nucleus accumbens, Orbitofrontal cortex},
5977         url = {http://spnl.stanford.edu/publications/pdfs/Hoeft_2008JPsychiatrRes.pdf},
5978         author = {Hoeft, F. and Watson, C. L. and Kesler, S. R. and Bettinger, K. E. and Reiss, A. L.}
5979 }
5980 @article {Ferguson:2008ru,
5981         title = {Gender, video game playing habits and visual memory tasks},
5982         journal = {Sex Roles},
5983         volume = {58},
5984         number = {3-4},
5985         year = {2008},
5986         pages = {279-286},
5987         type = {article},
5988         address = {Texas A and M International University, Laredo, TX, United States},
5989         abstract = {The current research examined whether visuospatial recall of both abstract and common objects was related to gender or object familiarity. Seventy two undergraduates from a university in the Southern U.S. were asked to draw the Rey Complex Figure and a series of common objects from memory. A pilot sample of seventy three undergraduates had previously identified common objects as "male" "female" and "neutral" exemplars. Males were significantly better at drawing "male" and "neutral" exemplars whereas females were better at drawing "female" exemplars. Neither gender was significantly better at the Rey task. These results question whether males have an inherent advantage in visual memory. Results also found that experience with playing violent video games was associated with higher visual memory recall. \copyright2007 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.},
5990         keywords = {Computer games, Gender, Visual memory},
5991         author = {Ferguson, C. J. and Cruz, A. M. and Rueda, S. M.}
5992 }
5993 @article {3214,
5994         title = {Grove Street Grimm: Grand Theft Auto and Digital Folklore},
5995         journal = {Journal of American Folklore},
5996         volume = {121},
5997         year = {2008},
5998         pages = {255-285},
5999         abstract = {This article investigates the Grand Theft Auto videogame series in order to demonstrate the potential of a folkloristic, ethnographic approach for the analysis of digital games. I discuss Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas as a story collection, a frame for performance, a virtual museum of vernacular culture, and a widely circulated pop culture artifact whose double-voiced aesthetic has given rise to diverse interpretive communities. This case study suggests that digital gameplay should be regarded as a form of performance practice with the capacity to invoke traditional folkloric genres and engender new traditions. },
6000         keywords = {ethnography, folklore, game theory, Grand Theft Auto, GTA, hip-hop, museum, music, Performance, Race, San Andreas, tourism},
6001         author = {Miller, Kiri}
6002 }
6003 @article {Persky:2008ig,
6004         title = {Immersive virtual video game play and presence: Influences on aggressive feelings and behavior},
6005         journal = {Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments},
6006         volume = {17},
6007         number = {1},
6008         year = {2008},
6009         pages = {57-72},
6010         type = {article},
6011         address = {National Human Genome Research Institute, Building 31, 31 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892},
6012         abstract = {Immersive virtual environment technology (IVET) allows developers to create simulated environments that can engage users in context relevant behaviors and that can produce relatively intense user experiences for purposes such as entertainment (e.g., video games), phobia desensitization, and training. We predicted that playing a violent video game using an IVET platform would lead to increased presence and aggressive feelings and behavior compared to playing on a less immersive desktop platform. The results of two experiments supported this hypothesis. The data suggest that presence mediated the relationship between playing platform and aggressive feelings but not the relationship between playing platform and aggressive behavior. Finally, we explored the utility of using cardiovascular measures within this research paradigm.},
6013         author = {Persky, S. and Blascovich, J.}
6014 }
6015 @inbook {4427,
6016         title = {Improvisation and Performance as Models for Interacting with Stories},
6017         booktitle = {Interactive Storytelling},
6018         series = {Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
6019         volume = {5334},
6020         year = {2008},
6021         pages = {250 - 263},
6022         publisher = {Springer Berlin / Heidelberg},
6023         organization = {Springer Berlin / Heidelberg},
6024         address = {Berlin},
6025         abstract = {One common metaphor for Interactive Storytelling has been the notion of Interactive Dramas, in which players assume the first-person role of the main character in a digitally mediated narrative. In this paper we explore the model of improvisation as a means of understanding the relationship between the author/designer and the reader/player of such narratives. This model allows for a new formulation of the notion of agency, by shifting the concept of the reader from a player-centric model to a performer-centric model. We also show how we can conceive of interactions between performers and authors as being governed by the same rules that are in play between multiple performers in a piece of improvisational theatre. We connect this idea to a phenomenological theory of human computer interaction and cognition which foregrounds the role of communication and commitment between interactors.},
6026         keywords = {Agency, Drama, Improvisational Theatre, interactive narrative, Performance},
6027         author = {Tanenbaum, Joshua and Tanenbaum, Karen},
6028         editor = {Spierling,Ulrike and Szilas,Nicolas}
6029 }
6030 @article {Silk:2008pz,
6031         title = {Increasing Nutrition Literacy: Testing the Effectiveness of Print, Web site, and Game Modalities},
6032         journal = {Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior},
6033         volume = {40},
6034         number = {1},
6035         year = {2008},
6036         pages = {3-10},
6037         type = {article},
6038         address = {Department of Communication, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, United States},
6039         abstract = {Objective: To examine the effectiveness of three modalities for delivery of nutrition education. Design: Between-subjects, repeated-measures design. Setting: Data were collected at community agencies or during home visits. Participants: Low-income, European American and African American mothers (N = 155). Intervention: Participants were exposed to nutrition education material in 1 of 3 modalities (a computer game, The Fantastic Food Challenge; Web site; or pamphlet). Likeability, nutrition knowledge, intention to use, and demographic measures followed the intervention at T1 and T2. Main Outcome Measures: 5-point Likert-type scales measured likeability (5 items), and 33 multiple-choice questions measured knowledge. Analysis: Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) procedures using SPSS version 15.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL) software, P < .05. Results: Overall, the Web site was liked more than the other conditions with this audience of women. Significant differences in attention, understanding, and intent to use the information existed across modalities. The Web site performed better than other modalities on knowledge outcomes, with no differences in knowledge retention from T1 toT2. Conclusions and Implications: The Web site modality performed best with this audience of women, indicating that interactive computer games may not confer greater benefits than traditional modes of information delivery for all audiences, particularly those with low computer skills. \copyright2008 SOCIETY FOR NUTRITION EDUCATION.},
6040         keywords = {Entertainment-education, evaluation, media uses and gratifications, nutrition literacy},
6041         author = {Silk, K. J. and Sherry, J. and Winn, B. and Keesecker, N. and Horodynski, M. A. and Sayir, A.}
6042 }
6043 @mastersthesis {,
6044         title = {The invention of good games: Understanding learning design in commercial video games},
6045         year = {2008},
6046         pages = {425},
6047         school = {University of Calgary},
6048         type = {PhD},
6049         address = {Calgary, Alberta},
6050         abstract = {This work sought to help inform the design of educational digital games by the studying the design of successful commercial videogames. The main thesis question was: How does a commercially and critically successful modern video game support the learning that players must accomplish in order to succeed in the game (i.e. get to the end or win)? This work takes a two-pronged approach to supporting the main argument, which is that the reason we can learn about designing educational games by studying commercial games is that people already learn from games and the best ones are already quite effective at teaching players what they need to learn in order to succeed in the game. The first part of the research establishes a foundation for the argument, namely that accepted pedagogy can be found in existing commercial games. The second part of the work proposes new methods for analysing games that can uncover mechanisms used to support learning in games which can be emplyed even if those games were not originally designed as educational objects. In order to support the claim that {\textquoteleft}good{\textquoteright} commercial videogames already embody elements of sound pedagogy an explicit connection is made between game design and formally accepted theory and models in teaching and learning. During this phase of the work a significant concern was raised regarding the classification of games as {\textquoteleft}good{\textquoteright}, so a new methodology using Borda Counts was devised and tested that combines various disjoint subjective reviews and rankings from disparate sources in non-trivial manner that accounts for relative standings. Complementary to that was a meta-analysis of the criteria used to select games chosen as subjects of study as reported by researchers. Then, several games were chosen using this new ranking method and analysed using another new methodology that was designed for this work, called Instructional Ethology. This is a new methodology for game design deconstruction and analysis that would allows the extraction of information about mechanisms used to support learning. This methodology combines behavioural and structural analysis to examine how commercial games support learning by examining the game itself from the perspective of what the game does. Further, this methodology can be applied to the analysis of any software system and offers a new approach to studying any interactive software. The results of the present study offered new insights into how several highly successful commercial games support players while they learn what they must learn in order to succeed in those games. A new design model was proposed, known as the {\textquoteright}Magic Bullet{\textquoteright} that allows designers to visualize the relative proportions of potential learning in a game to assess the potential of a design. },
6051         keywords = {Learning Design, Video Games},
6052         url = {http://www.minkhollow.ca/KB/PhD/Thesis07/doku.php?id=thesis:main},
6053         author = {Becker,Katrin}
6054 }
6055 @article {4464,
6056         title = {Kids{\textquoteright} Ad Play: Regulating Children{\textquoteright}s Advergames in the Converging Media Context},
6057         journal = {International Journal of Communications Law and Policy},
6058         volume = {8},
6059         year = {2008},
6060         pages = {162-78},
6061         chapter = {162},
6062         abstract = {This article explores possibilities for regulating emerging forms of advertising within children{\textquoteright}s online culture, focusing specifically on the rising phenomenon of advergames. An immensely popular form of entertainment among children and teens, advergames integrate advertising and market research strategies directly into the fabric of online games and environments. I begin by situating advergames within broader traditions of advertising to children. I then present and discuss four potential {\textquotedblleft}points of entry{\textquotedblright} for the regulation of these new media advertising practices, which include media regulation, consumer protection law, industry self regulation and contract law. As media regulation in Canada and the US share many similarities, and because children{\textquoteright}s digital media is most often transnational with a large proportion of content originating from the US, the discussion draws upon both Canadian and US legislation, providing comparisons where relevant. I discuss different courses of action that could potentially establish clearer restrictions on marketers{\textquoteright} interactions with children online, as well as enforce regulation of the role of advertising in children{\textquoteright}s online games. The aim of this paper is to explore the Canadian government{\textquoteright}s position that existing regulatory frameworks can be effectively extended to digital media, as well as demonstrate the necessity of enhanced coordination and integration if these regulatory regimes are to remain relevant within the converging media context.},
6063         keywords = {Advergames, children{\textquoteright}s media, cross-cultural study, online games, regulation},
6064         url = {http://www.ijclp.net/files/ijclp_web-doc_8-12-2008.pdf},
6065         author = {Grimes, Sara M}
6066 }
6067 @article {3212,
6068         title = {Language Games/Game Languages: Examining Game Design Epistemologies Through a {\textquoteleft}Wittgensteinian{\textquoteright} Lens},
6069         journal = {ELUDAMOS Journal for Computer Game Culture},
6070         volume = {1},
6071         year = {2008},
6072         pages = {55-71},
6073         abstract = {Recent theorizing around games and notions of play has drawn from a pool of mid-20th century scholars including such notables as Johann Huizinga, Gregory Bateson, Roger Caillois and Ludwig Wittgenstein. Through his articulation of the concept of language as a type of game, Wittgenstein has been both adopted and critiqued for purposes of circumscribing what are now commonly held as the necessary constituents of games including their systemic nature and the acquiescence of their participants to an agreed-upon rule structure: a set of rules which Wittgenstein likens to the {\textquoteleft}grammar{\textquoteright} of language (Salen and Zimmerman, 2001;Suits, 1978; Juul, 2005; Wittgenstein, 1953; Finch, 2001; Brenner, 1999). 
6074 Although thus far Wittgenstein has served as a pillar of 20th and 21st century game theory canon, this paper adopts Wittgenstein{\textquoteright}s notion of language-games not for purposes of examining games, but for purposes of examining the design of games.  The pursuit of this paper is to utilize Wittgenstein{\textquoteright}s lens of the language-game to investigate what it is that informs and consequently shapes and reinforces game design epistemologies in an attempt to encourage a reflexivity about the design practices behind the games we create.},
6075         keywords = {design, epistemology, Game, Language, Meaning, PLAY},
6076         url = {http://www.eludamos.org/index.php/eludamos/article/view/21},
6077         author = {Bojin,Nis}
6078 }
6079 @article {Jannink:2008xq,
6080         title = {A low-cost video game applied for training of upper extremity function in children with cerebral palsy: A pilot study},
6081         journal = {Cyberpsychology and Behavior},
6082         volume = {11},
6083         number = {1},
6084         year = {2008},
6085         pages = {27-32},
6086         type = {article},
6087         address = {Roessingh Research and Development, Enschede, Netherlands},
6088         abstract = {The aim of the present study was to determine the user satisfaction of the EyeToy for the training of the upper limb in children with cerebral palsy (CP). User satisfaction was measured in 12 children with CP, using a postexperience questionnaire, primarily based on a presence questionnaire. In general, children with CP were satisfied with and motivated by the EyeToy training. In addition, a first evaluation study was performed to determine the effect of this training method on the upper limb function. Ten children with CP were randomly assigned to the intervention (mean age 11 years, 9 months; SD 2,3) and the control group (mean age 12 years, 3 months; SD 3,2). After a treatment period of 6 weeks, the intervention group completed a user satisfaction questionnaire. Functional outcome was measured using the Melbourne Assessment scores. Percentage scores of the Melbourne Assessment of 7 of the 10 children were the same or changed only 1\% to 2\% from baseline to followup. However, in the experimental group, two children improved more, 9\% and 13\% respectively. In conclusion, it can be said that the EyeToy is a motivational training tool for the training of children with CP and has the potential to improve upper extremity function. \copyright2008 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.},
6089         url = {http://www.liebertonline.com/doi/abs/10.1089/cpb.2007.0014},
6090         author = {Jannink, M. J. A. and Van Der Wilden, G. J. and Navis, D. W. and Visser, G. and Gussinklo, J. and Ijzerman, M.}
6091 }
6092 @proceedings {4157,
6093         title = {The Magic Circle and the Puzzle Piece},
6094         journal = {Philosophy of Computer Games},
6095         year = {2008},
6096         publisher = {Potsdam University Pres},
6097         address = {Potsdam},
6098         url = {http://opus.kobv.de/ubp/volltexte/2008/2455/pdf/digarec01_03.pdf},
6099         author = {Juul,Jesper}
6100 }
6101 @article {Chin-A-Paw:2008l,
6102         title = {The motivation of children to play an active video game},
6103         journal = {Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport},
6104         volume = {11},
6105         number = {2},
6106         year = {2008},
6107         pages = {163-166},
6108         type = {article},
6109         address = {EMGO Institute, Department of Public and Occupational Health, VU University Medical Center, Netherlands},
6110         abstract = {The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the effect of a weekly multiplayer class on the motivation of children aged 9-12 years to play an interactive dance simulation video game (IDSVG) at home over a period of 12 weeks. A sample of 27 children was randomly assigned to (1) a home group instructed to play the IDSVG at home; (2) a multiplayer group instructed to play the IDSVG at home and to participate in a weekly IDSVG multiplayer class. Participants were asked to play the IDSVG as often as they liked and report the playing time daily on a calendar for a 12-week period. Motivation to play was assessed by the playing duration of IDSVG in minutes and the dropout during the study. Mean age of the 16 children who completed the study was 10.6 $\pm$0.8 years. During the 12-week intervention period, the multiplayer group played approximately twice as many minutes (901 min) as the home group (376 min, p = 0.13). Dropout was significantly (p = 0.02) lower in the multiplayer group (15\%) than in the home group (64\%). Our findings suggest that multiplayer classes may increase children{\textquoteright}s motivation to play interactive dance simulation video games. \copyright2007 Sports Medicine Australia.},
6111         keywords = {Dance simulation video, intervention, physical activity, Youth},
6112         author = {Chin A Paw, M. J. M. and Jacobs, W. M. and Vaessen, E. P. G. and Titze, S. and van Mechelen, W.}
6113 }
6114 @article {Kutner:2008zk,
6115         title = {Parents{\textquoteright} and sons{\textquoteright} perspectives on video game play: A qualitative study},
6116         journal = {Journal of Adolescent Research},
6117         volume = {23},
6118         number = {1},
6119         year = {2008},
6120         pages = {76-96},
6121         type = {article},
6122         address = {Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital},
6123         abstract = {Public policy efforts to restrict children{\textquoteright}s access to electronic games with violent or sexual content are often predicated on assumptions about parental concerns. As an initial step in determining whether those assumptions are accurate, the authors conduct focus groups of 21 adolescent boys and 21 of their parents or guardians to explore parents{\textquoteright} concerns, compare parents{\textquoteright} and children{\textquoteright}s perceptions, and see whether these are consistent with the focus of proposed legislation and other public policy efforts. Parents{\textquoteright} primary concern is that games not interfere with their children{\textquoteright}s schoolwork, social skills, and exercise. They worry about exposure to violent content, but definitions of and opinions about what is harmful vary and may not match proposed public policies. \copyright2008 Sage Publications.},
6124         keywords = {adolescence, Focus groups, Media Violence, Parenting, Video Games},
6125         author = {Kutner, L. A. and Olson, C. K. and Warner, D. E. and Hertzog, S. M.}
6126 }
6127 @conference {Yen:2008co,
6128         title = {Pattern matching in go game records},
6129         booktitle = {Second International Conference on Innovative Computing, Information and Control, ICICIC 2007},
6130         year = {2008},
6131         type = {inproceedings},
6132         address = {Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien, Taiwan},
6133         abstract = {Many professional Go games, Go life-and-death problems and others are saved as digital game records by SGF (Smart Game Format). Valuable information hides in these records. This article presents a novel Go game record information retrieval system. In this system, the most difficult part is Go pattern matching in Go game records. In this article, a Go pattern matching algorithm is given to find game records that contain a desired query pattern. Then, a proposed index structure for a Go record database integrates methods of information retrieval and domain knowledge of Go. This index can increase the speed of pattern matching in the game database. \copyright2007 IEEE.},
6134         author = {Yen, S. -J. and Yang, T. -N. and Chen, J. -C. and Hsu, S. -C.}
6135 }
6136 @inbook {4528,
6137         title = {Per un{\textquoteright}analisi comparata del suono nei videogiochi e nel cinema},
6138         booktitle = {Schermi interattivi saggi critici su videogiochi e cinema},
6139         year = {2008},
6140         pages = {95-121},
6141         publisher = {Meltemi},
6142         organization = {Meltemi},
6143         address = {Roma},
6144         keywords = {audio, sound},
6145         issn = {978-88-8353-634-2},
6146         author = {Grimshaw, Mark}
6147 }
6148 @article {Case-Smith:2008g,
6149         title = {Play preferences of typically developing children and children with developmental delays between ages 3 and 7 years},
6150         journal = {OTJR Occupation, Participation and Health},
6151         volume = {28},
6152         number = {1},
6153         year = {2008},
6154         pages = {19-29},
6155         type = {article},
6156         address = {Division of Occupational Therapy, School of Allied Medical Professions, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States},
6157         abstract = {This cross-sectional survey research investigated play preferences of children with and without developmental delays who were between 3 and 7 years old. Parents completed questionnaires regarding their child{\textquoteright}s play activity and context preferences. Valid results were obtained for 166 children, 83 of whom had developmental delays. Preference ratings were compared by gender, age, and delay status. Play preference did not differ by gender. Rough-and-tumble play and computer/video game play increased with age, whereas object exploration decreased. Children with developmental delays had higher preferences for rough-and-tumble play and object exploration and lower preferences for drawing and coloring, construction, and doll and action figurine play than typically developing children. This comparison of children{\textquoteright}s play preferences across ages, gender, and developmental status enhances our understanding of how these variables influence children{\textquoteright}s play.},
6158         keywords = {Gender, Play occupations},
6159         author = {Case-Smith, J. and Kuhaneck, H. M.}
6160 }
6161 @book {3207,
6162         title = {The Pleasures of Computer Gaming},
6163         year = {2008},
6164         pages = {203},
6165         publisher = {McFarland},
6166         organization = {McFarland},
6167         address = {Jefferson, N.C.},
6168         keywords = {aesthetics, Computer games, history, Theory},
6169         isbn = {078643595X},
6170         issn = {078643595X},
6171         author = {Swalwell,Melanie and Jason Wilson}
6172 }
6173 @article {Reiner:2008jz,
6174         title = {The Potential for Gaming Techniques in Radiology Education and Practice},
6175         journal = {JACR Journal of the American College of Radiology},
6176         volume = {5},
6177         number = {2},
6178         year = {2008},
6179         pages = {110-114},
6180         type = {article},
6181         address = {Baltimore VA Medical Center, Diagnostic Imaging, Baltimore, MD, United States},
6182         abstract = {Traditional means of communication, education and training, and research have been dramatically transformed with the advent of computerized medicine, and no other medical specialty has been more greatly affected than radiology. Of the myriad of newer computer applications currently available, computer gaming stands out for its unique potential to enhance end-user performance and job satisfaction. Research in other disciplines has demonstrated computer gaming to offer the potential for enhanced decision making, resource management, visual acuity, memory, and motor skills. Within medical imaging, video gaming provides a novel means to enhance radiologist and technologist performance and visual perception by increasing attentional capacity, visual field of view, and visual-motor coordination. These enhancements take on heightened importance with the increasing size and complexity of three-dimensional imaging datasets. Although these operational gains are important in themselves, psychologic gains intrinsic to video gaming offer the potential to reduce stress and improve job satisfaction by creating a fun and engaging means of spirited competition. By creating customized gaming programs and rewards systems, video game applications can be customized to the skill levels and preferences of individual users, thereby creating a comprehensive means to improve individual and collective job performance. \copyright2008 American College of Radiology.},
6183         keywords = {medical education and training, Video gaming, visual perception},
6184         author = {Reiner, B. and Siegel, E.}
6185 }
6186 @article {Joe:2008go,
6187         title = {Proposing online game loyalty and its antecedents considering gender as a moderator: a qualitative study},
6188         journal = {Quality \& Quantity},
6189         year = {2008},
6190         pages = {1-11},
6191         type = {article},
6192         address = {Department of Business Administration, Vanung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan},
6193         abstract = {This study discusses the formation of consumer loyalty in the context of online games. Loyalty to a specific online game may be conceptualized in terms of repeat patronage, switching behavior, and word-of-mouth recommendations toward the game. A conceptual model is proposed. In the model, virtual power-status, incentive utility, relational interacting behavior, and feature enhancement indirectly influence loyalty through the mediation of satisfaction and commitment. Gender is proposed to moderate each model path given that individuals with stronger feminine or masculine identities are likely to make repeated consumption on online games based on different game product choices accordingly. Finally, the implications of the proposed model and suggestions for future research are also discussed. \copyright2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.},
6194         keywords = {Feature enhancement, Gender, Incentive utility, loyalty, Relational interacting behavior, Virtual power-status},
6195         author = {Joe, S. -W. and Chiu, C. -K.}
6196 }
6197 @article {Ravaja:2008oi,
6198         title = {The Psychophysiology of James Bond: Phasic Emotional Responses to Violent Video Game Events},
6199         journal = {Emotion},
6200         volume = {8},
6201         number = {1},
6202         year = {2008},
6203         pages = {114-120},
6204         type = {article},
6205         address = {Center for Knowledge and Innovation Research, Helsinki School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland},
6206         abstract = {The authors examined emotional valence- and arousal-related phasic psychophysiological responses to different violent events in the first-person shooter video game "James Bond 007: NightFire" among 36 young adults. Event-related changes in zygomaticus major, corrugator supercilii, and orbicularis oculi electromyographic (EMG) activity and skin conductance level (SCL) were recorded, and the participants rated their emotions and the trait psychoticism based on the Psychoticism dimension of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised, Short Form. Wounding and killing the opponent elicited an increase in SCL and a decrease in zygomatic and orbicularis oculi EMG activity. The decrease in zygomatic and orbicularis oculi activity was less pronounced among high Psychoticism scorers compared with low Psychoticism scorers. The wounding and death of the player{\textquoteright}s own character (James Bond) elicited an increase in SCL and zygomatic and orbicularis oculi EMG activity and a decrease in corrugator activity. Instead of joy resulting from victory and success, wounding and killing the opponent may elicit high-arousal negative affect (anxiety), with high Psychoticism scorers experiencing less anxiety than low Psychoticism scorers. Although counterintuitive, the wounding and death of the player{\textquoteright}s own character may increase some aspect of positive emotion. \copyright2008 American Psychological Association.},
6207         keywords = {aggressive behavior, emotions, facial EMG, skin conductance, Video Games},
6208         author = {Ravaja, N. and Turpeinen, M. and Saari, T. and Puttonen, S. and Keltikangas-J{\"a}rvinen, L.}
6209 }
6210 @article {Olson:2008tw,
6211         title = {The role of violent video game content in adolescent development: Boys{\textquoteright} perspectives},
6212         journal = {Journal of Adolescent Research},
6213         volume = {23},
6214         number = {1},
6215         year = {2008},
6216         pages = {55-75},
6217         type = {article},
6218         address = {Massachusetts General Hospital},
6219         abstract = {Numerous policies have been proposed at the local, state, and national level to restrict youth access to violent video and computer games. Although studies are cited to support policies, there is no published research on how children perceive the uses and influence of violent interactive games. The authors conduct focus groups with 42 boys ages 12 to 14. Boys use games to experience fantasies of power and fame, to explore and master what they perceive as exciting and realistic environments (but distinct from real life), to work through angry feelings or relieve stress, and as social tools. Boys did not believe they had been harmed by violent games but were concerned that younger children might imitate game behavior (especially swearing). \copyright2008 Sage Publications.},
6220         keywords = {adolescence, anger, Focus groups, Gender, Media Violence, Video Games},
6221         author = {Olson, C. K. and Kutner, L. A. and Warner, D. E.}
6222 }
6223 @article {4463,
6224         title = {Saturday Morning Cartoons Go MMOG},
6225         journal = {Media International Australia},
6226         year = {2008},
6227         pages = {120-31},
6228         chapter = {120},
6229         abstract = {This paper traces the migration of North American children{\textquoteright}s television into the realm of massively multiplayer online games (MMOGs), and the issues this raises in terms of the commercialisation of children{\textquoteright}s (digital) play. Through a content analysis of three television-themed MMOGs targeted to children, Nickelodeon{\textquoteright}s Nicktropolis, Cartoon Network{\textquoteright}s Big Fat Awesome House Party and Corus Entertainment{\textquoteright}s GalaXseeds, I examine how this new development within children{\textquoteright}s online culture operates in relation to existing industry practices of cross-media integration and promotion. Dominant trends identified in the content analysis are compared with emerging conventions within the MMOG genre, which is generally found to contain numerous opportunities for player creativity and collaboration. Within the cases examined, however, many of these opportunities have been omitted and ultimately replaced by promotional features. I conclude that all three case studies operate primarily as large-scale advergames, promoting transmedia intertextuality and third-party advertiser interests.},
6230         keywords = {children\&$\#$039;s media, children{\textquoteright}s television, media convergence, MMOGs, Transmedia, virtual worlds},
6231         url = {http://www.uq.edu.au/emsah/mia/issues/mia126.html$\#$grimes},
6232         author = {Grimes, Sara M}
6233 }
6234 @article {4369,
6235         title = {Serious Games : Advergaming, edugaming, training and more},
6236         year = {2008},
6237         institution = {IDATE},
6238         abstract = {By analysing in detail the characteristics, uses and different genres of serious game, this study outlines the challenges involved with the design, development and distribution of various types of title. Similarly, the report examines the outlook for the industry and its probable growth drivers. The serious gaming market is of considerable importance. As the link between traditional video games and practical software, serious games offer a genuine opportunity to develop a sector that is all too often considered a niche. Furthermore, they offer huge potential for growth: "In 2008,{\textquotedblright} comments Laurent Michaud, project leader of the report, {\textquotedblleft}the number of potential users worldwide stands between 600 million and one billion.{\textquotedblright} This number includes purchasers and non purchasers of video games, and though the under 25s represent the key target audience, serious games are aimed at all age groups.},
6239         keywords = {advergame, advergaming, edugame, edugaming, edumarket game, news game, serious game, serious gaming},
6240         url = {http://ja.games.free.fr/ludoscience/PDF/EtudeIDATE08_UK.pdf},
6241         author = {J. Alvarez and L. Michaud}
6242 }
6243 @article {Willoughby:2008s,
6244         title = {A Short-Term Longitudinal Study of Internet and Computer Game Use by Adolescent Boys and Girls: Prevalence, Frequency of Use, and Psychosocial Predictors},
6245         journal = {Developmental Psychology},
6246         volume = {44},
6247         number = {1},
6248         year = {2008},
6249         pages = {195-204},
6250         type = {article},
6251         address = {Brock University},
6252         abstract = {Prevalence, frequency, and psychosocial predictors of Internet and computer game use were assessed with 803 male and 788 female adolescents across 2 time periods, 21 months apart. At Time 1, participants were in the 9th or 10th grade; at Time 2, they were in the 11th or 12th grade. Most girls (93.7\%) and boys (94.7\%) reported using the Internet at both time periods, whereas more boys (80.3\%) than girls (28.8\%) reported gaming at both time periods. Girls reported a small decrease over time in the frequency of hours spent per day on overall technology use, mostly due to a decrease in gaming. Both linear and curvilinear relations were examined between parental relationships, friendship quality, academic orientation, and well-being measured in early high school and the frequency of technology use in late high school. Being male significantly predicted both computer gaming and Internet use. There also were trends in favor of higher friendship quality and less positive parental relationships predicting higher frequency of Internet use. Importantly, moderate use of the Internet was associated with a more positive academic orientation than nonuse or high levels of use. \copyright2008 American Psychological Association.},
6253         keywords = {adolescence, computer game use, Gender, internet use, psychosocial adjustment},
6254         author = {Willoughby, T.}
6255 }
6256 @article {Ferguson:2008zb,
6257         title = {Violent video games and aggression: Causal relationship or byproduct of family violence and intrinsic violence motivation?},
6258         journal = {Criminal Justice and Behavior},
6259         volume = {35},
6260         number = {3},
6261         year = {2008},
6262         pages = {311-332},
6263         type = {article},
6264         address = {Texas A and M International University},
6265         abstract = {Two studies examined the relationship between exposure to violent video games and aggression or violence in the laboratory and in real life. Study 1 participants were either randomized or allowed to choose to play a violent or nonviolent game. Although males were more aggressive than females, neither randomized exposure to violent-video-game conditions nor previous real-life exposure to violent video games caused any differences in aggression. Study 2 examined correlations between trait aggression, violent criminal acts, and exposure to both violent games and family violence. Results indicated that trait aggression, family violence, and male gender were predictive of violent crime, but exposure to violent games was not. Structural equation modeling suggested that family violence and innate aggression as predictors of violent crime were a better fit to the data than was exposure to video game violence. These results question the common belief that violent-video-game exposure causes violent acts. \copyright2008 American Association for Correctional and Forensic Psychology.},
6266         keywords = {Aggression, Computer games, Family violence, Personality, Violent crime},
6267         author = {Ferguson, C. J. and Rueda, S. M. and Cruz, A. M. and Ferguson, D. E. and Fritz, S. and Smith, S. M.}
6268 }
6269 @article {Gentile:2008ng,
6270         title = {Violent video games as exemplary teachers: A conceptual analysis},
6271         journal = {Journal of Youth and Adolescence},
6272         volume = {37},
6273         number = {2},
6274         year = {2008},
6275         pages = {127-141},
6276         type = {article},
6277         address = {Department of Psychology, Iowa State University, W112 Lagomarcino Hall, Ames, IA 50011-3180, United States},
6278         abstract = {This article presents conceptual and empirical analyses of several of the "best practices" of learning and instruction, and demonstrates how violent video games use them effectively to motivate learners to persevere in acquiring and mastering a number of skills, to navigate through complex problems and changing environments, and to experiment with different identities until success is achieved. These educational principles allow for the generation of several testable hypotheses, two of which are tested with samples of 430 elementary school children (mean age 10 years), 607 young adolescents (mean age 14 years), and 1,441 older adolescents (mean age 19 years). Participants