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0001 GNU Free Documentation License 0002 0003 Version 1.2, November 2002 0004 0005 Copyright (C) 2000,2001,2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc. 51 Franklin St, 0006 Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA 0007 0008 Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license 0009 document, but changing it is not allowed. 0010 0011 0. PREAMBLE 0012 0013 The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other functional 0014 and useful document "free" in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the 0015 effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without modifying it, 0016 either commercially or noncommercially. Secondarily, this License preserves 0017 for the author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not 0018 being considered responsible for modifications made by others. 0019 0020 This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative works of 0021 the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It complements the 0022 GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft license designed for free 0023 software. 0024 0025 We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free software, 0026 because free software needs free documentation: a free program should come 0027 with manuals providing the same freedoms that the software does. But this 0028 License is not limited to software manuals; it can be used for any textual 0029 work, regardless of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed 0030 book. We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is instruction 0031 or reference. 0032 0033 1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS 0034 0035 This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, that contains 0036 a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed under 0037 the terms of this License. Such a notice grants a world-wide, royalty-free 0038 license, unlimited in duration, to use that work under the conditions stated 0039 herein. The "Document", below, refers to any such manual or work. Any member 0040 of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as "you". You accept the license 0041 if you copy, modify or distribute the work in a way requiring permission under 0042 copyright law. 0043 0044 A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the Document 0045 or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with modifications and/or translated 0046 into another language. 0047 0048 A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section of the 0049 Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the publishers or 0050 authors of the Document to the Document's overall subject (or to related matters) 0051 and contains nothing that could fall directly within that overall subject. 0052 (Thus, if the Document is in part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section 0053 may not explain any mathematics.) The relationship could be a matter of historical 0054 connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal, commercial, 0055 philosophical, ethical or political position regarding them. 0056 0057 The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose titles are designated, 0058 as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice that says that the Document 0059 is released under this License. If a section does not fit the above definition 0060 of Secondary then it is not allowed to be designated as Invariant. The Document 0061 may contain zero Invariant Sections. If the Document does not identify any 0062 Invariant Sections then there are none. 0063 0064 The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are listed, as Front-Cover 0065 Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that the Document is released 0066 under this License. A Front-Cover Text may be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover 0067 Text may be at most 25 words. 0068 0069 A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy, represented 0070 in a format whose specification is available to the general public, that is 0071 suitable for revising the document straightforwardly with generic text editors 0072 or (for images composed of pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) 0073 some widely available drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text 0074 formatters or for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for 0075 input to text formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file format 0076 whose markup, or absence of markup, has been arranged to thwart or discourage 0077 subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent. An image format is 0078 not Transparent if used for any substantial amount of text. A copy that is 0079 not "Transparent" is called "Opaque". 0080 0081 Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain ASCII without 0082 markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML or XML using a publicly 0083 available DTD, and standard-conforming simple HTML, PostScript or PDF designed 0084 for human modification. Examples of transparent image formats include PNG, 0085 XCF and JPG. Opaque formats include proprietary formats that can be read and 0086 edited only by proprietary word processors, SGML or XML for which the DTD 0087 and/or processing tools are not generally available, and the machine-generated 0088 HTML, PostScript or PDF produced by some word processors for output purposes 0089 only. 0090 0091 The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself, plus such 0092 following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material this License 0093 requires to appear in the title page. For works in formats which do not have 0094 any title page as such, "Title Page" means the text near the most prominent 0095 appearance of the work's title, preceding the beginning of the body of the 0096 text. 0097 0098 A section "Entitled XYZ" means a named subunit of the Document whose title 0099 either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses following text that 0100 translates XYZ in another language. (Here XYZ stands for a specific section 0101 name mentioned below, such as "Acknowledgements", "Dedications", "Endorsements", 0102 or "History".) To "Preserve the Title" of such a section when you modify the 0103 Document means that it remains a section "Entitled XYZ" according to this 0104 definition. 0105 0106 The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which states 0107 that this License applies to the Document. These Warranty Disclaimers are 0108 considered to be included by reference in this License, but only as regards 0109 disclaiming warranties: any other implication that these Warranty Disclaimers 0110 may have is void and has no effect on the meaning of this License. 0111 0112 2. VERBATIM COPYING 0113 0114 You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either commercially 0115 or noncommercially, provided that this License, the copyright notices, and 0116 the license notice saying this License applies to the Document are reproduced 0117 in all copies, and that you add no other conditions whatsoever to those of 0118 this License. You may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the 0119 reading or further copying of the copies you make or distribute. However, 0120 you may accept compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large 0121 enough number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3. 0122 0123 You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and you 0124 may publicly display copies. 0125 0126 3. COPYING IN QUANTITY 0127 0128 If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly have printed 0129 covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and the Document's license 0130 notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the copies in covers that carry, 0131 clearly and legibly, all these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front 0132 cover, and Back-Cover Texts on the back cover. Both covers must also clearly 0133 and legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies. The front cover 0134 must present the full title with all words of the title equally prominent 0135 and visible. You may add other material on the covers in addition. Copying 0136 with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve the title of 0137 the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying 0138 in other respects. 0139 0140 If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit legibly, 0141 you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit reasonably) on the actual 0142 cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent pages. 0143 0144 If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering more 0145 than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent copy along 0146 with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy a computer-network 0147 location from which the general network-using public has access to download 0148 using public-standard network protocols a complete Transparent copy of the 0149 Document, free of added material. If you use the latter option, you must take 0150 reasonably prudent steps, when you begin distribution of Opaque copies in 0151 quantity, to ensure that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible 0152 at the stated location until at least one year after the last time you distribute 0153 an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that edition 0154 to the public. 0155 0156 It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the Document 0157 well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give them a chance 0158 to provide you with an updated version of the Document. 0159 0160 4. MODIFICATIONS 0161 0162 You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under the conditions 0163 of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release the Modified Version 0164 under precisely this License, with the Modified Version filling the role of 0165 the Document, thus licensing distribution and modification of the Modified 0166 Version to whoever possesses a copy of it. In addition, you must do these 0167 things in the Modified Version: 0168 0169 A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct from 0170 that of the Document, and from those of previous versions (which should, if 0171 there were any, be listed in the History section of the Document). You may 0172 use the same title as a previous version if the original publisher of that 0173 version gives permission. 0174 0175 B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities responsible 0176 for authorship of the modifications in the Modified Version, together with 0177 at least five of the principal authors of the Document (all of its principal 0178 authors, if it has fewer than five), unless they release you from this requirement. 0179 0180 C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the Modified Version, 0181 as the publisher. 0182 0183 D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document. 0184 0185 E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications adjacent to 0186 the other copyright notices. 0187 0188 F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice giving 0189 the public permission to use the Modified Version under the terms of this 0190 License, in the form shown in the Addendum below. 0191 0192 G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections and 0193 required Cover Texts given in the Document's license notice. 0194 0195 H. Include an unaltered copy of this License. 0196 0197 I. Preserve the section Entitled "History", Preserve its Title, and add to 0198 it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and publisher of 0199 the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If there is no section Entitled 0200 "History" in the Document, create one stating the title, year, authors, and 0201 publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page, then add an item describing 0202 the Modified Version as stated in the previous sentence. 0203 0204 J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for public 0205 access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise the network locations 0206 given in the Document for previous versions it was based on. These may be 0207 placed in the "History" section. You may omit a network location for a work 0208 that was published at least four years before the Document itself, or if the 0209 original publisher of the version it refers to gives permission. 0210 0211 K. For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications", Preserve 0212 the Title of the section, and preserve in the section all the substance and 0213 tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements and/or dedications given 0214 therein. 0215 0216 L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered in their 0217 text and in their titles. Section numbers or the equivalent are not considered 0218 part of the section titles. 0219 0220 M. Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements". Such a section may not be included 0221 in the Modified Version. 0222 0223 N. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled "Endorsements" or to 0224 conflict in title with any Invariant Section. 0225 0226 O. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers. 0227 0228 If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that 0229 qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from the Document, 0230 you may at your option designate some or all of these sections as invariant. 0231 To do this, add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified 0232 Version's license notice. These titles must be distinct from any other section 0233 titles. 0234 0235 You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains nothing 0236 but endorsements of your Modified Version by various parties--for example, 0237 statements of peer review or that the text has been approved by an organization 0238 as the authoritative definition of a standard. 0239 0240 You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a passage 0241 of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list of Cover Texts 0242 in the Modified Version. Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover 0243 Text may be added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity. If 0244 the Document already includes a cover text for the same cover, previously 0245 added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf 0246 of, you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit 0247 permission from the previous publisher that added the old one. 0248 0249 The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give 0250 permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or imply endorsement 0251 of any Modified Version. 0252 0253 5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS 0254 0255 You may combine the Document with other documents released under this License, 0256 under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified versions, provided 0257 that you include in the combination all of the Invariant Sections of all of 0258 the original documents, unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections 0259 of your combined work in its license notice, and that you preserve all their 0260 Warranty Disclaimers. 0261 0262 The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and multiple 0263 identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy. If there 0264 are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but different contents, 0265 make the title of each such section unique by adding at the end of it, in 0266 parentheses, the name of the original author or publisher of that section 0267 if known, or else a unique number. Make the same adjustment to the section 0268 titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined 0269 work. 0270 0271 In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled "History" in the 0272 various original documents, forming one section Entitled "History"; likewise 0273 combine any sections Entitled "Acknowledgements", and any sections Entitled 0274 "Dedications". You must delete all sections Entitled "Endorsements". 0275 0276 6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS 0277 0278 You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents released 0279 under this License, and replace the individual copies of this License in the 0280 various documents with a single copy that is included in the collection, provided 0281 that you follow the rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of 0282 the documents in all other respects. 0283 0284 You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute it 0285 individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this License 0286 into the extracted document, and follow this License in all other respects 0287 regarding verbatim copying of that document. 0288 0289 7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS 0290 0291 A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and independent 0292 documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, 0293 is called an "aggregate" if the copyright resulting from the compilation is 0294 not used to limit the legal rights of the compilation's users beyond what 0295 the individual works permit. When the Document is included in an aggregate, 0296 this License does not apply to the other works in the aggregate which are 0297 not themselves derivative works of the Document. 0298 0299 If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of 0300 the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of the entire aggregate, 0301 the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on covers that bracket the Document 0302 within the aggregate, or the electronic equivalent of covers if the Document 0303 is in electronic form. Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket 0304 the whole aggregate. 0305 0306 8. TRANSLATION 0307 0308 Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute translations 0309 of the Document under the terms of section 4. Replacing Invariant Sections 0310 with translations requires special permission from their copyright holders, 0311 but you may include translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition 0312 to the original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a translation 0313 of this License, and all the license notices in the Document, and any Warranty 0314 Disclaimers, provided that you also include the original English version of 0315 this License and the original versions of those notices and disclaimers. In 0316 case of a disagreement between the translation and the original version of 0317 this License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version will prevail. 0318 0319 If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements", "Dedications", 0320 or "History", the requirement (section 4) to Preserve its Title (section 1) 0321 will typically require changing the actual title. 0322 0323 9. TERMINATION 0324 0325 You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as 0326 expressly provided for under this License. Any other attempt to copy, modify, 0327 sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and will automatically terminate 0328 your rights under this License. However, parties who have received copies, 0329 or rights, from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated 0330 so long as such parties remain in full compliance. 0331 0332 10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE 0333 0334 The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU 0335 Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar 0336 in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new 0337 problems or concerns. See http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/. 0338 0339 Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If the 0340 Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this License "or 0341 any later version" applies to it, you have the option of following the terms 0342 and conditions either of that specified version or of any later version that 0343 has been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the 0344 Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose 0345 any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. 0346 ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents 0347 0348 To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of the 0349 License in the document and put the following copyright and license notices 0350 just after the title page: 0351 0352 Copyright (c) YEAR YOUR NAME. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or 0353 modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, 0354 Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; 0355 with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. 0356 A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation 0357 License". 0358 0359 If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts, replace 0360 the "with...Texts." line with this: 0361 0362 with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the Front-Cover 0363 Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST. 0364 0365 If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other combination 0366 of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the situation. 0367 0368 If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we recommend 0369 releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free software license, 0370 such as the GNU General Public License, to permit their use in free software.