Warning, /education/step/LICENSES/GFDL-1.2-or-later.txt is written in an unsupported language. File is not indexed.

0001 GNU Free Documentation License
0003 Version 1.2, November 2002
0005 Copyright (C) 2000,2001,2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc. 51 Franklin St,
0006 Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA
0008 Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license
0009 document, but changing it is not allowed.
0011    0. PREAMBLE
0013 The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other functional
0014 and useful document "free" in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the
0015 effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without modifying it,
0016 either commercially or noncommercially. Secondarily, this License preserves
0017 for the author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not
0018 being considered responsible for modifications made by others.
0020 This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative works of
0021 the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It complements the
0022 GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft license designed for free
0023 software.
0025 We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free software,
0026 because free software needs free documentation: a free program should come
0027 with manuals providing the same freedoms that the software does. But this
0028 License is not limited to software manuals; it can be used for any textual
0029 work, regardless of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed
0030 book. We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is instruction
0031 or reference.
0035 This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, that contains
0036 a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed under
0037 the terms of this License. Such a notice grants a world-wide, royalty-free
0038 license, unlimited in duration, to use that work under the conditions stated
0039 herein. The "Document", below, refers to any such manual or work. Any member
0040 of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as "you". You accept the license
0041 if you copy, modify or distribute the work in a way requiring permission under
0042 copyright law.
0044 A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the Document
0045 or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with modifications and/or translated
0046 into another language.
0048 A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section of the
0049 Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the publishers or
0050 authors of the Document to the Document's overall subject (or to related matters)
0051 and contains nothing that could fall directly within that overall subject.
0052 (Thus, if the Document is in part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section
0053 may not explain any mathematics.) The relationship could be a matter of historical
0054 connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal, commercial,
0055 philosophical, ethical or political position regarding them.
0057 The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose titles are designated,
0058 as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice that says that the Document
0059 is released under this License. If a section does not fit the above definition
0060 of Secondary then it is not allowed to be designated as Invariant. The Document
0061 may contain zero Invariant Sections. If the Document does not identify any
0062 Invariant Sections then there are none.
0064 The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are listed, as Front-Cover
0065 Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that the Document is released
0066 under this License. A Front-Cover Text may be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover
0067 Text may be at most 25 words.
0069 A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy, represented
0070 in a format whose specification is available to the general public, that is
0071 suitable for revising the document straightforwardly with generic text editors
0072 or (for images composed of pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings)
0073 some widely available drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text
0074 formatters or for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for
0075 input to text formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file format
0076 whose markup, or absence of markup, has been arranged to thwart or discourage
0077 subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent. An image format is
0078 not Transparent if used for any substantial amount of text. A copy that is
0079 not "Transparent" is called "Opaque".
0081 Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain ASCII without
0082 markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML or XML using a publicly
0083 available DTD, and standard-conforming simple HTML, PostScript or PDF designed
0084 for human modification. Examples of transparent image formats include PNG,
0085 XCF and JPG. Opaque formats include proprietary formats that can be read and
0086 edited only by proprietary word processors, SGML or XML for which the DTD
0087 and/or processing tools are not generally available, and the machine-generated
0088 HTML, PostScript or PDF produced by some word processors for output purposes
0089 only.
0091 The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself, plus such
0092 following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material this License
0093 requires to appear in the title page. For works in formats which do not have
0094 any title page as such, "Title Page" means the text near the most prominent
0095 appearance of the work's title, preceding the beginning of the body of the
0096 text.
0098 A section "Entitled XYZ" means a named subunit of the Document whose title
0099 either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses following text that
0100 translates XYZ in another language. (Here XYZ stands for a specific section
0101 name mentioned below, such as "Acknowledgements", "Dedications", "Endorsements",
0102 or "History".) To "Preserve the Title" of such a section when you modify the
0103 Document means that it remains a section "Entitled XYZ" according to this
0104 definition.
0106 The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which states
0107 that this License applies to the Document. These Warranty Disclaimers are
0108 considered to be included by reference in this License, but only as regards
0109 disclaiming warranties: any other implication that these Warranty Disclaimers
0110 may have is void and has no effect on the meaning of this License.
0114 You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either commercially
0115 or noncommercially, provided that this License, the copyright notices, and
0116 the license notice saying this License applies to the Document are reproduced
0117 in all copies, and that you add no other conditions whatsoever to those of
0118 this License. You may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the
0119 reading or further copying of the copies you make or distribute. However,
0120 you may accept compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large
0121 enough number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.
0123 You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and you
0124 may publicly display copies.
0128 If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly have printed
0129 covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and the Document's license
0130 notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the copies in covers that carry,
0131 clearly and legibly, all these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front
0132 cover, and Back-Cover Texts on the back cover. Both covers must also clearly
0133 and legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies. The front cover
0134 must present the full title with all words of the title equally prominent
0135 and visible. You may add other material on the covers in addition. Copying
0136 with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve the title of
0137 the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying
0138 in other respects.
0140 If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit legibly,
0141 you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit reasonably) on the actual
0142 cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent pages.
0144 If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering more
0145 than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent copy along
0146 with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy a computer-network
0147 location from which the general network-using public has access to download
0148 using public-standard network protocols a complete Transparent copy of the
0149 Document, free of added material. If you use the latter option, you must take
0150 reasonably prudent steps, when you begin distribution of Opaque copies in
0151 quantity, to ensure that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible
0152 at the stated location until at least one year after the last time you distribute
0153 an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that edition
0154 to the public.
0156 It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the Document
0157 well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give them a chance
0158 to provide you with an updated version of the Document.
0162 You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under the conditions
0163 of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release the Modified Version
0164 under precisely this License, with the Modified Version filling the role of
0165 the Document, thus licensing distribution and modification of the Modified
0166 Version to whoever possesses a copy of it. In addition, you must do these
0167 things in the Modified Version:
0169 A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct from
0170 that of the Document, and from those of previous versions (which should, if
0171 there were any, be listed in the History section of the Document). You may
0172 use the same title as a previous version if the original publisher of that
0173 version gives permission.
0175 B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities responsible
0176 for authorship of the modifications in the Modified Version, together with
0177 at least five of the principal authors of the Document (all of its principal
0178 authors, if it has fewer than five), unless they release you from this requirement.
0180 C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the Modified Version,
0181 as the publisher.
0183       D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
0185 E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications adjacent to
0186 the other copyright notices.
0188 F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice giving
0189 the public permission to use the Modified Version under the terms of this
0190 License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.
0192 G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections and
0193 required Cover Texts given in the Document's license notice.
0195       H. Include an unaltered copy of this License.
0197 I. Preserve the section Entitled "History", Preserve its Title, and add to
0198 it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and publisher of
0199 the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If there is no section Entitled
0200 "History" in the Document, create one stating the title, year, authors, and
0201 publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page, then add an item describing
0202 the Modified Version as stated in the previous sentence.
0204 J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for public
0205 access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise the network locations
0206 given in the Document for previous versions it was based on. These may be
0207 placed in the "History" section. You may omit a network location for a work
0208 that was published at least four years before the Document itself, or if the
0209 original publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.
0211 K. For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications", Preserve
0212 the Title of the section, and preserve in the section all the substance and
0213 tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements and/or dedications given
0214 therein.
0216 L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered in their
0217 text and in their titles. Section numbers or the equivalent are not considered
0218 part of the section titles.
0220 M. Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements". Such a section may not be included
0221 in the Modified Version.
0223 N. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled "Endorsements" or to
0224 conflict in title with any Invariant Section.
0226       O. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.
0228 If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that
0229 qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from the Document,
0230 you may at your option designate some or all of these sections as invariant.
0231 To do this, add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified
0232 Version's license notice. These titles must be distinct from any other section
0233 titles.
0235 You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains nothing
0236 but endorsements of your Modified Version by various parties--for example,
0237 statements of peer review or that the text has been approved by an organization
0238 as the authoritative definition of a standard.
0240 You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a passage
0241 of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list of Cover Texts
0242 in the Modified Version. Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover
0243 Text may be added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity. If
0244 the Document already includes a cover text for the same cover, previously
0245 added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf
0246 of, you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit
0247 permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.
0249 The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give
0250 permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or imply endorsement
0251 of any Modified Version.
0255 You may combine the Document with other documents released under this License,
0256 under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified versions, provided
0257 that you include in the combination all of the Invariant Sections of all of
0258 the original documents, unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections
0259 of your combined work in its license notice, and that you preserve all their
0260 Warranty Disclaimers.
0262 The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and multiple
0263 identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy. If there
0264 are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but different contents,
0265 make the title of each such section unique by adding at the end of it, in
0266 parentheses, the name of the original author or publisher of that section
0267 if known, or else a unique number. Make the same adjustment to the section
0268 titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined
0269 work.
0271 In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled "History" in the
0272 various original documents, forming one section Entitled "History"; likewise
0273 combine any sections Entitled "Acknowledgements", and any sections Entitled
0274 "Dedications". You must delete all sections Entitled "Endorsements".
0278 You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents released
0279 under this License, and replace the individual copies of this License in the
0280 various documents with a single copy that is included in the collection, provided
0281 that you follow the rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of
0282 the documents in all other respects.
0284 You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute it
0285 individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this License
0286 into the extracted document, and follow this License in all other respects
0287 regarding verbatim copying of that document.
0291 A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and independent
0292 documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium,
0293 is called an "aggregate" if the copyright resulting from the compilation is
0294 not used to limit the legal rights of the compilation's users beyond what
0295 the individual works permit. When the Document is included in an aggregate,
0296 this License does not apply to the other works in the aggregate which are
0297 not themselves derivative works of the Document.
0299 If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of
0300 the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of the entire aggregate,
0301 the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on covers that bracket the Document
0302 within the aggregate, or the electronic equivalent of covers if the Document
0303 is in electronic form. Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket
0304 the whole aggregate.
0306    8. TRANSLATION
0308 Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute translations
0309 of the Document under the terms of section 4. Replacing Invariant Sections
0310 with translations requires special permission from their copyright holders,
0311 but you may include translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition
0312 to the original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a translation
0313 of this License, and all the license notices in the Document, and any Warranty
0314 Disclaimers, provided that you also include the original English version of
0315 this License and the original versions of those notices and disclaimers. In
0316 case of a disagreement between the translation and the original version of
0317 this License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version will prevail.
0319 If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements", "Dedications",
0320 or "History", the requirement (section 4) to Preserve its Title (section 1)
0321 will typically require changing the actual title.
0323    9. TERMINATION
0325 You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as
0326 expressly provided for under this License. Any other attempt to copy, modify,
0327 sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and will automatically terminate
0328 your rights under this License. However, parties who have received copies,
0329 or rights, from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated
0330 so long as such parties remain in full compliance.
0334 The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU
0335 Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar
0336 in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new
0337 problems or concerns. See http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/.
0339 Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If the
0340 Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this License "or
0341 any later version" applies to it, you have the option of following the terms
0342 and conditions either of that specified version or of any later version that
0343 has been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the
0344 Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose
0345 any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.
0346 ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents
0348 To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of the
0349 License in the document and put the following copyright and license notices
0350 just after the title page:
0352 Copyright (c) YEAR YOUR NAME. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or
0353 modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License,
0354 Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
0355 with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts.
0356 A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation
0357 License".
0359 If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts, replace
0360 the "with...Texts." line with this:
0362 with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the Front-Cover
0363 Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST.
0365 If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other combination
0366 of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the situation.
0368 If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we recommend
0369 releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free software license,
0370 such as the GNU General Public License, to permit their use in free software.