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0001 GNU Free Documentation License
0002 Version 1.2, November 2002
0004 Copyright (C) 2000,2001,2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc. 51 Franklin St,
0005 Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA
0007 Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license
0008 document, but changing it is not allowed.
0010 0. PREAMBLE
0012 The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other functional
0013 and useful document "free" in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the
0014 effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without modifying it,
0015 either commercially or noncommercially. Secondarily, this License preserves
0016 for the author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not
0017 being considered responsible for modifications made by others.
0019 This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative works of
0020 the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It complements the
0021 GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft license designed for free
0022 software.
0024 We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free software,
0025 because free software needs free documentation: a free program should come
0026 with manuals providing the same freedoms that the software does. But this
0027 License is not limited to software manuals; it can be used for any textual
0028 work, regardless of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed
0029 book. We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is instruction
0030 or reference.
0034 This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, that contains
0035 a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed under
0036 the terms of this License. Such a notice grants a world-wide, royalty-free
0037 license, unlimited in duration, to use that work under the conditions stated
0038 herein. The "Document", below, refers to any such manual or work. Any member
0039 of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as "you". You accept the license
0040 if you copy, modify or distribute the work in a way requiring permission under
0041 copyright law.
0043 A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the Document
0044 or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with modifications and/or translated
0045 into another language.
0047 A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section of the
0048 Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the publishers or
0049 authors of the Document to the Document's overall subject (or to related matters)
0050 and contains nothing that could fall directly within that overall subject.
0051 (Thus, if the Document is in part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section
0052 may not explain any mathematics.) The relationship could be a matter of historical
0053 connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal, commercial,
0054 philosophical, ethical or political position regarding them.
0056 The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose titles are designated,
0057 as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice that says that the Document
0058 is released under this License. If a section does not fit the above definition
0059 of Secondary then it is not allowed to be designated as Invariant. The Document
0060 may contain zero Invariant Sections. If the Document does not identify any
0061 Invariant Sections then there are none.
0063 The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are listed, as Front-Cover
0064 Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that the Document is released
0065 under this License. A Front-Cover Text may be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover
0066 Text may be at most 25 words.
0068 A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy, represented
0069 in a format whose specification is available to the general public, that is
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0073 formatters or for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for
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0075 whose markup, or absence of markup, has been arranged to thwart or discourage
0076 subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent. An image format is
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0078 not "Transparent" is called "Opaque".
0080 Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain ASCII without
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0088 only.
0090 The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself, plus such
0091 following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material this License
0092 requires to appear in the title page. For works in formats which do not have
0093 any title page as such, "Title Page" means the text near the most prominent
0094 appearance of the work's title, preceding the beginning of the body of the
0095 text.
0097 A section "Entitled XYZ" means a named subunit of the Document whose title
0098 either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses following text that
0099 translates XYZ in another language. (Here XYZ stands for a specific section
0100 name mentioned below, such as "Acknowledgements", "Dedications", "Endorsements",
0101 or "History".) To "Preserve the Title" of such a section when you modify the
0102 Document means that it remains a section "Entitled XYZ" according to this
0103 definition.
0105 The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which states
0106 that this License applies to the Document. These Warranty Disclaimers are
0107 considered to be included by reference in this License, but only as regards
0108 disclaiming warranties: any other implication that these Warranty Disclaimers
0109 may have is void and has no effect on the meaning of this License.
0113 You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either commercially
0114 or noncommercially, provided that this License, the copyright notices, and
0115 the license notice saying this License applies to the Document are reproduced
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0117 this License. You may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the
0118 reading or further copying of the copies you make or distribute. However,
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0122 You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and you
0123 may publicly display copies.
0127 If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly have printed
0128 covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and the Document's license
0129 notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the copies in covers that carry,
0130 clearly and legibly, all these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front
0131 cover, and Back-Cover Texts on the back cover. Both covers must also clearly
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0133 must present the full title with all words of the title equally prominent
0134 and visible. You may add other material on the covers in addition. Copying
0135 with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve the title of
0136 the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying
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0139 If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit legibly,
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0141 cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent pages.
0143 If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering more
0144 than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent copy along
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0146 location from which the general network-using public has access to download
0147 using public-standard network protocols a complete Transparent copy of the
0148 Document, free of added material. If you use the latter option, you must take
0149 reasonably prudent steps, when you begin distribution of Opaque copies in
0150 quantity, to ensure that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible
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0152 an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that edition
0153 to the public.
0155 It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the Document
0156 well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give them a chance
0157 to provide you with an updated version of the Document.
0161 You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under the conditions
0162 of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release the Modified Version
0163 under precisely this License, with the Modified Version filling the role of
0164 the Document, thus licensing distribution and modification of the Modified
0165 Version to whoever possesses a copy of it. In addition, you must do these
0166 things in the Modified Version:
0168 A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct from
0169 that of the Document, and from those of previous versions (which should, if
0170 there were any, be listed in the History section of the Document). You may
0171 use the same title as a previous version if the original publisher of that
0172 version gives permission.
0173 B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities responsible
0174 for authorship of the modifications in the Modified Version, together with
0175 at least five of the principal authors of the Document (all of its principal
0176 authors, if it has fewer than five), unless they release you from this requirement.
0177 C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the Modified Version,
0178 as the publisher.
0179      D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
0180 E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications adjacent to
0181 the other copyright notices.
0182 F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice giving
0183 the public permission to use the Modified Version under the terms of this
0184 License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.
0185 G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections and
0186 required Cover Texts given in the Document's license notice.
0187      H. Include an unaltered copy of this License.
0188 I. Preserve the section Entitled "History", Preserve its Title, and add to
0189 it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and publisher of
0190 the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If there is no section Entitled
0191 "History" in the Document, create one stating the title, year, authors, and
0192 publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page, then add an item describing
0193 the Modified Version as stated in the previous sentence.
0194 J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for public
0195 access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise the network locations
0196 given in the Document for previous versions it was based on. These may be
0197 placed in the "History" section. You may omit a network location for a work
0198 that was published at least four years before the Document itself, or if the
0199 original publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.
0200 K. For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications", Preserve
0201 the Title of the section, and preserve in the section all the substance and
0202 tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements and/or dedications given
0203 therein.
0204 L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document, unaltered in their
0205 text and in their titles. Section numbers or the equivalent are not considered
0206 part of the section titles.
0207 M. Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements". Such a section may not be included
0208 in the Modified Version.
0209 N. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled "Endorsements" or to
0210 conflict in title with any Invariant Section.
0211      O. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.
0213 If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that
0214 qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from the Document,
0215 you may at your option designate some or all of these sections as invariant.
0216 To do this, add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified
0217 Version's license notice. These titles must be distinct from any other section
0218 titles.
0220 You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains nothing
0221 but endorsements of your Modified Version by various parties--for example,
0222 statements of peer review or that the text has been approved by an organization
0223 as the authoritative definition of a standard.
0225 You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a passage
0226 of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list of Cover Texts
0227 in the Modified Version. Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover
0228 Text may be added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity. If
0229 the Document already includes a cover text for the same cover, previously
0230 added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf
0231 of, you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit
0232 permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.
0234 The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give
0235 permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or imply endorsement
0236 of any Modified Version.
0240 You may combine the Document with other documents released under this License,
0241 under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified versions, provided
0242 that you include in the combination all of the Invariant Sections of all of
0243 the original documents, unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections
0244 of your combined work in its license notice, and that you preserve all their
0245 Warranty Disclaimers.
0247 The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and multiple
0248 identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy. If there
0249 are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but different contents,
0250 make the title of each such section unique by adding at the end of it, in
0251 parentheses, the name of the original author or publisher of that section
0252 if known, or else a unique number. Make the same adjustment to the section
0253 titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined
0254 work.
0256 In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled "History" in the
0257 various original documents, forming one section Entitled "History"; likewise
0258 combine any sections Entitled "Acknowledgements", and any sections Entitled
0259 "Dedications". You must delete all sections Entitled "Endorsements".
0263 You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents released
0264 under this License, and replace the individual copies of this License in the
0265 various documents with a single copy that is included in the collection, provided
0266 that you follow the rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of
0267 the documents in all other respects.
0269 You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute it
0270 individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this License
0271 into the extracted document, and follow this License in all other respects
0272 regarding verbatim copying of that document.
0276 A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and independent
0277 documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium,
0278 is called an "aggregate" if the copyright resulting from the compilation is
0279 not used to limit the legal rights of the compilation's users beyond what
0280 the individual works permit. When the Document is included in an aggregate,
0281 this License does not apply to the other works in the aggregate which are
0282 not themselves derivative works of the Document.
0284 If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of
0285 the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of the entire aggregate,
0286 the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on covers that bracket the Document
0287 within the aggregate, or the electronic equivalent of covers if the Document
0288 is in electronic form. Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket
0289 the whole aggregate.
0293 Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute translations
0294 of the Document under the terms of section 4. Replacing Invariant Sections
0295 with translations requires special permission from their copyright holders,
0296 but you may include translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition
0297 to the original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a translation
0298 of this License, and all the license notices in the Document, and any Warranty
0299 Disclaimers, provided that you also include the original English version of
0300 this License and the original versions of those notices and disclaimers. In
0301 case of a disagreement between the translation and the original version of
0302 this License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version will prevail.
0304 If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements", "Dedications",
0305 or "History", the requirement (section 4) to Preserve its Title (section 1)
0306 will typically require changing the actual title.
0310 You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except as
0311 expressly provided for under this License. Any other attempt to copy, modify,
0312 sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and will automatically terminate
0313 your rights under this License. However, parties who have received copies,
0314 or rights, from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated
0315 so long as such parties remain in full compliance.
0319 The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the GNU
0320 Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar
0321 in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to address new
0322 problems or concerns. See http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/.
0324 Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. If the
0325 Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this License "or
0326 any later version" applies to it, you have the option of following the terms
0327 and conditions either of that specified version or of any later version that
0328 has been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the
0329 Document does not specify a version number of this License, you may choose
0330 any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.
0332 ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents
0334 To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of the
0335 License in the document and put the following copyright and license notices
0336 just after the title page:
0338 Copyright (c) YEAR YOUR NAME. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or
0339 modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License,
0340 Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
0341 with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts.
0342 A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation
0343 License".
0345 If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts, replace
0346 the "with...Texts." line with this:
0348 with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the Front-Cover
0349 Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST.
0351 If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other combination
0352 of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the situation.
0354 If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we recommend
0355 releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free software license,
0356 such as the GNU General Public License, to permit their use in free software.