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0001                 GNU Free Documentation License
0002                   Version 1.2, November 2002
0005  Copyright (C) 2000,2001,2002  Free Software Foundation, Inc.
0006      51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA  02110-1301  USA
0007  Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
0008  of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
0011 0. PREAMBLE
0013 The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other
0014 functional and useful document "free" in the sense of freedom: to
0015 assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it,
0016 with or without modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially.
0017 Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a way
0018 to get credit for their work, while not being considered responsible
0019 for modifications made by others.
0021 This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative
0022 works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense.  It
0023 complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft
0024 license designed for free software.
0026 We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free
0027 software, because free software needs free documentation: a free
0028 program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the
0029 software does.  But this License is not limited to software manuals;
0030 it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or
0031 whether it is published as a printed book.  We recommend this License
0032 principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference.
0037 This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, that
0038 contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be
0039 distributed under the terms of this License.  Such a notice grants a
0040 world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration, to use that
0041 work under the conditions stated herein.  The "Document", below,
0042 refers to any such manual or work.  Any member of the public is a
0043 licensee, and is addressed as "you".  You accept the license if you
0044 copy, modify or distribute the work in a way requiring permission
0045 under copyright law.
0047 A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the
0048 Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with
0049 modifications and/or translated into another language.
0051 A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section of
0052 the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the
0053 publishers or authors of the Document to the Document's overall subject
0054 (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly
0055 within that overall subject.  (Thus, if the Document is in part a
0056 textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain any
0057 mathematics.)  The relationship could be a matter of historical
0058 connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal,
0059 commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position regarding
0060 them.
0062 The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose titles
0063 are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice
0064 that says that the Document is released under this License.  If a
0065 section does not fit the above definition of Secondary then it is not
0066 allowed to be designated as Invariant.  The Document may contain zero
0067 Invariant Sections.  If the Document does not identify any Invariant
0068 Sections then there are none.
0070 The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are listed,
0071 as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that
0072 the Document is released under this License.  A Front-Cover Text may
0073 be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may be at most 25 words.
0075 A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy,
0076 represented in a format whose specification is available to the
0077 general public, that is suitable for revising the document
0078 straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of
0079 pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available
0080 drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or
0081 for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input
0082 to text formatters.  A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file
0083 format whose markup, or absence of markup, has been arranged to thwart
0084 or discourage subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent.
0085 An image format is not Transparent if used for any substantial amount
0086 of text.  A copy that is not "Transparent" is called "Opaque".
0088 Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain
0089 ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML
0090 or XML using a publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming simple
0091 HTML, PostScript or PDF designed for human modification.  Examples of
0092 transparent image formats include PNG, XCF and JPG.  Opaque formats
0093 include proprietary formats that can be read and edited only by
0094 proprietary word processors, SGML or XML for which the DTD and/or
0095 processing tools are not generally available, and the
0096 machine-generated HTML, PostScript or PDF produced by some word
0097 processors for output purposes only.
0099 The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself,
0100 plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material
0101 this License requires to appear in the title page.  For works in
0102 formats which do not have any title page as such, "Title Page" means
0103 the text near the most prominent appearance of the work's title,
0104 preceding the beginning of the body of the text.
0106 A section "Entitled XYZ" means a named subunit of the Document whose
0107 title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses following
0108 text that translates XYZ in another language.  (Here XYZ stands for a
0109 specific section name mentioned below, such as "Acknowledgements",
0110 "Dedications", "Endorsements", or "History".)  To "Preserve the Title"
0111 of such a section when you modify the Document means that it remains a
0112 section "Entitled XYZ" according to this definition.
0114 The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which
0115 states that this License applies to the Document.  These Warranty
0116 Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in this
0117 License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other
0118 implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and has
0119 no effect on the meaning of this License.
0124 You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either
0125 commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the
0126 copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License applies
0127 to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no other
0128 conditions whatsoever to those of this License.  You may not use
0129 technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further
0130 copying of the copies you make or distribute.  However, you may accept
0131 compensation in exchange for copies.  If you distribute a large enough
0132 number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.
0134 You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and
0135 you may publicly display copies.
0140 If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly have
0141 printed covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and the
0142 Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the
0143 copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover
0144 Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on
0145 the back cover.  Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify
0146 you as the publisher of these copies.  The front cover must present
0147 the full title with all words of the title equally prominent and
0148 visible.  You may add other material on the covers in addition.
0149 Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve
0150 the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated
0151 as verbatim copying in other respects.
0153 If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit
0154 legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit
0155 reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent
0156 pages.
0158 If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering
0159 more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent
0160 copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy
0161 a computer-network location from which the general network-using
0162 public has access to download using public-standard network protocols
0163 a complete Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material.
0164 If you use the latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps,
0165 when you begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure
0166 that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated
0167 location until at least one year after the last time you distribute an
0168 Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that
0169 edition to the public.
0171 It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the
0172 Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give
0173 them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document.
0178 You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under
0179 the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release
0180 the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified
0181 Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution
0182 and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy
0183 of it.  In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:
0185 A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct
0186    from that of the Document, and from those of previous versions
0187    (which should, if there were any, be listed in the History section
0188    of the Document).  You may use the same title as a previous version
0189    if the original publisher of that version gives permission.
0190 B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities
0191    responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified
0192    Version, together with at least five of the principal authors of the
0193    Document (all of its principal authors, if it has fewer than five),
0194    unless they release you from this requirement.
0195 C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the
0196    Modified Version, as the publisher.
0197 D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
0198 E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications
0199    adjacent to the other copyright notices.
0200 F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice
0201    giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under the
0202    terms of this License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.
0203 G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections
0204    and required Cover Texts given in the Document's license notice.
0205 H. Include an unaltered copy of this License.
0206 I. Preserve the section Entitled "History", Preserve its Title, and add
0207    to it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and
0208    publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page.  If
0209    there is no section Entitled "History" in the Document, create one
0210    stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as
0211    given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified
0212    Version as stated in the previous sentence.
0213 J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for
0214    public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise
0215    the network locations given in the Document for previous versions
0216    it was based on.  These may be placed in the "History" section.
0217    You may omit a network location for a work that was published at
0218    least four years before the Document itself, or if the original
0219    publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.
0220 K. For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications",
0221    Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the section all
0222    the substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements
0223    and/or dedications given therein.
0224 L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document,
0225    unaltered in their text and in their titles.  Section numbers
0226    or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.
0227 M. Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements".  Such a section
0228    may not be included in the Modified Version.
0229 N. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled "Endorsements"
0230    or to conflict in title with any Invariant Section.
0231 O. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.
0233 If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or
0234 appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material
0235 copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all
0236 of these sections as invariant.  To do this, add their titles to the
0237 list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's license notice.
0238 These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.
0240 You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains
0241 nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various
0242 parties--for example, statements of peer review or that the text has
0243 been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a
0244 standard.
0246 You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a
0247 passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list
0248 of Cover Texts in the Modified Version.  Only one passage of
0249 Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or
0250 through arrangements made by) any one entity.  If the Document already
0251 includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or
0252 by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of,
0253 you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit
0254 permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.
0256 The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License
0257 give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or
0258 imply endorsement of any Modified Version.
0263 You may combine the Document with other documents released under this
0264 License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified
0265 versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the
0266 Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and
0267 list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its
0268 license notice, and that you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers.
0270 The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and
0271 multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single
0272 copy.  If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but
0273 different contents, make the title of each such section unique by
0274 adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original
0275 author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number.
0276 Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of
0277 Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.
0279 In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled "History"
0280 in the various original documents, forming one section Entitled
0281 "History"; likewise combine any sections Entitled "Acknowledgements",
0282 and any sections Entitled "Dedications".  You must delete all sections
0283 Entitled "Endorsements".
0288 You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents
0289 released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this
0290 License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in
0291 the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for
0292 verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects.
0294 You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute
0295 it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this
0296 License into the extracted document, and follow this License in all
0297 other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document.
0302 A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate
0303 and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or
0304 distribution medium, is called an "aggregate" if the copyright
0305 resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights
0306 of the compilation's users beyond what the individual works permit.
0307 When the Document is included in an aggregate, this License does not
0308 apply to the other works in the aggregate which are not themselves
0309 derivative works of the Document.
0311 If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these
0312 copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of
0313 the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on
0314 covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the
0315 electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form.
0316 Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole
0317 aggregate.
0322 Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may
0323 distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4.
0324 Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special
0325 permission from their copyright holders, but you may include
0326 translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the
0327 original versions of these Invariant Sections.  You may include a
0328 translation of this License, and all the license notices in the
0329 Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also include
0330 the original English version of this License and the original versions
0331 of those notices and disclaimers.  In case of a disagreement between
0332 the translation and the original version of this License or a notice
0333 or disclaimer, the original version will prevail.
0335 If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements",
0336 "Dedications", or "History", the requirement (section 4) to Preserve
0337 its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the actual
0338 title.
0343 You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document except
0344 as expressly provided for under this License.  Any other attempt to
0345 copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Document is void, and will
0346 automatically terminate your rights under this License.  However,
0347 parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under this
0348 License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such
0349 parties remain in full compliance.
0354 The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions
0355 of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time.  Such new
0356 versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may
0357 differ in detail to address new problems or concerns.  See
0358 https://www.gnu.org/licenses/.
0360 Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number.
0361 If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this
0362 License "or any later version" applies to it, you have the option of
0363 following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or
0364 of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the
0365 Free Software Foundation.  If the Document does not specify a version
0366 number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not
0367 as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.
0370 ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents
0372 To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of
0373 the License in the document and put the following copyright and
0374 license notices just after the title page:
0376     Copyright (c)  YEAR  YOUR NAME.
0377     Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
0378     under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2
0379     or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
0380     with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts.
0381     A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU
0382     Free Documentation License".
0384 If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts,
0385 replace the "with...Texts." line with this:
0387     with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the
0388     Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST.
0390 If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other
0391 combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the
0392 situation.
0394 If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we
0395 recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of
0396 free software license, such as the GNU General Public License,
0397 to permit their use in free software.