Warning, /education/kbruch/LICENSES/GFDL-1.2-only.txt is written in an unsupported language. File is not indexed.
0001 GNU Free Documentation License 0002 Version 1.2, November 2002 0003 0004 Copyright (C) 2000,2001,2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc. 51 Franklin St, 0005 Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA 0006 0007 Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license 0008 document, but changing it is not allowed. 0009 0010 0. PREAMBLE 0011 0012 The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other functional 0013 and useful document "free" in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the 0014 effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without modifying it, 0015 either commercially or noncommercially. Secondarily, this License preserves 0016 for the author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not 0017 being considered responsible for modifications made by others. 0018 0019 This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative works of 0020 the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It complements the 0021 GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft license designed for free 0022 software. 0023 0024 We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free software, 0025 because free software needs free documentation: a free program should come 0026 with manuals providing the same freedoms that the software does. But this 0027 License is not limited to software manuals; it can be used for any textual 0028 work, regardless of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed 0029 book. We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is instruction 0030 or reference. 0031 0032 1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS 0033 0034 This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, that contains 0035 a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed under 0036 the terms of this License. Such a notice grants a world-wide, royalty-free 0037 license, unlimited in duration, to use that work under the conditions stated 0038 herein. The "Document", below, refers to any such manual or work. Any member 0039 of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as "you". You accept the license 0040 if you copy, modify or distribute the work in a way requiring permission under 0041 copyright law. 0042 0043 A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the Document 0044 or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with modifications and/or translated 0045 into another language. 0046 0047 A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section of the 0048 Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the publishers or 0049 authors of the Document to the Document's overall subject (or to related matters) 0050 and contains nothing that could fall directly within that overall subject. 0051 (Thus, if the Document is in part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section 0052 may not explain any mathematics.) The relationship could be a matter of historical 0053 connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal, commercial, 0054 philosophical, ethical or political position regarding them. 0055 0056 The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose titles are designated, 0057 as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice that says that the Document 0058 is released under this License. If a section does not fit the above definition 0059 of Secondary then it is not allowed to be designated as Invariant. The Document 0060 may contain zero Invariant Sections. If the Document does not identify any 0061 Invariant Sections then there are none. 0062 0063 The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are listed, as Front-Cover 0064 Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that the Document is released 0065 under this License. A Front-Cover Text may be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover 0066 Text may be at most 25 words. 0067 0068 A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy, represented 0069 in a format whose specification is available to the general public, that is 0070 suitable for revising the document straightforwardly with generic text editors 0071 or (for images composed of pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) 0072 some widely available drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text 0073 formatters or for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for 0074 input to text formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file format 0075 whose markup, or absence of markup, has been arranged to thwart or discourage 0076 subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent. An image format is 0077 not Transparent if used for any substantial amount of text. A copy that is 0078 not "Transparent" is called "Opaque". 0079 0080 Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain ASCII without 0081 markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML or XML using a publicly 0082 available DTD, and standard-conforming simple HTML, PostScript or PDF designed 0083 for human modification. Examples of transparent image formats include PNG, 0084 XCF and JPG. Opaque formats include proprietary formats that can be read and 0085 edited only by proprietary word processors, SGML or XML for which the DTD 0086 and/or processing tools are not generally available, and the machine-generated 0087 HTML, PostScript or PDF produced by some word processors for output purposes 0088 only. 0089 0090 The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself, plus such 0091 following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material this License 0092 requires to appear in the title page. For works in formats which do not have 0093 any title page as such, "Title Page" means the text near the most prominent 0094 appearance of the work's title, preceding the beginning of the body of the 0095 text. 0096 0097 A section "Entitled XYZ" means a named subunit of the Document whose title 0098 either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses following text that 0099 translates XYZ in another language. (Here XYZ stands for a specific section 0100 name mentioned below, such as "Acknowledgements", "Dedications", "Endorsements", 0101 or "History".) To "Preserve the Title" of such a section when you modify the 0102 Document means that it remains a section "Entitled XYZ" according to this 0103 definition. 0104 0105 The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which states 0106 that this License applies to the Document. These Warranty Disclaimers are 0107 considered to be included by reference in this License, but only as regards 0108 disclaiming warranties: any other implication that these Warranty Disclaimers 0109 may have is void and has no effect on the meaning of this License. 0110 0111 2. VERBATIM COPYING 0112 0113 You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either commercially 0114 or noncommercially, provided that this License, the copyright notices, and 0115 the license notice saying this License applies to the Document are reproduced 0116 in all copies, and that you add no other conditions whatsoever to those of 0117 this License. You may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the 0118 reading or further copying of the copies you make or distribute. However, 0119 you may accept compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large 0120 enough number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3. 0121 0122 You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and you 0123 may publicly display copies. 0124 0125 3. COPYING IN QUANTITY 0126 0127 If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly have printed 0128 covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and the Document's license 0129 notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the copies in covers that carry, 0130 clearly and legibly, all these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front 0131 cover, and Back-Cover Texts on the back cover. Both covers must also clearly 0132 and legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies. The front cover 0133 must present the full title with all words of the title equally prominent 0134 and visible. You may add other material on the covers in addition. Copying 0135 with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve the title of 0136 the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying 0137 in other respects. 0138 0139 If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit legibly, 0140 you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit reasonably) on the actual 0141 cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent pages. 0142 0143 If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering more 0144 than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent copy along 0145 with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy a computer-network 0146 location from which the general network-using public has access to download 0147 using public-standard network protocols a complete Transparent copy of the 0148 Document, free of added material. If you use the latter option, you must take 0149 reasonably prudent steps, when you begin distribution of Opaque copies in 0150 quantity, to ensure that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible 0151 at the stated location until at least one year after the last time you distribute 0152 an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that edition 0153 to the public. 0154 0155 It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the Document 0156 well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give them a chance 0157 to provide you with an updated version of the Document. 0158 0159 4. MODIFICATIONS 0160 0161 You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under the conditions 0162 of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release the Modified Version 0163 under precisely this License, with the Modified Version filling the role of 0164 the Document, thus licensing distribution and modification of the Modified 0165 Version to whoever possesses a copy of it. In addition, you must do these 0166 things in the Modified Version: 0167 0168 A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct from 0169 that of the Document, and from those of previous versions (which should, if 0170 there were any, be listed in the History section of the Document). You may 0171 use the same title as a previous version if the original publisher of that 0172 version gives permission. 0173 B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities responsible 0174 for authorship of the modifications in the Modified Version, together with 0175 at least five of the principal authors of the Document (all of its principal 0176 authors, if it has fewer than five), unless they release you from this requirement. 0177 C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the Modified Version, 0178 as the publisher. 0179 D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document. 0180 E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications adjacent to 0181 the other copyright notices. 0182 F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice giving 0183 the public permission to use the Modified Version under the terms of this 0184 License, in the form shown in the Addendum below. 0185 G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections and 0186 required Cover Texts given in the Document's license notice. 0187 H. Include an unaltered copy of this License. 0188 I. Preserve the section Entitled "History", Preserve its Title, and add to 0189 it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and publisher of 0190 the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If there is no section Entitled 0191 "History" in the Document, create one stating the title, year, authors, and 0192 publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page, then add an item describing 0193 the Modified Version as stated in the previous sentence. 0194 J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for public 0195 access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise the network locations 0196 given in the Document for previous versions it was based on. These may be 0197 placed in the "History" section. You may omit a network location for a work 0198 that was published at least four years before the Document itself, or if the 0199 original publisher of the version it refers to gives permission. 0200 K. For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications", Preserve 0201 the Title of the section, and preserve in the section all the substance and 0202 tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements and/or dedications given 0203 therein. 0204 L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered in their 0205 text and in their titles. Section numbers or the equivalent are not considered 0206 part of the section titles. 0207 M. Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements". Such a section may not be included 0208 in the Modified Version. 0209 N. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled "Endorsements" or to 0210 conflict in title with any Invariant Section. 0211 O. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers. 0212 0213 If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that 0214 qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from the Document, 0215 you may at your option designate some or all of these sections as invariant. 0216 To do this, add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified 0217 Version's license notice. These titles must be distinct from any other section 0218 titles. 0219 0220 You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains nothing 0221 but endorsements of your Modified Version by various parties--for example, 0222 statements of peer review or that the text has been approved by an organization 0223 as the authoritative definition of a standard. 0224 0225 You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a passage 0226 of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list of Cover Texts 0227 in the Modified Version. Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover 0228 Text may be added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity. If 0229 the Document already includes a cover text for the same cover, previously 0230 added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf 0231 of, you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit 0232 permission from the previous publisher that added the old one. 0233 0234 The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give 0235 permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or imply endorsement 0236 of any Modified Version. 0237 0238 5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS 0239 0240 You may combine the Document with other documents released under this License, 0241 under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified versions, provided 0242 that you include in the combination all of the Invariant Sections of all of 0243 the original documents, unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections 0244 of your combined work in its license notice, and that you preserve all their 0245 Warranty Disclaimers. 0246 0247 The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and multiple 0248 identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy. If there 0249 are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but different contents, 0250 make the title of each such section unique by adding at the end of it, in 0251 parentheses, the name of the original author or publisher of that section 0252 if known, or else a unique number. Make the same adjustment to the section 0253 titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined 0254 work. 0255 0256 In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled "History" in the 0257 various original documents, forming one section Entitled "History"; likewise 0258 combine any sections Entitled "Acknowledgements", and any sections Entitled 0259 "Dedications". You must delete all sections Entitled "Endorsements". 0260 0261 6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS 0262 0263 You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents released 0264 under this License, and replace the individual copies of this License in the 0265 various documents with a single copy that is included in the collection, provided 0266 that you follow the rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of 0267 the documents in all other respects. 0268 0269 You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute it 0270 individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this License 0271 into the extracted document, and follow this License in all other respects 0272 regarding verbatim copying of that document. 0273 0274 7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS 0275 0276 A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and independent 0277 documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, 0278 is called an "aggregate" if the copyright resulting from the compilation is 0279 not used to limit the legal rights of the compilation's users beyond what 0280 the individual works permit. When the Document is included in an aggregate, 0281 this License does not apply to the other works in the aggregate which are 0282 not themselves derivative works of the Document. 0283 0284 If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of 0285 the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of the entire aggregate, 0286 the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on covers that bracket the Document 0287 within the aggregate, or the electronic equivalent of covers if the Document 0288 is in electronic form. Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket 0289 the whole aggregate. 0290 0291 8. TRANSLATION 0292 0293 Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute translations 0294 of the Document under the terms of section 4. Replacing Invariant Sections 0295 with translations requires special permission from their copyright holders, 0296 but you may include translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition 0297 to the original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a translation 0298 of this License, and all the license notices in the Document, and any Warranty 0299 Disclaimers, provided that you also include the original English version of 0300 this License and the original versions of those notices and disclaimers. In 0301 case of a disagreement between the translation and the original version of 0302 this License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version will prevail. 0303 0304 If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements", "Dedications", 0305 or "History", the requirement (section 4) to Preserve its Title (section 1) 0306 will typically require changing the actual title. 0307 0308 9. TERMINATION 0309 0310 You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as 0311 expressly provided for under this License. Any other attempt to copy, modify, 0312 sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and will automatically terminate 0313 your rights under this License. However, parties who have received copies, 0314 or rights, from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated 0315 so long as such parties remain in full compliance. 0316 0317 10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE 0318 0319 The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU 0320 Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar 0321 in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new 0322 problems or concerns. See http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/. 0323 0324 Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If the 0325 Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this License "or 0326 any later version" applies to it, you have the option of following the terms 0327 and conditions either of that specified version or of any later version that 0328 has been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the 0329 Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose 0330 any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. 0331 0332 ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents 0333 0334 To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of the 0335 License in the document and put the following copyright and license notices 0336 just after the title page: 0337 0338 Copyright (c) YEAR YOUR NAME. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or 0339 modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, 0340 Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; 0341 with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. 0342 A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation 0343 License". 0344 0345 If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts, replace 0346 the "with...Texts." line with this: 0347 0348 with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the Front-Cover 0349 Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST. 0350 0351 If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other combination 0352 of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the situation. 0353 0354 If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we recommend 0355 releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free software license, 0356 such as the GNU General Public License, to permit their use in free software.