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0001 GNU Free Documentation License 0002 Version 1.2, November 2002 0003 0004 0005 Copyright (C) 2000,2001,2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc. 0006 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA 0007 Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies 0008 of this license document, but changing it is not allowed. 0009 0010 0011 0. PREAMBLE 0012 0013 The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other 0014 functional and useful document "free" in the sense of freedom: to 0015 assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, 0016 with or without modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially. 0017 Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a way 0018 to get credit for their work, while not being considered responsible 0019 for modifications made by others. 0020 0021 This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative 0022 works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It 0023 complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft 0024 license designed for free software. 0025 0026 We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free 0027 software, because free software needs free documentation: a free 0028 program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the 0029 software does. But this License is not limited to software manuals; 0030 it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or 0031 whether it is published as a printed book. We recommend this License 0032 principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference. 0033 0034 0035 1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS 0036 0037 This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, that 0038 contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be 0039 distributed under the terms of this License. Such a notice grants a 0040 world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration, to use that 0041 work under the conditions stated herein. The "Document", below, 0042 refers to any such manual or work. Any member of the public is a 0043 licensee, and is addressed as "you". You accept the license if you 0044 copy, modify or distribute the work in a way requiring permission 0045 under copyright law. 0046 0047 A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the 0048 Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with 0049 modifications and/or translated into another language. 0050 0051 A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section of 0052 the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the 0053 publishers or authors of the Document to the Document's overall subject 0054 (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly 0055 within that overall subject. (Thus, if the Document is in part a 0056 textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain any 0057 mathematics.) The relationship could be a matter of historical 0058 connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal, 0059 commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position regarding 0060 them. 0061 0062 The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose titles 0063 are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice 0064 that says that the Document is released under this License. If a 0065 section does not fit the above definition of Secondary then it is not 0066 allowed to be designated as Invariant. The Document may contain zero 0067 Invariant Sections. If the Document does not identify any Invariant 0068 Sections then there are none. 0069 0070 The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are listed, 0071 as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that 0072 the Document is released under this License. A Front-Cover Text may 0073 be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may be at most 25 words. 0074 0075 A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy, 0076 represented in a format whose specification is available to the 0077 general public, that is suitable for revising the document 0078 straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of 0079 pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available 0080 drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or 0081 for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input 0082 to text formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file 0083 format whose markup, or absence of markup, has been arranged to thwart 0084 or discourage subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent. 0085 An image format is not Transparent if used for any substantial amount 0086 of text. A copy that is not "Transparent" is called "Opaque". 0087 0088 Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain 0089 ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML 0090 or XML using a publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming simple 0091 HTML, PostScript or PDF designed for human modification. Examples of 0092 transparent image formats include PNG, XCF and JPG. Opaque formats 0093 include proprietary formats that can be read and edited only by 0094 proprietary word processors, SGML or XML for which the DTD and/or 0095 processing tools are not generally available, and the 0096 machine-generated HTML, PostScript or PDF produced by some word 0097 processors for output purposes only. 0098 0099 The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself, 0100 plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material 0101 this License requires to appear in the title page. For works in 0102 formats which do not have any title page as such, "Title Page" means 0103 the text near the most prominent appearance of the work's title, 0104 preceding the beginning of the body of the text. 0105 0106 A section "Entitled XYZ" means a named subunit of the Document whose 0107 title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses following 0108 text that translates XYZ in another language. (Here XYZ stands for a 0109 specific section name mentioned below, such as "Acknowledgements", 0110 "Dedications", "Endorsements", or "History".) To "Preserve the Title" 0111 of such a section when you modify the Document means that it remains a 0112 section "Entitled XYZ" according to this definition. 0113 0114 The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which 0115 states that this License applies to the Document. These Warranty 0116 Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in this 0117 License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other 0118 implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and has 0119 no effect on the meaning of this License. 0120 0121 0122 2. VERBATIM COPYING 0123 0124 You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either 0125 commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the 0126 copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License applies 0127 to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no other 0128 conditions whatsoever to those of this License. You may not use 0129 technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further 0130 copying of the copies you make or distribute. However, you may accept 0131 compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large enough 0132 number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3. 0133 0134 You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and 0135 you may publicly display copies. 0136 0137 0138 3. COPYING IN QUANTITY 0139 0140 If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly have 0141 printed covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and the 0142 Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the 0143 copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover 0144 Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on 0145 the back cover. Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify 0146 you as the publisher of these copies. The front cover must present 0147 the full title with all words of the title equally prominent and 0148 visible. You may add other material on the covers in addition. 0149 Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve 0150 the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated 0151 as verbatim copying in other respects. 0152 0153 If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit 0154 legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit 0155 reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent 0156 pages. 0157 0158 If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering 0159 more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent 0160 copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy 0161 a computer-network location from which the general network-using 0162 public has access to download using public-standard network protocols 0163 a complete Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material. 0164 If you use the latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, 0165 when you begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure 0166 that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated 0167 location until at least one year after the last time you distribute an 0168 Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that 0169 edition to the public. 0170 0171 It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the 0172 Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give 0173 them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document. 0174 0175 0176 4. MODIFICATIONS 0177 0178 You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under 0179 the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release 0180 the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified 0181 Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution 0182 and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy 0183 of it. In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version: 0184 0185 A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct 0186 from that of the Document, and from those of previous versions 0187 (which should, if there were any, be listed in the History section 0188 of the Document). You may use the same title as a previous version 0189 if the original publisher of that version gives permission. 0190 B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities 0191 responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified 0192 Version, together with at least five of the principal authors of the 0193 Document (all of its principal authors, if it has fewer than five), 0194 unless they release you from this requirement. 0195 C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the 0196 Modified Version, as the publisher. 0197 D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document. 0198 E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications 0199 adjacent to the other copyright notices. 0200 F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice 0201 giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under the 0202 terms of this License, in the form shown in the Addendum below. 0203 G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections 0204 and required Cover Texts given in the Document's license notice. 0205 H. Include an unaltered copy of this License. 0206 I. Preserve the section Entitled "History", Preserve its Title, and add 0207 to it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and 0208 publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If 0209 there is no section Entitled "History" in the Document, create one 0210 stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as 0211 given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified 0212 Version as stated in the previous sentence. 0213 J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for 0214 public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise 0215 the network locations given in the Document for previous versions 0216 it was based on. These may be placed in the "History" section. 0217 You may omit a network location for a work that was published at 0218 least four years before the Document itself, or if the original 0219 publisher of the version it refers to gives permission. 0220 K. For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications", 0221 Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the section all 0222 the substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements 0223 and/or dedications given therein. 0224 L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, 0225 unaltered in their text and in their titles. Section numbers 0226 or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles. 0227 M. Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements". Such a section 0228 may not be included in the Modified Version. 0229 N. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled "Endorsements" 0230 or to conflict in title with any Invariant Section. 0231 O. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers. 0232 0233 If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or 0234 appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material 0235 copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all 0236 of these sections as invariant. To do this, add their titles to the 0237 list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's license notice. 0238 These titles must be distinct from any other section titles. 0239 0240 You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains 0241 nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various 0242 parties--for example, statements of peer review or that the text has 0243 been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a 0244 standard. 0245 0246 You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a 0247 passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list 0248 of Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of 0249 Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or 0250 through arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already 0251 includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or 0252 by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of, 0253 you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit 0254 permission from the previous publisher that added the old one. 0255 0256 The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License 0257 give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or 0258 imply endorsement of any Modified Version. 0259 0260 0261 5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS 0262 0263 You may combine the Document with other documents released under this 0264 License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified 0265 versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the 0266 Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and 0267 list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its 0268 license notice, and that you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers. 0269 0270 The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and 0271 multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single 0272 copy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but 0273 different contents, make the title of each such section unique by 0274 adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original 0275 author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number. 0276 Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of 0277 Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work. 0278 0279 In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled "History" 0280 in the various original documents, forming one section Entitled 0281 "History"; likewise combine any sections Entitled "Acknowledgements", 0282 and any sections Entitled "Dedications". You must delete all sections 0283 Entitled "Endorsements". 0284 0285 0286 6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS 0287 0288 You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents 0289 released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this 0290 License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in 0291 the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for 0292 verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects. 0293 0294 You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute 0295 it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this 0296 License into the extracted document, and follow this License in all 0297 other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document. 0298 0299 0300 7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS 0301 0302 A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate 0303 and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or 0304 distribution medium, is called an "aggregate" if the copyright 0305 resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights 0306 of the compilation's users beyond what the individual works permit. 0307 When the Document is included in an aggregate, this License does not 0308 apply to the other works in the aggregate which are not themselves 0309 derivative works of the Document. 0310 0311 If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these 0312 copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of 0313 the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on 0314 covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the 0315 electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form. 0316 Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole 0317 aggregate. 0318 0319 0320 8. TRANSLATION 0321 0322 Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may 0323 distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4. 0324 Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special 0325 permission from their copyright holders, but you may include 0326 translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the 0327 original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a 0328 translation of this License, and all the license notices in the 0329 Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also include 0330 the original English version of this License and the original versions 0331 of those notices and disclaimers. In case of a disagreement between 0332 the translation and the original version of this License or a notice 0333 or disclaimer, the original version will prevail. 0334 0335 If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements", 0336 "Dedications", or "History", the requirement (section 4) to Preserve 0337 its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the actual 0338 title. 0339 0340 0341 9. TERMINATION 0342 0343 You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except 0344 as expressly provided for under this License. Any other attempt to 0345 copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and will 0346 automatically terminate your rights under this License. However, 0347 parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under this 0348 License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such 0349 parties remain in full compliance. 0350 0351 0352 10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE 0353 0354 The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions 0355 of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new 0356 versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may 0357 differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. See 0358 http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/. 0359 0360 Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. 0361 If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this 0362 License "or any later version" applies to it, you have the option of 0363 following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or 0364 of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the 0365 Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version 0366 number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not 0367 as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. 0368 0369 0370 ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents 0371 0372 To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of 0373 the License in the document and put the following copyright and 0374 license notices just after the title page: 0375 0376 Copyright (c) YEAR YOUR NAME. 0377 Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document 0378 under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 0379 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; 0380 with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. 0381 A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU 0382 Free Documentation License". 0383 0384 If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts, 0385 replace the "with...Texts." line with this: 0386 0387 with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the 0388 Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST. 0389 0390 If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other 0391 combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the 0392 situation. 0393 0394 If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we 0395 recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of 0396 free software license, such as the GNU General Public License, 0397 to permit their use in free software.