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0012 <H1 ALIGN=CENTER> JMdict/EDICT </H1>
0013 <P>
0014 </P>
0016 <BASEFONT SIZE="3">
0017 <P>
0018 <I>Copyright (C) 2010 The Electronic Dictionary Research and Development Group.</I>
0019 </P>
0020 <P>
0021 <h2>Contents</h2>
0022 <a href="#IREF00">INTRODUCTION</a>&nbsp;
0023 <a href="#IREF01">CURRENT VERSION &amp; DOWNLOAD</a>&nbsp;
0024 <a href="#IREF01a">PROJECT FORUM </a>&nbsp;
0025 <a href="#IREF02">FORMAT</a>&nbsp;
0026 <a href="#IREF03">PROJECT HISTORY</a>&nbsp;
0027 <a href="#IREF04">COPYRIGHT</a>&nbsp;
0028 <a href="#IREF05">LEXICOGRAPHICAL DETAILS</a>&nbsp;
0029 <a href="#IREF06">OTHER LANGUAGES</a>&nbsp;
0030 <a href="#IREF08">CONTRIBUTIONS</a>&nbsp;
0031 <a href="#IREF08a">RELATED PROJECTS</a>&nbsp;
0032 <a href="#IREF09">ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS</a>&nbsp;
0033 <a href="#IREF10">PUBLICATIONS</a>&nbsp;
0034 </P>
0035 <P>
0036 <a name="IREF00"><h2>INTRODUCTION</h2></a>
0037 </P>
0038 <P>
0039 The JMdict/EDICT  project has as its goal the production of a freely 
0040 available Japanese/English Dictionary in machine-readable form. 
0041 </P>
0042 <P>
0043 The project began in 1991 with the expansion of the "EDICT" simple 
0044 Japanese-English dictionary file. (See below under History)
0045 </P>
0046 <P>
0047 At present the project has the following dictionary files available:
0048 </P>
0049 <UL>
0050 <P>
0051 </P>
0052 <LI>the full JMdict file in XML format. The JMdict file is aimed at
0053 being a multilingual lexical database with Japanese as the pivot language
0054 and also includes
0055 translations of words and phrases in a number of languages other
0056 than English. More information is available from the 
0057  <a HREF="http://www.csse.monash.edu.au/~jwb/j_jmdict.html">JMdict overview page. </a>
0058 <P>
0059 </P>
0060 </LI>
0061 <LI>the EDICT file, which contains a reduced amount of information, and
0062 is provided to maintain support for software which uses the original 
0063 EDICT file format. A short 
0064  <a HREF="http://www.csse.monash.edu.au/~jwb/edict.html">EDICT overview page </a>
0065 is available which lists some of the software which uses this file;
0066 <P>
0067 </P>
0068 </LI>
0069 <LI>the EDICT2 file, which is in an expanded format and  contains almost
0070 all the information in the JMdict file;
0071 <P>
0072 </P>
0073 </LI>
0074 <LI>the EDICT_SUB file, which contains about 20% of the most common
0075 entries in the  EDICT file.
0076 </LI>
0077 </UL>
0078 <P>
0079 An internal database is used to hold all the data associated with the project,
0080 and the files are generated from using conversion utility software.
0081 </P>
0082 <P>
0083 The files are copyright, and distributed in accordance with the 
0084 Licence Statement, which can found at the WWW site of the 
0085  <a HREF="http://www.edrdg.org/">Electronic Dictionary Research and Development Group </a>
0086 who are the owners of the copyright.
0087 </P>
0088 <P>
0089 <a name="IREF01"><h2>CURRENT VERSION &amp; DOWNLOAD</h2> </a>
0090 </P>
0091 <P>
0092 The project's master database is continuously being updated and new
0093 versions of the file are generated daily. The date of generation is
0094 included in the header of the file.
0095 </P>
0096 <P>
0097 The files are currently distributed via the Monash University
0098  <a HREF="http://ftp.monash.edu.au/pub/nihongo/00INDEX.html">ftp server, </a>
0099 which also provides an rsync service. The main files available are:
0100 </P>
0101 <UL>
0102 <LI>
0103  <a HREF="http://ftp.monash.edu.au/pub/nihongo/JMdict.gz">JMdict.gz </a>
0104 - the full JMdict file, including English, German, French, Russian and Dutch glosses;
0105 </LI>
0106 <LI>
0107  <a HREF="http://ftp.monash.edu.au/pub/nihongo/JMdict_e.gz">JMdict_e.gz </a>
0108 - the JMdict file with only English glosses;
0109 </LI>
0110 <LI>
0111  <a HREF="http://ftp.monash.edu.au/pub/nihongo/edict.gz">edict.gz </a>
0112 - the "traditional" EDICT file;
0113 </LI>
0114 <LI>
0115  <a HREF="http://ftp.monash.edu.au/pub/nihongo/edict2.gz">edict2.gz </a>
0116 - the extended EDICT2 file.
0117 </LI>
0118 </UL>
0119 <P>
0120 <a name="IREF01a"><h2>PROJECT FORUM</h2></a>
0121 </P>
0122 <P>
0123 The are several forums where this project is actively discussed.
0124 </P>
0125 <P>
0126 The original forum was the 
0127 <TT> sci.lang.japan</TT>
0128  <a HREF="http://groups.google.com/group/sci.lang.japan">Usenet newsgroup. </a>
0129 More recently a 
0130  <a HREF="http://groups.yahoo.com/group/edict-jmdict/">mailing list </a>
0131 specifically for project discussion has begun. (Mail to 
0132 <TT> edict-jmdict-subscribe@yahoogroups.com</TT>
0133 to initiate subscription.)
0134 </P>
0135 <P>
0136 <a name="IREF02"><h2>FORMAT</h2></a>
0137 </P>
0138 <P>
0139 The basic format of the entries in the dictionary files can be seen in
0140 detail by examining the 
0141  <a HREF="http://www.csse.monash.edu.au/~jwb/jmdict_dtd_h.html">DTD </a>
0142 (Document Type Declaration) of the XML-format JMdict file. The DTD is
0143 heavily annotated with content and structural information.
0144 </P>
0145 <P>
0146 In summary, each dictionary entry is independent, although there may
0147 be cross-reference fields pointing to other entries. Each entry consists of
0148 </P>
0149 <OL type="a">
0150 <P>
0151 </P>
0152 <LI>kanji elements, i.e. headwords containing at least one kanji character,
0153 plus associated tags indicating some status or characteristic of the 
0154 headword. Where there are multiple headwords, they have been ordered
0155 according to frequency of usage, as far as this can be determined;
0156 <P>
0157 </P>
0158 </LI>
0159 <LI>reading elements, containing either the reading in kana of the headword,
0160 or the headword itself in the case of headwords only in kana. The elements
0161 also include tags indicating some status or characteristics. As with the
0162 kanji headwords, where there are multiple readings they have been ordered
0163 according to frequency of usage, as far as this can be determined;
0164 <P>
0165 </P>
0166 </LI>
0167 <LI>general coded information relating to the entry as a whole, such as 
0168 original language, date-of-creation, etc.
0169 <P>
0170 </P>
0171 </LI>
0172 <LI>sense elements, containing the translational equivalents or glosses of
0173 the headword(s). As Japanese is not highly polysemous, there is often only
0174 one sense. Associated with the sense elements is other coded data indicating
0175 the part-of-speech, field of application, miscellaneous information, etc.
0176 As with headwords and readings, the glosses are ordered with the most common
0177 appearing first.
0178 </LI>
0179 </OL>
0180 <P>
0181 The format and coding of the distributed files is as follows:
0182 </P>
0183 <OL type="a">
0184 <P>
0185 </P>
0186 <LI>the JMdict file contains the complete dictionary information
0187 in XML format as per the
0188  <a HREF="http://www.csse.monash.edu.au/~jwb/jmdict_dtd_h.html">DTD. </a>
0189 This file is in Unicode/ISO-10646 coding using  UTF-8 encapsulation.
0190 <P>
0191 </P>
0192 </LI>
0193 <LI>the EDICT file is in a relatively simple format based on the text data
0194 file of the SKK input-method. Each entry is in the form:
0195 <P>
0196 </P>
0197 <DL><DD>
0198 KANJI [KANA] /(general information) gloss/gloss/.../
0199 </DL>
0200 <P>
0201 or
0202 </P>
0203 <P>
0204 </P>
0205 <DL><DD>
0206 KANA /(general information) gloss/gloss/.../
0207 </DL>
0208 <P>
0209 Where there are multiple senses, these are indicated by (1), (2), etc.
0210 before the first gloss in each sense. As this format only allows a single
0211 kanji headword and reading, entries are generated for each possible
0212 headword/reading combination. As the format restricts Japanese characters
0213 to the kanji and kana fields, any cross-reference data and other 
0214 informational fields are omitted.
0215 </P>
0216 <P>
0217 The EDICT file is distributed in JIS X 0208 coding in EUC-JP encapsulation;
0218 </P>
0219 <P>
0220 </P>
0221 </LI>
0222 <LI>the EDICT2 file is in an expanded form of the original EDICT format.
0223 The main differences are the inclusion of multiple kanji headwords and
0224 readings, and the inclusion of cross-reference and other information
0225 fields, e.g.:
0226 <P>
0227 </P>
0228 <DL><DD>
0229 KANJI-1;KANJI-2 [KANA-1;KANA-2] /(general information) (see xxxx) gloss/gloss/.../
0230 </DL>
0231 <P>
0232 In addition, the EDICT2 has as its last field the sequence number of the
0233 entry. This matches the "ent_seq" entity value in the XML edition. The
0234 field has the format: EntLnnnnnnnnX. The EntL is a unique string to help
0235 identify the field. The "X", if present, indicates that an audio clip
0236 of the entry reading is available from the JapanesePod101.com site.
0237 </P>
0238 <P>
0239 The EDICT2 file is distributed in JIS X 0208 and JIS X 0212 codings in EUC-JP 
0240 encapsulation;
0241 </P>
0242 <P>
0243 </P>
0244 </LI>
0245 <LI>the EDICT_SUB file is in the same format as the EDICT file.
0246 <P>
0247 </P>
0248 </LI>
0249 </OL>
0250 <P>
0251 None of the files have the entries in any particular order.
0252 </P>
0253 <P>
0254 <a name="IREF03"><h2>PROJECT HISTORY</h2></a>
0255 </P>
0256 <P>
0257 The project was begun in 1991 by the current editor
0258  <a HREF="http://www.csse.monash.edu.au/~jwb/">(Jim Breen) </a>
0259 when an early DOS-based Japanese word-processor 
0260 (MOKE  - Mark's Own Kanji Editor) was released, containing an initial
0261 small version of the EDICT file. This was progressively expanded and edited over
0262 the following years. In 1999 the EDICT, which by this time contained
0263 about 60,000 entries, was converted into an expanded format and the first
0264 XML-format JMdict file released. The EDICT2 format was created in 2003,
0265 primarily for use with the 
0266  <a HREF="http://www.csse.monash.edu.au/~jwb/cgi-bin/wwwjdic.cgi?1C">WWWJDIC </a>
0267 dictionary server.
0268 </P>
0269 <P>
0270 The growth in entries in the file is largely due to the efforts of Jim and the
0271 many people who contributed entries to it over the years. The increase in entry
0272 numbers has slowed as the file has achieved coverage of a large proportion
0273 of the Japanese lexicon. Much of the editorial work in recent years has
0274 concentrated on amendments and expansion to existing entries.
0275 </P>
0276 <P>
0277 A more expanded explanation of the early developments in the EDICT file
0278 can be found in the
0279  <a HREF="http://www.csse.monash.edu.au/~jwb/edict_doc_old.html">original documentation. </a>
0280 </P>
0281 <P>
0282 <a name="IREF04"><h2>COPYRIGHT</h2></a>
0283 </P>
0284 <P>
0285 Dictionary copyright is a difficult point, because clearly the first 
0286 lexicographer who published "inu means dog" could not claim a copyright 
0287 violation over all subsequent Japanese dictionaries. While it is usual to 
0288 consult other dictionaries for "accurate lexicographic information", as 
0289 Nelson put it, wholesale copying is, of course, not permissible, and
0290 contributors have been advised to avoid direct copying from other sources. 
0291 What makes 
0292 each dictionary unique (and copyright-able) is the particular selection of 
0293 words, the phrasing of the meanings, the presentation of the contents (a very 
0294 important point in the case of this project), and the means of publication.
0295 </P>
0296 <P>
0297 The files of the project are copyright, and distributed in accordance with the 
0298 Licence Statement, which can found at the WWW site of the 
0299  <a HREF="http://www.edrdg.org/">Electronic Dictionary Research and Development Group </a>
0300 who are the current owners of the copyright. As explained in the licence, the
0301 files are available for use for most purposes provided acknowledgement
0302 and distribution of the documentation is made.
0303 </P>
0304 <P>
0305 <a name="IREF05"><h2>LEXICOGRAPHICAL DETAILS</h2></a>
0306 </P>
0307 <P>
0308 </P>
0309 <OL type="A">
0310 <LI>Inflections, etc.
0311 <P>
0312 In general no inflections of verbs or adjectives have been included, 
0313 except in idiomatic  expressions. Adverbs 
0314 formed from adjectives (e.g., -ku or -ni) are generally not included. 
0315 Verbs are, of  course, in the plain or "dictionary" form. 
0316 </P>
0317 <P>
0318 Composed forms, such as adverbs taking the "to" particle, keiyoudoushi
0319 adjectives, etc. are only included in their root from, however the
0320 part-of-speech (POS) marker is used to indicate their status.
0321 </P>
0322 <P>
0323 Nouns which can form a verb withe the auxiliary verb "suru" only appear
0324 in their noun form, but have a POS marker: "vs", to indicate the existence
0325 of a verbal form. In general the gloss only relates to the noun itself, but
0326 entries are being progressively expanded to include the verbal glosses as well.
0327 </P>
0328 <P>
0329 </P>
0330 </LI>
0331 <LI>Part of Speech Marking
0332 <P>
0333 The following POS markings are currently used:
0334 </P>
0335 <PRE>
0336 adj-i   adjective (keiyoushi)
0337 adj-na  adjectival nouns or quasi-adjectives (keiyodoshi)
0338 adj-no  nouns which may take the genitive case particle `no'
0339 adj-pn  pre-noun adjectival (rentaishi)
0340 adj-t   `taru' adjective
0341 adj-f   noun or verb acting prenominally (other than the above)
0342 adj former adjective classification (being removed)
0343 adv adverb (fukushi)
0344 adv-n   adverbial noun
0345 adv-to  adverb taking the `to' particle
0346 aux auxiliary
0347 aux-v   auxiliary verb
0348 aux-adj auxiliary adjective
0349 conj    conjunction
0350 ctr counter
0351 exp Expressions (phrases, clauses, etc.)
0352 id  idiomatic expression
0353 int interjection (kandoushi)
0354 iv  irregular verb
0355 n   noun (common) (futsuumeishi)
0356 n-adv   adverbial noun (fukushitekimeishi)
0357 n-pref  noun, used as a prefix
0358 n-suf   noun, used as a suffix
0359 n-t noun (temporal) (jisoumeishi)
0360 num numeric
0361 pn  pronoun
0362 pref    prefix
0363 prt particle
0364 suf suffix
0365 v1  Ichidan verb
0366 v5  Godan verb (not completely classified)
0367 v5aru   Godan verb - -aru special class
0368 v5b Godan verb with `bu' ending
0369 v5g Godan verb with `gu' ending
0370 v5k Godan verb with `ku' ending
0371 v5k-s   Godan verb - iku/yuku special class
0372 v5m Godan verb with `mu' ending
0373 v5n Godan verb with `nu' ending
0374 v5r Godan verb with `ru' ending
0375 v5r-i   Godan verb with `ru' ending (irregular verb)
0376 v5s Godan verb with `su' ending
0377 v5t Godan verb with `tsu' ending
0378 v5u Godan verb with `u' ending
0379 v5u-s   Godan verb with `u' ending (special class)
0380 v5uru   Godan verb - uru old class verb (old form of Eru)
0381 v5z Godan verb with `zu' ending
0382 vz  Ichidan verb - zuru verb - (alternative form of -jiru verbs)
0383 vi  intransitive verb
0384 vk  kuru verb - special class
0385 vn  irregular nu verb
0386 vs  noun or participle which takes the aux. verb suru
0387 vs-i    suru verb - irregular
0388 vs-s    suru verb - special class
0389 vt  transitive verb
0390 </PRE>
0391 <P>
0392 </P>
0393 </LI>
0394 <LI>Field of Application
0395 <P>
0396 A number of entries are marked with a specific field of application.
0397 Current fields and tags are:
0398 </P>
0399 <P>
0400 </P>
0401 <PRE>
0402 Buddh   Buddhist term
0403 MA  martial arts term
0404 comp    computer terminology
0405 food    food term
0406 geom    geometry term
0407 gram    grammatical term
0408 ling    linguistics terminology
0409 math    mathematics
0410 mil military
0411 physics physics terminology
0412 </PRE>
0413 <P>
0414 </P>
0415 </LI>
0416 <LI>Miscellaneous Markings
0417 <P>
0418 </P>
0419 <PRE>
0420 X   rude or X-rated term
0421 abbr    abbreviation
0422 arch    archaism
0423 ateji   ateji (phonetic) reading
0424 chn children's language
0425 col colloquialism
0426 derog   derogatory term
0427 eK  exclusively kanji
0428 ek  exclusively kana
0429 fam familiar language
0430 fem female term or language
0431 gikun   gikun (meaning) reading
0432 hon honorific or respectful (sonkeigo) language
0433 hum humble (kenjougo) language
0434 iK  word containing irregular kanji usage
0435 id  idiomatic expression
0436 io  irregular okurigana usage
0437 m-sl    manga slang
0438 male    male term or language
0439 male-sl male slang
0440 ng  neuter gender
0441 oK  word containing out-dated kanji
0442 obs obsolete term
0443 obsc    obscure term
0444 ok  out-dated or obsolete kana usage
0445 on-mim  onomatopoeic or mimetic word
0446 poet    poetical term
0447 pol polite (teineigo) language
0448 rare    rare (now replaced by "obsc")
0449 sens    sensitive word
0450 sl  slang
0451 uK  word usually written using kanji alone
0452 uk  word usually written using kana alone
0453 vulg    vulgar expression or word
0454 </PRE>
0455 <P>
0456 </P>
0457 </LI>
0458 <LI>Word Priority Marking
0459 <P>
0460 The ke_pri and equivalent re_pri fields in the JMdict file
0461 are provided to record
0462 information about the relative commonness or priority of the entry, and consist
0463 of codes indicating the word appears in various references which
0464 can be taken as an indication of the frequency with which the word
0465 is used. This field is intended for use either by applications which 
0466 want to concentrate on entries of a particular priority, or to 
0467 generate subset files. 
0468 The current values in this field are:
0469 </P>
0470 <OL type="a">
0471 <LI>news1/2: appears in the "wordfreq" file compiled by Alexandre Girardi
0472 from the Mainichi Shimbun. (See the Monash ftp archive for a copy.)
0473 Words in the first 12,000 in that file are marked "news1" and words 
0474 in the second 12,000 are marked "news2".
0475 </LI>
0476 <LI>ichi1/2: appears in the "Ichimango goi bunruishuu", Senmon Kyouiku 
0477 Publishing, Tokyo, 1998. (The entries marked "ichi2" were
0478 demoted from ichi1 because they were observed to have low
0479 frequencies in the WWW and newspapers.)
0480 </LI>
0481 <LI>spec1 and spec2: a small number of words use this marker when they 
0482 are detected as being common, but are not included in other lists.
0483 </LI>
0484 <LI>gai1/2: common loanwords, also based on the wordfreq file.
0485 </LI>
0486 <LI>nfxx: this is an indicator of frequency-of-use ranking in the
0487 wordfreq file. "xx" is the number of the set of 500 words in which
0488 the entry can be found, with "01" assigned to the first 500, "02"
0489 to the second, and so on. 
0490 </LI>
0491 </OL>
0492 <P>
0493 Entries with news1, ichi1, spec1 and gai1 values are marked with 
0494 a "(P)" in the EDICT and EDICT2 files.
0495 </P>
0496 <P>
0497 While the priority markings accurately reflect the status of entries with
0498 regard to the various sources, they must be seen as
0499 only providing a crude indication of how common a word or expression actually
0500 is in Japanese. The "(P)" markings in the EDICT and EDICT2 files appear to
0501 identify a useful subset of "common" words, but there are clearly some
0502 marked entries which are not very common, and there are clearly unmarked
0503 entries which are in common use, particularly in the spoken language.
0504 </P>
0505 <P>
0506 </P>
0507 </LI>
0508 <LI>Okurigana Variants
0509 <P>
0510 Okurigana variants in headwords are handled by including each variant form
0511 as a headword. This is to enable software to match with  variant forms.
0512 </P>
0513 <P>
0514 </P>
0515 </LI>
0516 <LI>Spellings
0517 <P>
0518 As far as possible variants of English translation  and spelling are included. 
0519 Where appropriate different translations are included for 
0520 national variants (e.g. autumn/fall, tap/faucet, etc.). Common spelling
0521 variations such as -our/-or and -ize/-ise are handled either by repeating
0522 the gloss in both spellings or appending spelling variants in parentheses.
0523 No attempt is made to tag English spellings according to country of usage.
0524 </P>
0525 <P>
0526 </P>
0527 </LI>
0528 <LI>Gairaigo and Regional Words
0529 <P>
0530 For gairaigo which have not been derived from English words, 
0531 the source language and the word in that language are included. Languages have
0532 been coded in the two-letter codes from the ISO 639-2:1998 "Codes for the
0533 representation of names of languages" standard, e.g. "(fre: avec)" in the
0534 EDICT/EDICT2 files and 
0535 &lt;lsource xml:lang="fre"&gt;avec&lt;/lsource&gt; in the JMdict
0536 file.
0537 In the case of gairaigo which have a meaning which is not apparent from the
0538 original (usually English) words, the words in the source language are
0539 included as: (trans: original words).
0540 </P>
0541 <P>
0542 A number of tags 
0543 are used to indicate that a word or phrase is associated with a particular 
0544 regional language variant within Japan. The tags are:
0545 </P>
0546 <P>
0547 </P>
0548 <PRE>
0549 kyb Kyoto-ben
0550 osb Osaka-ben
0551 ksb Kansai-ben
0552 ktb Kantou-ben
0553 tsb Tosa-ben
0554 thb Touhoku-ben
0555 tsug    Tsugaru-ben
0556 kyu Kyuushuu-ben
0557 rkb Ryuukyuu-ben
0558 </PRE>
0559 </LI>
0560 </OL>
0561 <P>
0562 <a name="IREF06"><h2>OTHER LANGUAGES</h2></a>
0563 </P>
0564 <P>
0565 The JMdict file has the capacity to record glosses for Japanese headwords in
0566 many languages. Although not maintained as part of the current project, the
0567 full JMdict file includes glosses for a large number of entries in French
0568 and German, and a smaller number of entries in Russian and Dutch.
0569 </P>
0570 <P>
0571 The sources for the main non-English glosses are:
0572 </P>
0573 <UL>
0574 <LI>the French material (58,000 entries) come from two sources:
0575 <UL>
0576 <LI>a 17,000 entry Japanese-French dictionary file from the
0577  <a HREF="http://dico.fj.free.fr/">Dictionnaire fran&ccedil;ais-japonais </a>
0578 project being undertaken by Jean-Marc Desperrier. As Jean-Marc says on
0579 that page, his project's aim "est de traduire en fran&ccedil;ais une partie du
0580 dictionnaire japonais-anglais Edict de Jim Breen". His project is
0581 continuing and is being supported by a number of French speakers;
0582 </LI>
0583 <LI>about 41,000 entries from a dictionary compiled by
0584  <a HREF="http://francais.sourceforge.jp/">le projet francais pour francophone </a>
0585 This file, which also appears to be based around
0586 translating the EDICT file, has been made by selecting the entries not
0587 already in Jean-Marc's file, and converting them to EDICT format.
0588 These entries have "JF2" at the end of them. 
0589 <I>(There is some evidence that this file may</I>
0590 <I>use translations generated by an online resource such as Babelfish.)</I>
0591 </LI>
0592 </UL>
0593 </LI>
0594 <LI>the German material (79,000 entries) is from the 
0595  <a HREF="http://wadoku.de/">WaDokuJT </a>
0596 Japanese-German dictionary file compiled by Ulrich Apel;
0597 </LI>
0598 <LI>a small Japanese-Russian
0599 dictionary file being compiled by Oleg Volkov.
0600  <a HREF="http://ftp.monash.edu.au/pub/nihongo/jr-edict.doc.rus.win1251.txt">(documentation </a>
0601 - in Russian)
0602 </LI>
0603 </UL>
0604 <P>
0605 <a name="IREF08"><h2>CONTRIBUTIONS</h2></a>
0606 </P>
0607 <P>
0608 Contribution of new entries and amendments to existing entries is most
0609 welcome. A special 
0610  <a HREF="http://www.csse.monash.edu.au/~jwb/cgi-bin/wwwnewword.cgi">WWW page </a>
0611 is available for this purpose.
0612 </P>
0613 <P>
0614 <a name="IREF08a"><h2>RELATED PROJECTS</h2></a>
0615 </P>
0616 <P>
0617 A number of other Japanese dictionary projects are closely related to this
0618 one. Among them are:
0619 </P>
0620 <OL type="a">
0621 <P>
0622 </P>
0623 <LI>the 
0624  <a HREF="http://www.csse.monash.edu.au/~jwb/enamdict_doc.html">ENAMDICT/JMnedict </a>
0625 Japanese Proper Names Dictionary project, which currently has nearly
0626 600,000 named entities. The files are available in EDICT or XML formats.
0627 <P>
0628 </P>
0629 </LI>
0630 <LI>the
0631  <a HREF="http://www.csse.monash.edu.au/~jwb/kanjidic.html">KANJIDIC </a>
0632 and
0633  <a HREF="http://www.csse.monash.edu.au/~jwb/kanjidic2/index.html">KANJIDIC2 </a>
0634 project, which maintains and distributes databases of information about
0635 kanji.
0636 <P>
0637 </P>
0638 </LI>
0639 <LI>the
0640  <a HREF="http://www.csse.monash.edu.au/~jwb/compdic_doc.html">COMPDIC </a>
0641 file in EDICT format of computing and telecomms terminology. In 2008 the
0642 COMPDIC material was included in the main EDICT/JMdict database with tagging
0643 indication the entries relate to ICT. A separate "COMPDIC" file is extracted
0644 for distribution.
0645 <P>
0646 </P>
0647 </LI>
0648 <LI>the 
0649  <a HREF="http://www.csse.monash.edu.au/~jwb/kradinf.html">RADKFILE/KRADFILE </a>
0650 file of visual elements in kanji, which can be used for finding kanji
0651 in dictionaries.
0652 <P>
0653 </P>
0654 </LI>
0655 </OL>
0656 <P>
0657 <a name="IREF09"><h2>ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS</h2></a>
0658 </P>
0659 <P>
0660 Since 1991 a large number of people have contributed to this project; far too 
0661 many to list here. All their contributions have been most welcome, indeed
0662 without the assistance of speakers and students of Japanese this
0663 project would not have achieved as much.
0664 </P>
0665 <P>
0666 The EDICT/JMdict has been granted approval to use material from the
0667  <a HREF="http://nlpwww.nict.go.jp/wn-ja/index.en.html">Japanese WordNet. </a>
0668 This approval is most welcome. (See the Japanese WordNet
0669  <a HREF="http://nlpwww.nict.go.jp/wn-ja/license.txt">licence.) </a>
0670 </P>
0671 <P>
0672 <a name="IREF10"><h2>PUBLICATIONS</h2></a>
0673 </P>
0674 <P>
0675 Some publications by Jim Breen about the EDICT/JMdict project:
0676 </P>
0677 <UL>
0678 <LI>An early technical report from 1993;
0679  <a HREF="ftp://ftp.monash.edu.au/pub/nihongo/ejdic_report1.ps.gz">(postscript) </a>
0680 </LI>
0681 <LI>an overview paper from 1995;
0682  <a HREF="jsaa_paper/hpaper.html">(html) </a>
0683  <a HREF="ftp://ftp.monash.edu.au/pub/nihongo/elec_dic.ps.gz">(postscript) </a>
0684 </LI>
0685 <LI>a 1999 conference paper about WWWJDIC;
0686  <a HREF="ftp://ftp.monash.edu.au/pub/nihongo/www-jdict.ps.gz">(postscript) </a>
0687  <a HREF="ftp://ftp.monash.edu.au/pub/nihongo/www-jdict.pdf">(pdf) </a>
0688  <a HREF="wwwjdic_article/wwwjdic_article.html">(html). </a>
0689 </LI>
0690 <LI>a
0691  <a HREF="http://www.csse.monash.edu.au/~jwb/jmdictart.html">paper </a>
0692 about JMdict presented at the COLING Multilingual
0693 Linguistic Resources Workshop in Geneva in August 2004.
0694 </LI>
0695 <LI>an earlier
0696  <a HREF="http://www.csse.monash.edu.au/~jwb/ws2002_paper.html">JMdict paper </a>
0697 about some of the practical issues, presented at the Papillon
0698 Project workshop in Tokyo in July 2002.
0699 </LI>
0700 </UL>
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